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NEW SERIES, VOL.' 34 l/. 3^ 

APRIL 9, 1924— OCTOBER 15, 1924 


no 2 

I I t ' 

?8 6865 " 12 




SOi^^* -5 - 




American Antiquarian 


Note of Committee of Publication vii 

Officers and Members of the Society .... ix-xxvi 


Proceedings 1 

Report of the Council 5 

Obituaries 20 

William Cook of Salem . . . Lawrence W. Jenkins 27 

Founding of New Amsterdam . . Victor H. Paltsits 39 

Do We Learn from History? . . William MacDonald 66 

Bibliography of American Newspapers (Rhode Island) 

Clarence S. Brigham 79 


Proceedings 129 

Report of the Council 134 

Obituaries 148 

Report of the Treasurer 156 

Report of the Librarian ........ 169 

Franklin's Kite Experiment . Alexander McAdie 188 

The Franklin Library . . . George Simpson Eddy 206 

Franklin and Galloway . . William S. Mason 227 
Bibliography of American Newspapers (South Carolina) 

Clarence S. Brigham 259 


The thirty-fourth volume of the present series contains the records of 
the Proceedings of April 9, and October 15, 1924. 

The reports of the Council have been presented by Charles Lemuel 
Nichols and Waldo Lincoln. 

Papers have been received from Lawrence Waters Jenkins, Victor Hugo 
Paltsits, William MacDonald, Alexander McAdie, George Simpson Eddy, 
and William Smith Mason. 

The volume contains the fifteenth and sixteenth installments of the 
Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, covering the States of 
Rhode Island and South Carolina, prepared by Clarence Saunders 

Obituary notices of the following deceased members appear in this 
volume: Gaillard Hunt, Charles Francis Jenney, Samuel Walker McCall, 
Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, Woodrow Wilson, Henry Farr DePuy, 
Frank Farnum Dresser, Granville Stanley Hall, Lawrence Park, and 
George Leander Shepley. 



Jtmsritan Jlnltijuarian ^txtxtDi 

Elected October 15, 1924. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 


ARTHUR PRENTICE RUGG, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 


N. Y. 


SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 


FRANCIS HENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

Mass. & 

GEORGE PARKER WINSHIP, Litt. D., of Dover, Mass. 

WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT, LL.D., of Washington, D. C. 



JAMES BENJAMIN WILBUR, of Manchester, Vt. 

Secretary for foreign Correspondence. 

cester, Mass. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence. 
bridge, Mass. 

TRecorDing Secretary. 

THOMAS HOVEY GAGE, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 



Elected October 15, 1924. 

Committee of publication. 

GEORGE HENRY HAYNES, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 


JOHN HENRY EDMONDS, of Boston, Mass. 



HOMER GAGE, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

DANIEL WALDO LINQt>LN, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

finance Committee. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

FRANCIS HENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 


Xibrarg Committee. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., Lrrr.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

THOMAS HOVEY GAGE, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Committee on tbe Iball. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., Lrrr.D., of Worcester, Mass. 



Assistant librarian. 





October, 1881. 
Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D., . . . Nahant, Mass. 

April, 1884. 
John Bach McMaster, LL.D., . . Philadelphia, Pa. 
October, 1884. 

William Harden, Savannah, Ga. 

April, 1885. 
Reuben Colton, A.B., . . , <f . . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1885. 
Edward Channing, LL.D., . . . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1888. 

Augustus George Bullock, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1888. 
John McKinstry Merriam, A.B., . Framingham,Mass. 

October, 1889. 
William Eaton Foster, Litt.D., . Providence, R. I. 

October, 1890. 
John Franklin Jameson, LL.D., . Washington, D. C, 

April, 1891. 
Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B., Brookline, Mass. 

October, 1891. 
Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 


April, 1893 
Wilberforce Eames, LL.D., . . . New York, N. Y. 

October, 1893. 

Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D., . . New Haven, Conn. 
Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M. . . Hadlyme, Conn. 
Albert Shaw, LL.D., New York, N. Y> 

April, 1895. 
Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

April, 1896. 

William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 
Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D., Amherst, Mass. 

October, 1896. 

George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., . Worcester, Mass. 

Arthur Lord, LL.D., .... Plymouth, Mass. 

. April, 1897. 

Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D., . Paris, France. 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., Litt.D., Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1898. 

Waldo Lincoln, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 

Edward Sylvester Morse, Sc.D., . Salem, Mass. 

April, 1899. 

George Burton Adams, Litt.D., . New Haven, Conn. 
Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 
George Parker Winship, Litt.D., . Dover, Mass. 

October, 1899. 
Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, D.C.L., Boston, Mass. 

April, 1900. 
Samuel Utley, LL.B., Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1900. 
James Ford Rhodes, LL.D., . . . Boston, Mass. 


April, 1901. 

Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., . . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1901. 

George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

Albert Matthews, A.B., . . . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1902. 

William MacDonald, LL.D., . . New York, N. Y. 

Roger Bigelow Merriman, Litt.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1904. 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

Victor Hugo Paltsits, .... New York, N. Y. 

October, 1904. 

Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1905. 

Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 

William Henry Holmes, .... Washington, D. C. 

October, 1906. 

William Keeney Bixby, LL.D., . . St. Louis, Mo. 

April, 1907. 

Worthington Chauncey Ford, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

October, 1907. 

Charles McLean Andrews, L.H.D. New Haven, Conn. 

Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., . Detroit, Mich. 

Herbert Putnam, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 

Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., Madison, Wis. 

April, 1908 

William Beer, New Orleans, La. 

Franz Boas, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., . . Ithaca, N. Y. 

Peter Joseph Hamilton, LL.D., . SanJuan, Porto Rico 

Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., . . Ithaca, N. Y. 


April, 1908. 
William Coolidge Lane, A.B., . 
Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, LL 
Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, .... 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., . 

October, 1908. 
George Hubbard Blakeslee, L.H.D., 

Max Farrand, Ph.D., 

Frederick Webb Hodge, .... 
William Vail Kellen, LL.D., 
Alfred Louis Kroeber, Ph.D., . 
Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., . 
Marshall Howard Saville, . 
Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., 

April, 1909. 

Samuel Morris Conant, .... 
Wilfred Harold Munro, L.H.D., . 
Justin Harvey Smith, Litt.D., . 

fc October, 1909. 
Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., 
Edward Everett Ayer, 
Hiram Bingham, Litt.D., . 
Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B 
Roland Burrage Dixon, Ph.D., 
Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., 
Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D.D., 

April, 1910. 

Archer Milton Huntington, LiTT.D 
Albert Henry Whitin, 

October, 1910. 

Albert Carlos Bates, A.M. 
George Francis Dow, . 

Charles Evans, 

Homer Gage, M.D., 

Samuel Verplanck Hoffmann, 

William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
D., Chicago, 111. 
New York, N. Y. 
Dedham, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. * 

Worcester, Mass. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Washington, D. C. 
Boston, Mass. 
Berkeley, Cal. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Dudley, Mass. 
Providence, R. I. 
.New York, N.Y. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Chicago, Ill- 
New Haven, Conn. 
Boston, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 
Whitinsville, Mass. 

Hartford, Conn. 
Topsfield, Mass. 
Chicago, 111. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Princeton, N. J. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 
Northampton, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
Madison, Wis. 
Baltimore, Md. 

April, 1911. 
Thomas Willing Balch, L.H.D., 
John Spencer Bassett, LL.D., . 
Archibald Cary Coolidge, LL.D., 
Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . . 
John Holladay Latane, LL.D., 

April, 1912. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Livingston Davis, A.B., .... Milton, Mass. 
Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., Colorado Springs, Col. 
Charles Henry Taylor, . . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1912. 

William Howard Tapt, LL.D., 
Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., 

October, 1913. 
Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D., 
Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard, 
Bernard Christian Steiner, Litt.D., Baltimore, Md. 

April, 1914. 

Howard Millar Chapin, A.B., . . Providence, R. I. 
Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D., . . Concord, Mass. 
Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B., Boston, Mass. 

Washington, D. C. 
Holdcroft, Va. 

Berkeley, Cal. 
Webster, Mass. 

George Arthur Plimpton, LIL.D., 
Alexander Samuel Salle y, Jr., 

October, 1914. 

Jesse Walter Fewkes, LL.D., . 
Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B., . . 
Otis Grant Hammond, A.M., 
William Pendleton Palmer, 
Milo Milton Quaife, Ph.D., 

New York, N. Y. 
Columbia, S. C. 

Washington, D. C. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Concord, N. H. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Detroit, Mich. 

April, 1915. 

John Whittemore Farwell, Litt.B. 

Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D., 

Henry Edwards Huntington, LL.D. 

Lawrence Waters Jenkins, A.B., 

Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, LL.D. Cambridge, Mass. 

Leonard Wheeler, M.D., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

Cohasset, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
San Gabriel, Cal. 

Salem, Mass. 


October, 1915. 

Alexander George McAdie, A.M., Milton, Mass. 

April, 1916. 

William Crowninshield Endicott, A.B., Danvers, Mass. 

Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, B.A.S., Milton, Mass. 

October, 1916. 

Solon Justus Buck, Ph.D., . . . Minneapolis, Minn. 

William Lawrence Clements, B.S., Bay City, Mich. 
Rogers Clark Ballard Thruston, Ph.B., Louisville, Ky. 

April, 1917. 

George Anthony Gaskill, A.B.,. . Worcester, Mass. 

John Thomas Lee, Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Charles Edwards Park, D.D., Boston, Mass. 

Isaac Rand Thomas, Boston, Mass. 

April, 1918. 

James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D., . . Minneapolis, Minn. 

Robert Hendre Kelby, .... Freeport, N. Y. 

John Woodbury, A.B., .... Boston, Mass. 

October, 1918. 

Alfred Lawrence Aiken, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Knowles *Bolton, A.B., . Shirley, Mass. 

George Watson Cole, L.H.D., . . Pasadena, Cal. 

John Henry Edmonds, .... Boston, Mass. 

Leonard Leopold Mackall, A.B., . Savannah, Ga. 

Samuel Lyman Munson, .... Albany, N. Y. 

April, 1919. 

James Alton James, Ph.D., . . . Evanston, 111. 

Frederick William Lehmann, LL.D., St. Louis, Mo. 

Alfred Claghorn Potter, A.B., . Cambridge, Mass. 

Harold Marsh Sewall, LL.B., . . Bath, Me. 

Robert Kendall Shaw, A.B., . . Worcester, Mass. 

William Thomas, LL.B., .... San Francisco, Cal. 
October, 1919. 

Robert Digges Wimberly Connor, Ph.B., Raleigh, N. C. 

Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes, A.B., New York, N. Y. 


April, 1920. 

James Benjamin Wilbur, . . . Manchester, Vt. 

October, 1920. 

John Adams Aiken, LL.D., . . . Greenfield, Mass. 

William Gwinn Mather, . . . Cleveland, Ohio. 

Fred Norris Robinson, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

Nathaniel Wright Stephenson, A.B., Charleston, S. C. 

April, 1921. 

William Bradford Homer Dowse, LL.B.,Sherbom, Mass. 

Allan Forbes, A.B., Westwood, Mass. 

October, 1921. 

Albert Jeremiah Beveridge, LL.D., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Chandler Bullock, LL.B., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Eliot Goodspeed, . . . Boston, Mass. 

Rev. George Foot Moore, LL.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1922. 

James Truslow Adams, LL.D., . . Bridgehampton,N.Y. 

Francis Russell Hart, .... Boston, Mass. 

Harold Murdock, A.M., . . . Brookline, Mass. 

Henry Raup Wagner, . ,/ . . . Berkeley, Cal. 

October, 1922. 

Henry Wyckoff Belknap, . . . Salem, Mass. 

Alfred Johnson, Litt.D., .... Brookline, Mass. 

William Smith Mason, L.H.D., . . Evanston, 111. 

Claud Halstead Van Tyne, Ph.D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

April, 1923. 

Gardner Weld Allen, M.D., . . Boston, Mass. 

Francis Tiffany Bowles, . . . Barnstable, Mass. 

George Ichabod Rockwood, . . . Worcester, Mass. 

Lawrence Counselman Wroth, A.B., Baltimore, Md. 


October, 1923. 

John Batterson Stetson, Jr., A.B., 

April, 1924. 

Hampton Lawrence Carson, 
George Simpson Eddy, .... 
Henry Crocker Kittredge, A.B., 
John Hill Morgan, LL.B., 
Kenneth Ballard Murdock, A.M., 
William Davis Patterson, 
Alexander James Wall, . 

Elkins Park, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
New York, N. Y. 
Concord, N. H. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Wiscasset, Me. 
New York, N. Y. 

October, 1924 

Randolph Greenfield Adams, Ph. 
William Sumner Appleton, A.B., 
Wallace Walter Atwood, Ph.D., 
Henry Lewis Bullen, . 
Wallace Hugh Cathcart, B.S., 
Fairfax Harrison, A.M., . 
Archibald Henderson, LL.D., 
Matt Bushnell Jones, LL.B., 
Andrew Keogh, M.A., ... 
Waldo Gifford Leland, A.M., 
Daniel Waldo Lincoln, LL.B., 
James Alexander Robertson, L.H 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 
William Glover Stanard, LL.D., 
Clarance Macdonald Warner, , 
Frederic Winthrop, A.B., . 

D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 
. Jersey City, N. J. 
. Cleveland, Ohio 

Belvoir, Va. 
. Chapel Hill, N. C. 
. Boston, Mass. 

New Haven, Conn. 

Washington, D. C. 

Worcester, Mass. 
.D» Takoma Park, Md. 
^iyde Park, N. Y. 

Richmond, Va. 

Boston, Mass. 

Ipswich, Mass. 




April, 1910. 

Jose Carlos Rodriguez, LL.B., . 

April, 1919. 

Manuel De Oliveira Lima, 

James Rodway, 


October, 1917. 


Rio de Janeiro. 
Washington, D.C. 


April, 1908. 
Narcisse-Eutrope Dionne, LL.D., . Quebec. 

April, 1910. 

Arthur George Doughty, Litt.D., Ottawa* 
William Lawson Grant, A.M., . . Kingston. 
William Wood, D.C.L., .... Quebec. 

October, 1910. 

George McKinnon Wrong, A.M., . Toronto. 

October, 1923. 
Adam Shortt, LL.D., Ottawa 


April, 1909. 

Jose Toribio Medina, Santiago de Chile. 


April, 1919. 
Anastasio Alfaro, SanJose\ 


October, 1922. 
Carlos de la Torre, Havana. 


October, 1917. 
Jean Jules Jtjsserand, LL.D., . . Paris. 

April, 1919. 

Seymour De Ricci, Paris. 


April, 1875. 

Otto Keller, Ph.D., Stuttgart. 

April, 1893. 

Johannes Conrad, LL.D., . . . Halle. 


October, 1892. 

Charles Harding Firth, Litt.D.,^ . Oxford. 
Sir Paul Vinogradoff, LL.D., . Oxford. 

October, 1894. 
Hubert Hall, F. S. A., .... London. 
October, 1901. 

Sir Arthur Herbert Church, D.Sc, Shelsley, 

Kew Gardens. 
October, 1910. 

Alfred Percival Maudslay, D.Sc, London. 

October, 1913. 

Vere Langford Oliver, .... Sunninghill. 


October, 1915. 

Rt. Hon. Sir George Otto Trevelyan, Bart., D.C.L. 

October, 1923. 
Henry Newton Stevens, .... London 


October, 1895. 
Johann Christoph Vollgraff, L.H.D., Utrecht. 


April, 1887. 

Edward Herbert Thompson, . . Merida, Yucatan. 

October, 1890. 
NicolAs L£on, Ph.D., Mexico City. 

April, 1907. 

Genaro Garcia, Mexico City. 

April, 1922. 

Manuel Gamio, Mexico City. 

Otcober, 1922. 
Luis Gonzalez Obregon, . . . Mexico City. 


October, 1906. 

Roald Amundsen, Christiania. 


October, 1912. 

Federico Alfonso Pezet, LL.D., . . Washington, D. C. 

October, 1920. 

Jorge M. Corbacho, Lima. 


October, 1906. 

Bernardino Machado, Lisbon. 


April, 1912. 

Frank Cundall, Kingston, Jamaica. 



*Signifies Life Members 


George Burton Adams, Litt.D., . New Haven, Conn . 
James Truslow Adams, LL.D., Bridgehampton, N. Y. 

Randolph Greenfield Adams, Ph.D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Alfred Lawrence Aiken, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

John Adams Aiken, LL.D.,* . . . Greenfield, Mass. 

Gardner Weld Allen, M.D., . . Boston, Mass. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., . Philadelphia, Pa. 

Charles McLean Andrews, L.H.D., New Haven, Conn. 

William Sumner Appleton, A.B., . . Boston, Mass. 

Wallace Walter Atwood, Ph.D., . Worcester, Mass. 

Edward Everett Ayer, .... Chicago, 111. 

Thomas Willing Balch, L.H.D., . Philadelphia, Pa. 

Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D.,* . . New Haven, Conn. 
John Spencer Bassett, LL.D., . . Northampton, Mass. 

Albert Carlos Bates, A.M.,* . . Hartford, Conn. 

William Beer, New Orleans, La. 

Henry Wyckoff Belknap, . ^ . . Salem, Mass. 

Albert Jeremiah Beveridge, LL.D., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Hiram Bingham, Litt.D., .... New Haven, Conn. 

William Keeney Blxby, LL.D.,* . St. Louis, Mo. 

George Hubbard Blakeslee, L.H.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Franz Boas, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

Charles Knowles Bolton, A.B., . Shirley, Mass. 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D., . Berkeley, Cal. 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, LL.D.,* New York, N. Y. 

Francis Tiffany Bowles, . . . Barnstable, Mass. 

Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 

Solon Justus Buck, Ph.D., . . Minneapolis, Minn. 

Henry Lewis Bullen, Jersey City, N. J. 


Augustus George Bullock, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

Chandler Bullock, LL.B., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., . Ithaca, N. Y. 

Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., Detroit, Mich. 

Hampton Lawrence Carson, . . . Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wallace Hugh Cathcart, B.S., . . Cleveland, Ohio 

Edward Channing, LL.D.,* . . . Cambridge, Mass. 

Howard Millar Chapin, A.B.,* . Providence, R. I. 

William Lawrence Clements, B.S., Bay City, Mich. 

George Watson Cole, L.H.D., . . Pasadena, Cal. 

Reuben Colton, A.B., Boston, Mass. 

Samuel Morris Conant, .... Dudley, Mass. 
Robert Digges Wimberly Connor, Ph.B., Raleigh, N. C. 

Archibald Cary Coolidge, LL.D.,* Boston, Mass. 
Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B.,* Boston, Mass. 

Livingston Davis, A.B.,* .... Milton, Mass. 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M.,* . Worcester, Mass. 

Roland Burrage Dixon, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

George Francis Dow, .... Topsfield, Mass. 
William Bradford Homer Dowse, LL.B., Sherborn, Mass. 

Wilberforce Eames, LL.D., . . . New York, N. Y. 

George Simpson Eddy, New York, N. Y. 

John Henry Edmonds,* .... Boston, Mass. 
William Crowninshield Endicott, A.B., Danvers, Mass. 

Charles Evans, Chicago, 111. 

Max Farrand, Ph.D.,* .... New Haven, Conn. 

John Whittemore Farwell, Litt.B.,* Cohasset, Mass. 

Jesse Walter Fewkes, LL.D., . . Washington, D. C. 

Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . . . Maclison, Wis. 

Allan Forbes, A.B., Westwood, Mass. 

William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B.,. Worcester, Mass. 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

William Eaton Foster, Litt.D.,* . Providence, R. I. 

Homer Gage, M.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B.,* . . Worcester, Mass. 

George Anthony Gaskill, A.B.,* . Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Eliot Goodspeed, . . . Boston, Mass. 

Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B., Brookline, Mass. 

Edwin Augusuts Grosvenor, LL.D., Amherst, Mass. 


Peter Joseph Hamilton, LL.D., 
Otis Grant Hammond,, A.M., 
William Harden, . . . 
Fairfax Harrison, A.M., . 
Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., 
Francis Russell Hart, 
George Henry Haynes, Ph.D.,* 
Archibald Henderson, LL.D., 
Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., 
Frederick Webb Hodge, . 
Samuel Verplanck Hoffman,* 
Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D., 
William Henry Holmes, 
James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D., 
Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., 
Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., 
Archer Milton Huntington, LL.D., 
Henry Edwards Huntington, LL.D 

San Juan, Porto Rico. 
. Concord, N. H. 
. Savannah, Ga. 

Belvoir, Va. 
. Cambridge, Mass. 
. Boston, Mass. 
. Worcester, Mass. " 
. Chapel Hill, N. C. 
. Worcester, Mass. 
. New York, N. Y. 
. New York, N. Y. 
. Worcester, Mass. 
. Washington, D. C. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
. ColoradoSprings,Col. 
. Ithaca, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

San Gabriel, Cal. 

James Alton James, Ph.D., . . . Evanston, 111. 

Washington, D. C. 
Salem, Mass. 
Brookline, Mass. 
Hadlyme, Conn. 
Boston, Mass. 
Freeport, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 

John Franklin Jameson, LL.D., . 
Lawrence Waters Jenkins, A.B.,* 
Alfred Johnson, Litt.D., 
Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., 
Matt Bushnell Jones, LL.B., 
Robert Hendre Kelby, 
William Vail Kellen, LL.D., 

Andrew Keogh, M.A., New Haven, Conn. 

Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, B.A.S.,* Milton, Mass. 

George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D.,* 

Henry Crocker Kittredge, A.B.,* 

Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D.D., 

Alfred Louis Kroeber, Ph.D., . 

William Coolidge Lane, A.B., . 

John Holladay LatanId, LL.D., 

Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, D.C.L.,* Boston, Mass. 

John Thomas Lee, Chicago, 111. 

Frederick William Lehmann, LL.D., St. Louis, Mo. 
Waldo Gifford Leland, A.M., . . Washington, D. C. 
Daniel Waldo Lincoln, LL.B., . . Worcester, Mass. 
Waldo Lincoln, A.B.,* .... Worcester, Mass. 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Concord, N. H. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Berkeley, Cal. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Baltimore, Md. 


Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D.,* . . Nahant, Mass. 
Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard,* . Webster, Mass. 

Arthur Lord, LL.D.,* Plymouth, Mass. 

Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D.,* Paris, France 
Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D.,* 
Alexander George McAdie, A.M., 
William MacDonald, LL.D., 
Leonard Leopold Mackall, A.B., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Milton, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Savannah, Ga. 

Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, LL.D., Chicago, 111. 

John Bach McM aster, LL.D., . 
William Smith Mason, L.H.D., . 
William Gwinn Mather, 
Albert Matthews, A.B.,* 
John McKinstry Merriam, A.B.,* . 
Roger Bigelow Merriman, Litt.D./ 
Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B., 
Rev. George Foot Moore, LL.D., . 

John Hill Morgan, 

Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D.,* 
Edward Sylvester Morse, Sc.D., . 
Wilfred Harold Munro, L.H.D., 
Samuel Lyman Munson, . 
Harold Murdoch, A.M., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Evanston, 111. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Boston, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Concord, Mass. 
Salem, Mass. 
Providence, R. I. 
Albany, N. Y. 
Brookline, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Kenneth Ballard Murdock, A.M., 

Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., Lnr.D.,*Worcester, Mass. 

Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B.,* Boston, Mass. 

William Pendleton Palmer, 

Victor Hugo Paltsits, .... 

Rev. Charles Edwards Park, D.D., 

William Davis Patterson, 

George Arthur Plimpton, LL.D., . 

Alfred Claghorn Potter, A.B., 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Wiscasset, Me. 
New York, N. Y. 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Herbert Putnam, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 

Milo Milton Quaife, Ph.D., 
James Ford Rhodes, LL.D.,* . . 
James Alexander Robertson, L.H.D. 
Fred Norris Robinson, Ph.D., 
George Ichabod Rockwood, . 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 
Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D.,* 

Detroit, Mich. 
Boston, Mass. 
Takoma Park, Md. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Hyde Park, N. Y. 
Worcester, Mass. 


Alexander Samuel Salley, Jr., * Columbia, S. C. 

Marshall Howard Saville, . . . New York, N. Y. 

Harold Marsh Sewall, LL.B., . Bath, Me. 

Albert Shaw, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

Worcester, Mass. 
Princeton, N. J. 
New York, N. Y.v 
Richmond, Va. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Elkins Park, Pa. 
New York, N. Y. 
New York, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 
Boston, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 

Robert Kendall Shaw, A.B., 

William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., . 

Justin Harvey Smith, Litt.D., . 

William Glover Stanard, LL.D., 

Bernard Christian Steiner, Litt.D., 

Nathaniel Wright Stephenson, A.B.. 

John Batterson Stetson, Jr., A.B., 

Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., 

Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes, A.B., 

William Howard Taft, LL.D., . 

Charles Henry Taylor,* 

Isaac Rand Thomas,* .... 

William Thomas, LL.B., .... San Francisco, Cal. 

Rogers Clark Ballard Thruston, Ph.B., Louisville, Ky. 

Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., Cambridge,, Mass. 

Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., Madison, Wis. 

Julius Herbert Tuttle,* . 

Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., . 

Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., 

Samuel Utley, LL.B.,* . 

Claude Halstead Van Tyne, Ph.D. 

Henry Raup Wagner, Berkeley, Cal. 

Alexander James Wall, .... New York, N. Y. 
Clarance Macdonald Warner, . . Boston, Mass. 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 
Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, LL.D., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Leonard Wheeler, M.D.,* . . . Worcester, Mass. 

Whitinsville, Mass. 

Manchester, Vt. 

Dover, Mass. 

Ipswich, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Baltimore, Md. 

Dedham, Mass. 
Holdecroft, Va. 
Boston, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Albert Henry Whitin, 

James Benjamin Wilbur,* 

George Parker Winship, Litt.D.,* 

Frederick Winthrop, A.B., 

John Woodbury, A.B.,* 

Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., 

Lawrence Counselman Wroth, A.B., 

1924.] Proceedings 



THE semi-annual meeting of the American Anti- 
quarian Society was held in the Memorial Room 
of the Widener Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
Wednesday, April 9, 1924, at half past ten o'clock. 

The following members were present at the meeting: 

William Eaton Foster, Francis Henshaw Dewey, 
Arthur Lord, Charles Lemuel Nichols, Waldo Lincoln, 
Edward Sylvester Morse, Abbott Lawrence Lowell, 
George Parker Winship, Albert Matthews, William 
MacDonald, Roger Bigelow Merriman, Clarence Win- 
throp Bowen, Victor Hugo Paltsits, Daniel Berkeley 
Updike, Clarence Saunders Brigham, Worthington 
Chauncey Ford, William Coolidge Lane, Julius Herbert 
Tuttle, Charles Grenfill Washburn, Samuel Bayard 
Woodward, George Hubbard Blakeslee, William Vail 
Kellen, Arthur Prentice Rugg, Wilfred Harold Munro, 
Henry Winchester Cunningham, Frank Farnum 
Dresser, Albert Bushnell Hart, George Francis Dow, 
Archibald Cary Coolidge, Rev. Herbert Edwin Lom- 
bard, Grenville Howland Norcross, Thomas Hovey 
Gage, John Whittemore Farwell, Lawrence Waters 
Jenkins, Leonard Wheeler, Alexander George McAdie, 
Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, George Anthony Gaskill, 
John Woodbury, Charles Knowles Bolton, John Henry 
Edmonds, Samuel Lyman Munson, Alfred Claghorn 
Potter, Robert Kendall Shaw, James Benjamin Wilbur, 

2 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Fred Norris Robinson, Chandler Bullock, Charles Eliot 
Goodspeed, Francis Russell Hart, Harold Murdock, 
Alfred Johnson, Gardner Weld Allen, George Ichabod 
Rockwood, Lawrence Counselman Wroth. 

The meeting was called to order by President Lin- 
coln and the notice read by the Secretary. Upon 
motion of Mr. Norcross the reading of the records was* 
dispensed with. 

Dr. Nichols presented the report of the Council to 
the Society. 

The Secretary then announced the recommendations 
of the Council for membership in the Society and the 
President appointed Messrs. C. Bullock, Edmonds and 
Potter a committee to distribute and collect ballots for 
new members. Thirty-five votes were cast, all in the 
affirmative, and the following were declared elected: 

Hampton Lawrence Carson, Philadelphia, Pa. 
George Simpson Eddy, New York, N. Y. 
Henry Crocker Kittredge, Concord, N. H. 
John Hill Morgan, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Kenneth Ballard Murdock, Boston, Mass. 
William Davis Patterson, Wiscasset, Me. 
Alexander James Wall, New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Lane, the Librarian of Harvard College, invited 
the attention of the members to the exhibition in the 
Treasure Room of a collection of interesting Associa- 
tion books. 

The following papers were then presented : ' ' William 
Cook of Salem, Preacher, Poet, Artist and Publisher," 
by Lawrence W. Jenkins, of Salem, Mass.; "The 
Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626," by Victor H. 
Paltsits, of New York; "Do We Learn from History?" 
by William MacDonald, of New York. It was voted 
to refer the papers and the report of the Council to 
the Committee of Publication. 

The President then called the attention of the 
Society to the friendly relations which had always 
existed between the American Antiquarian Society and 

1924.] Proceedings 3 

Harvard College and introduced Chief Justice Rugg, 
who spoke in behalf of the Council in presenting to the 
Harvard Library a collection of thirteen volumes which 
had belonged to that libraryin the seventeenth century. 
Chief Justice Rugg said in part as follows: 

"The history of these volumes has something more 
than passing interest. The Harvard College Library 
from its very beginning derived its books almost 
entirely from gift. In 1682 Sir John Maynard, a mem- 
ber of Parliament and Keeper of the Great Seal, 
presented to the college eight chests of books, valued 
at £400. Because of the fact that many of Maynard's 
books were the same as those already in the college 
library, the duplicates, or double books, as they were 
called at the time, were disposed of to Cotton Mather. 
Most of them, however, were not exact duplicates, 
but were really varying editions. Cotton Mather 
purchased 96 of these duplicates and put them into his 
own library. Upon his death in 1727 his library became 
the property of his son, Rev. Samuel Mather, and in 
turn came into the possession of the latter's daughter, 
Mrs. Hannah Mather Crocker, the last of that line. 
It was from this Mather descendant that Isaiah 
Thomas acquired the Mather library in 1814, two years 
after he had established the American Antiquarian 

"By reason of the appearance of the Sir John 
Maynard name stamp in some of the Mather volumes, 
it was found that these volumes were really the dupli- 
cates obtained from Harvard in 1682. By comparing 
Cotton Mather's manuscript list of the duplicates 
purchased by him, with the 1723 printed Catalogue 
of the Harvard Library, it was found that at least 
thirteen volumes were unquestionably once the prop- 
erty of the Harvard Library. Since the college 
library building was destroyed by fire in 1764, with 
almost the total loss of its books, these volumes 
accordingly became desirable as part of the Harvard 
Library of the 17th century. Therefore the Council 

4 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

of this Society has thought it advisable and proper to 
restore these books to their original home. As a 
matter of record, the titles are as follows: 

Ambrosius, Commentaries on the Bible, 1567. Two 
vols, in one. 

John Davenant, Determinationes, 1634. One vol. 

Saint Gasparis, Commentarii, 1623. Seven vols. * 

Irenaeus, Against Gnostics and Heretics, 1596. 
One vol. 

Josephus, History of Jews, 1611. One vol. 

Photius, Bibliotheca, in Greek, with notes, 1611. 
One vol. 

John Gerhard, Locorum Theologicum, 1639. Four 
vols, in one. 

It is my pleasant duty to turn these volumes over to 
the Harvard College Library, where they may take 
again a place on the shelves which they vacated in 

President Lowell responded most felicitously, stating 
that these volumes meant more to Harvard than to 
anyone, and saying that although they might not be 
read, they connected the present generation with those 
scholars and students of the 17th century, whose 
heritage had been of great and lasting influence: He 
praised the sentiment which prompted the action of 
the Antiquarian Society, and formally accepted the 
books in behalf of the Harvard College Library. 

After the meeting was dissolved, the members of the 
Society were entertained at luncheon by President 
Lowell at his house, No. 17 Quincy Street. 

Thomas Hovey Gage, 

Recording Secretary. 

1924.] Report of the Council 


THE Council announces the loss by death of five 
resident members of the Society. Ex-President 
Woodrow Wilson, a member since October, 1913, died 
in Washington, D. C, on February 3, 1924. Samuel 
Walker McCall, of Winchester, Mass., elected in 
October, 1901, died at his home on November 4, 1923. 
Charles Francis Jenney, a Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts, was elected to membership 
in October, 1914, and died in Boston, November 29, 

1923. Gaillard Hunt, of Washington, D. C, elected a 
member April, 1910, died March 20, 1924. Thomas 
Corwin Mendenhall, of Ravenna, Ohio, whose member- 
ship began in April, 1895, died at his home March 22, 

1924. Memoirs of these members will be prepared and 
printed in the Proceedings. 

With regard to the addition to our building, the shell 
has been completed and paid for. The stacks are now 
in process of erection and are about half finished. The 
cost of this work will approximate $50,000 and has been 
provided for, in part, by the generosity of the members. 
The remainder, not far from $40,000, has been made 
available temporarily by vote of the Society, and will 
be paid, one-half in June on completion of the work, 
and the rest in six months. 

In addition to the physical welfare of the Society, 
which has been spoken of, matters relating to its 
collections of books, manuscripts, etc., are pertinent 
to a council report. In that of October, 1922, several 
special collections on our shelves, notably that of the 
Mathers, were described. In consequence of that 
report, Mr. Charles K. Bolton, of the Boston Athen- 

6 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

aeum, stated that it was his belief that much of real 
value could be gained by cataloguing the autographed 
books in the various libraries of the country and co- 
ordinating the results. The writer of this report 
promised to do this work in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society and now states that all the books 
containing autographs or inscriptions, printed before" 
1800, have been examined and the results recorded in a 
card catalogue. Each card bears at the top the name 
of the former owner or, if more than one, each has a 
card with cross reference to the others. The card also 
contains the name of the author of the book, a con- 
densed title with place and date of printing, the record 
of autograph or inscription and, in the lower left hand 
corner, the shelf number or location in the library. 

There are about 1500 cards, including cross refer- 
ences, and they record 598 names, many of great 
interest in our colonial and revolutionary history and 
others of value because of their interrelation. The 
name of John Eliot, the Apostle to the Indians, is 
written in one of- the books, while a perfect copy of 
Franklin's "Cato Major" contains an inscription by 
Thomas Clap, President of Yale College, stating that 
the book was presented to him by Benjamin Franklin. 

In any collection of books, of an antiquarian type in 
particular, a greater general interest can be aroused by 
a study of the provenance of a book, its personal 
history, than by any investigation of its contents which 
latter belongs to the research student. These auto- 
graphs and inscriptions reveal friendships, verify dates 
and localities and bring to mind many interesting 
details of the lives and interests of the owners. Among 
them, for example, we find a popular treatise entitled, 
"Daily Devotion," written by Thomas Amory of 
London and reprinted in Boston in the year 1772. 
The copy on our shelves contains the inscription: 
" Thomas Wallcut's Book, the Gift of Miss Pnillis 
Wheatley, A.D. 1774, March 26." The book bears 
her autograph also and was presented to her by Rev. 

1924.] Report of the Council 7 

Charles Chauncey of Boston in 1772. Phillis Wheatley 
was a negro poetess in Boston whose works were 
published in London in 1773. Among her later pieces 
was a poem on George Washington which he felt of 
sufficient importance to acknowledge by letter. The 
short poems on George Whitfield and Dr. Samuel 
Cooper also show considerable merit. 

In 1765, Eleazar Wheelock of Lebanon, Conn, 
published in Boston, his "Continuation of the Narra- 
tive of the State of the Indian Charity School in 
Lebanon, " the first report having been printed in 1763, 
and on the last page of our copy is the inscription, 
"Benjamin Butler's Book, A present from the Rev. 
Mr. Eleazar Wheelock in Lebanon. " Mr. Wheelock, 
to eke out his slender salary, started a school in the 
year 1754 in Lebanon, where he was pastor of the 
church from 1735 to 1770. Among the pupils was an 
Indian, Samuel Occom by name, and his progress was 
so phenomenal that Mr. Wheelock decided to establish 
a special school for that race. This was named, after 
the donor of a house and land for its use, Moor's 
Indian Charity School. As its size and importance 
increased, Mr. Wheelock sent this Samuel Occom and 
the Rev. Mr. Whittaker to England in order to interest 
a larger public in the enterprise, among the persons so 
reached being Lord Dartmouth. The result was the 
transfer of the school to New Hampshire, the establish- 
ment of a college called Dartmouth and the absorption 
of the school into that institution. Among the Indians 
educated there was Joseph Brandt, the friend of Sir 
William Johnson, who translated a part of the New 
Testament into the Mohawk language, but whose 
activities and cruelties, during the Revolution, on the 
English side, showed little appreciation of the principles 
contained in that Testament. In his early youth, 
Thomas Wallcut was sent by his mother, who was a 
friend of Eleazar Wheelock and interested in his pro- 
ject, to that Indian school at Dartmouth for two years, 
a portion of which timewasspent in an excursion among 

8 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

the Indian tribes to forward Mr. Wheelock's plans. 
It was on his return to Boston from this labor in 1774* 
that Phillis Wheatley presented him the book above 

Bishop Berkeley of Dublin designed to start an 
Indian school in the Island of Bermuda and collected 
a fund for that purpose from his friends in England. - 
Failing in this object he went to Newport, R. I. where 
he resided for several years. Before his return to 
England in 1730, he gave the money, which he had 
collected for the Indian school, to Yale College for a 
scholarship in that institution, and Eleazar Wheelock 
was the first student to benefit by that act. Whether 
Wheelock knew of the precise plan of Berkeley for his 
school is not certain but his own plan was identical, to 
take the Indian out of his own environment and place 
him among white children, and his success seemed to 
justify the plan. When George Whitfield started his 
work in America, Mr. Wheelock became so much 
interested in the Great Awakening that he offered 
his services to the evangelist and preached many 
sermons during the active period of that movement. 
When Mr. Wheelock's school required enlargement, 
his friend Whitfield advised him to go to England and 
wrote letters to his friends there to forward the project. 
These independent acts, resulted in the development 
of Wheelock's labors and the foundation of Dartmouth 

Another book of importance in this connection is 
"Alstead's Encyclopedia," printed in Lyons in 1649, 
bearing the name of "Benning Wentworth" and date 
of 1713. This book was used by Wentworth while a 
student at Harvard, where he was graduated in the 
year 1715. As Governor of the Province of New 
Hampshire from 1734 to 1767, Benning Wentworth 
made the New Hampshire Grants which caused the 
struggle of New Hampshire and New York for the 
intermediate territory and finally led to the declaration 
of Vermont as an independent sovereign state. Gov- 

1924.] . Report of the Council 9 

ernor Wentworth was a good friend of Wheelock and 
was so much in sympathy with his plan that he gave 
the new school five hundred acres of land upon which 
the College buildings still stand. In 1777 the town of 
Dresden, as Hanover was then called, desired, together 
with a number of other towns on the east side of the 
river, to join the new state because of its larger op- 
portunities and President Wheelock sought the aid of 
the press to advance that object in the interests of the 
college. He sent a letter to Timothy Green of New 
London for such aid and in consequence Alden Spooner 
was sent to him with a press and some of Green's types 
and thus was established the first press in Vermont. 

These books and pamphlets which have been spoken 
of were taken at random from a large number which 
also have much of sentiment and of personal or 
historic value in them. 

One can speak of sentiment without fear of cavil in 
this room 1 where we are gathered today, a room in 
which are embalmed the results of the lifelong avoca- 
tion of a rare man and within a few feet of that other 
room, in this great library building, where among 
many rich treasures are the choice books of Charles 
Sumner. It is not, however, sentiment alone which 
prompts this labor, for in many of these ancient books 
are to be found valuable notes made by their owners of 
long ago. Gibieuf's "De Libertate Dei," Paris, 1630, 
for example, contains a full page fulmination of the 
first Thomas Shepard, of Cambridge, against the 
Jansenists, who were anathema to him, as well as many 
marginal notes running throughout the pages of the 

But it is a still larger question about which this 
matter of autographs and inscriptions turns and which 
it is my desire to emphasize: the opportunity to re- 
construct the libraries of the past by co-ordinating the 
autographed books in the many historical libraries of 
the land. In the early part of the sixteenth century 

'The Harry Elkina Widener Memorial Library 

10 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

the library of Mathias Corvinus, King of Hungary, 
was considered the most famous of his time because of 
its marvellously illuminated manuscripts, as was that 
of his contemporary, the Duke of Urbino, who scorned 
to admit a single printed volume into his collection, 
although he was a good friend of Aldus Manutius, 
the great Printer of Venice. Without question these 
stood among their contemporaries as the great 
libraries of J. P. Morgan and Henry E. Huntington 
stand in our day. These and many others, however, 
are show-places rather than the workshops of personal 
students and we turn to the more modest shelves of 
such students and thinkers to learn from their books 
the source of the thoughts and principles which have 
actuated their lives and influenced those of others. 

Our associate, Mr. Tuttle, in a most valuable paper 
on the "Libraries of the Mathers," read before this 
society in 1910, has gathered such information regard- 
ing the libraries owned in New England during the 
17th century as is still available, but this is all too 
scanty in result and contains too little of detail to 
satisfy our desires. The libraries of the next century, 
the Revolutionary period, are hardly better known and 
should be studied in this way before the hand of time is 
laid too heavily upon them. Mr. George S. Eddy of 
New York is attempting to reconstruct the library of 
Benjamin Franklin and finds great difficulty in making 
progress, so soon are books scattered and forgotten. 

Among the books on the shelves of the American 
Antiquarian Society are a number of particular interest 
because they come from such libraries and which make 
a respectable showing already, but which if combined 
with like titles in other libraries may result in real 
progress toward the end desired. There are fifteen 
volumes containing the autographs of the Rev. 
Thomas Shepard of Cambridge, of his son Thomas of 
Charlestown and of his grandson, also named Thomas, 
and the successor of his father in the latter town. In 
the year 1706, Cotton Mather wrote in his diary: "I 

1924.] Report of the Council 11 

will not have unmentioned, a present of books made 
me this winter, from the united library of our three 
famous Shepards; which enriched me, not only with 
printed books * * * but also with manuscripts of 
each of those three worthy men." Among these 
fifteen are books which belonged to each of the three, 
but it is not possible to determine whether one or 
another of them were among those above noted. 

There is one, however, which is an excellent example 
of the provenance of a book. Stillingfleet's " Irenicon" 
printed in London in 1661 contains a number of auto- 
graphs which show the succession of owners and their 
interrelation. On the title page is written: "Tho: 
Shepard: ye gift of Col. T. Temple, 1661." This is 
the second Shepard, he of Charlestown, as his father 
died in Cambridge in 1649. Col. Thomas Temple was 
Governor of Acadia by appointment of Cromwell in 
1657 and frequently visited Boston. At this time he 
was on his way to report to the new monarch and in his 
interviews he used his influence to protect the colony 
from her enemies in London. In speaking to Charles 
II, who objected to the colony's coinage, Temple sug- 
gested that the tree on the Pine Tree Shilling repre- 
sented the Royal Oak which saved His Majesty's life 
and this explanation restored the colony to his good 
will for the time. Upon Col. Temple's re-appointment 
and return to Acadia, he joined in 1690 the church of 
Increase Mather, thus cementing still further the 
pleasant relationship which he had with the colony . 

The next autograph in the volume reads: "Thomas 
Brattle's Book, 20th 3, 78 Ex dono T. S." Thomas 
Brattle was a classmate of Thomas Shepard and this 
gift was evidence of their friendly relations. Brattle 
was treasurer of Harvard College from 1693 to 1713, 
the year of his death. Thomas Robie's ownership is 
next shown but no clue is given as to how or when he 
secured the book unless his position as librarian of 
Harvard at the time of Brattle's death and the fact that 
he was at that time studying for the ministry would 

12 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

point to his purchase of it. The inscription reads: 
"Mr. Robie's Donation to — Judah Monis, Jan'y ye 
15th, A. D. 1722-3." 

Judah Monis was a Jew and the first formal instruc- 
tor of Hebrew at Harvard College, a position which he 
held from 1720 to 1760, during which time he pre- 
pared a Hebrew Grammar for his students and which 
was published in the year 1735. In 1722 he embraced 
Christianity and on March 27, was baptized with great 
ceremony, the sermon preached on that occasion by 
Rev. Mr. Colman and his own address being later 
published together. A few months after, Thomas 
Hollis, the generous benefactor of Harvard though 
living in London, complained to Rev. Mr. Colman, 
with whom he frequently corresponded, that the 
doctrines of Monis were not sound and this is the prob- 
able explanation of the gift of Robie, as above noted, to 
Judah Monis. Mr. Hollis must have been satisfied, 
in the end, with his orthodoxy, as he sent the Hebrew 
type, a few years later, with which Monis's Grammar 
was printed. 

The last name in the volume is that of "P. Whitney, 
1768" and the connection is as follows: Peter Whit- 
ney was graduated from Harvard in the class of 1760 
and returning to Northborough, his native town, suc- 
ceeded Rev. John Martyn as pastor of the church in 
that town. Judah Monis, having resigned his teaching, 
came there to live with his brother-in-law, the said 
Martyn, and died in the year 1764. Following the 
name of Whitney is the price, £1-10-0, showing that 
he purchased the book after the death of Monis. 
This is verified by the existence in the Harvard library 
of a book with the inscription: "Judah Monis' Bible, 
Gift of Peter Whitney, 1770. " Books belonging to the 
three Shepards are not common but if the remainder 
could be listed much light might be thrown on the 
formation of their opinions and the development of 
their doctrines." 

The book-label of Thomas Prince's New England 

1924.] Report of the Council 13 

Library states that he began his collecting upon enter- 
ing Harvard College as a student on July 6, 1703. It 
was his design to gather together books, pamphlets, 
maps and papers in print or manuscript, either pub- 
lished in New England or pertaining to its history and 
affairs. These books were deposited in the steeple 
room of the Old South Church in Boston, of which he 
was minister with his classmate, Joseph Sewall, from 
1718, after he returned from England, until his death 
in 1758. The books were left by will to the church 
and there remained neglected in the steeple room from 
1758 until they were loaned to the Massachusetts 
Historical Societyin 1814. In 1859 they were returned 
to the church and in 1868 the remainder, after various 
plunderings, the most serious being that of the British 
soldiers in 1775, were deposited in the Boston Public 

It is not so well known that Mr. Prince had two 
collections, one called "The New England Library" 
and the other which he named "The South Church 
Library" each with its separate booklabel, the last 
containing books in Hebrew, Greek and Latin, mainly 
theological. When given to the Public Library the 
remains consisted of 1899 volumes with 3800 titles. 
John Adams wrote that in his search, in the autumn 
of 1773, for materials for a report on some lands con- 
tested by New York, he mounted up to the balcony of 
Dr. Sewall's church where were assembled a collection 
of books which Mr. Prince had devoted himself to 
make from the 20th year of his age. "The loss of this 
library, " he wrote, " can never be sufficiently regretted. 
Such a treasure never existed anywhere else and can 
never be made again." This was printed in the 
Boston Patriot in 1811 and may have suggested the 
removal of the books to the Massachusetts Historical 
Society in 1814 as above noted. Curiously enough 
when the library of John Adams was presented to the 
Boston Public Library it was found to contain several 
books of Thomas Prince which had been borrowed and 

14 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

never returned. As was well known the books pre- 
sented to the Public Library were largely from the 
collection known as the New England Library and the 
others were scattered. A portion of these were in the 
possession of Mrs. Moses Gill, of Princeton, Thomas 
Prince's only child, and when her husband died in 1800 
these were sold at public auction. In addition to the 
book-label, if present, these books are easily recognized 
as the owner put on the back of the title page his name, 
with the place of purchase and the date. One of the 
earliest of his books in our list has his name and the 
date of 1705, his third year in college. 

Of the two great families which influenced, perhaps 
it were better to say governed, the colony in its early 
years that by the name of Cotton is represented by 35 
volumes from the library of the John Cotton, who came 
to this country in 1633, through all the generations 
and branches to that of Rossiter Cotton who joined our 
Societyin 1814 and through whom many of these books 
came to us. There is no knowledge of the size of this 
library of two hundred years ago and it must have 
been widely scattered as this family had many sub- 
divisions and the books have probably followed these. 
It would be of great interest, by examination of these 
books which formed his opinions, to follow the dis- 
cussions which the first John Cotton had with Roger 
Williams and trace the development of the scheme of 
Church government which he, in conjunction with 
Norton and Hooker, impressed upon the colony. 

Of the other family, however, the story is different, 
as both Richard and his son Increase Matherwere care- 
ful collectors and retained the books they secured. 
Cotton, the son of Increase, not only collected his 
books for use but he lavished affection upon them as 
does the bibliophile of today. His rugged words of 
sorrow when in 1724 he was threatened with their loss 
for debt are far more affecting than the exquisite poem 
written by William Roscoe, of Liverpool, the evening 
before the sale of his books. John Dunton wrote that 

1924.] Report of the Council 15 

Cotton Mather's was the largest and most important 
library of that day; and in 1723 it certainly exceeded 
that of Harvard College in size while an estimate in 
1726 placed the number at about 4000 volumes. Of 
this library, the remains upon our shelves reach not 
far from 1200 books and this collection is the largest 
gathering of Mather books in existence. In these 
books, as in the case of the others, are many inscrip- 
tions which show not only varied ownership but that 
which is more interesting the passage of some of these 
books from father to son through several generations. 
Another matter in connection with this collection is 
of considerable importance. The Donation Book of 
Harvard College records: "1682, Sir John Maynard, 
Sergeant at law, gave eight chests of books, valued at 
£400." Sir John Maynard, born in 1602, was called 
to the bar at the age of 23. He was a member of 
nearly every Parliament throughout his long life and, 
at the age of 86, was appointed "Commissioner of the 
Great Seal" by King William of Orange with the 
approbation of all the opposing parties of that period, 
a fact which proves their confidence in his judicial 
ability and non-partisan character. His gift, like those 
of other eminent Englishmen, may be reasonably 
referred to the influence of that constant friend of the 
College, Thomas Hollis of London. 

When Cotton Mather, after graduation, began 
gathering his library he learned of the existence of 
duplicates among the College books, in consequence 
of this gift of Maynard, and secured a number of these 
duplicates for his own collection. This fact would be 
of little moment, but for the disastrous fire of 1764 
which destroyed the building and every book in the 
College library except a few which had been loaned and 
not been returned. In 1916, Mr. Clarence S. Brigham, 
in a paper read before the Colonial Society, stated that 
there were in the American Antiquarian Society several 
books which were among the titles purchased by 
Mather and since that time several more have been 

16 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

located on our shelves nearly all of which bear the 
name stamp of Sir John Maynard. Had it not been 
for the bookstamps and inscriptions in them this dis- 
covery would not have been possible, and the result is 
apractical demonstration of the value of this form of 

The sources of our knowledge of these duplicates are" 
three, all of which are in the possession of our Society: 

1. The manuscript list, written by Cotton Mather 
himself, of the 96 books purchased from Harvard in 
1682 as duplicates in that library. 

2. A copy of the Catalogue of the Harvard College 
Library printed in 1723. 

3. A copy, in manuscript, of the original Catalogue 
of Dr. Mather's books added to by purchases and gifts 
of Mr. Thomas and others, and printed, in extenso, in 
Mr. Tuttle's article above noted. 

From a study of these three sources and comparison 
of books in our library the following conclusions may be 

1. That all books containing the name of Sir John 
Maynard must have come from the College Library. 
Of these there are, in the American Antiquarian 
Society's Library, six titles in twelve volumes. 

a. Ambrosius, Commentaries on the Bible, Basle, 
1567. Folio, two vols, in one. The name of Sir 
John Maynard is on title page and second leaf. 
The title is found in C. M. Ms. list and in the 1723 

b. John Davenant,Determinationes, Cambridge, 
1634. Folio, one vol. The name of Sir John 
Maynard is on title page and second leaf, and in 
both cases is scratched out. The title is in C. M. 
Ms. list and 1723 Catalogue (edition of 1639 in 

c. Saint Gasparis, Commentarii, Lyons, 1623. 
Folio, seven volumes. The name of Sir John 
Maynard on title page and on second leaf. In 

1924.] Report of the Council 17 

C. M. Ms. list and in 1723 Catalogue (edition of 
1624 in latter). 

d. Irenaeus, Against Gnostics and Heretics, 
Cologne, 1596. Folio, one vol. The name of Sir 
John Maynard on title page and second leaf. In 
C. M. Ms. list and in 1723 Catalogue (edition of 
1570 in latter). 

e. Josephus, History of Jews, Aurelii Allobrig- 
orum, 1611. Folio, one vol. The name of Sir 
John Maynard on title page and second leaf. 
Also name of Charles Wheeler and book-label of 
Worcester County Athenaeum. Not in C. M. 
Ms. list, but in 1723 Catalogue, showing the book 
came from another source. 

f. Photius, Bibliotheca, in Greek, with notes, 
Olivia Pauli Stephanus, 1611. Folio, one vol. 
The name of Sir John Maynard on title page and 
second leaf. In C. M. Ms. list and in 1723 
Catalogue (edition of 1653 in latter). 

2. That books the titles of which are found in the 
Cotton Mather manuscript list of 1682 and in the 1723 
printed Catalogue, and are part of the Mather remains 
in our Library, probably came from Harvard College 
Library. Of these there are in our Library eight titles 
in nine volumes. 

a. Robert Bellarmin, De septem verborum, 
Cologne, 1648. 18 mo., one vol. In C. M. Ms. 
list and in 1723 Catalogue (edition of 1626 in 

b. Laurence Humphrey, Joannis Juvelli, Vita et 
Mors, London, 1573. 8 vo., one vol. In C. M. 
Ms. list (under Juvelli) and in 1723 Catalogue 
(1673 by error). 

c. Michael, Jermin, Commentary upon Ecclesi- 
astes, London, 1639. Folio, one vol. In C. M. 
Ms. list and in 1723 Catalogue. 

d. David Pareus, Operum Theologicum, Venice, 

18 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

1628. Folio, two vols. In C. M. Ms. list and in 
1723 Catalogue. 

e. Saint Gasparis, Commentarii in Actus, Lyons, 
1616. 4to., one vol. In C. M. Ms. list and in 
1723 Catalogue. 

f. Saint Gasparis, Canticorum commentarii, 
Lyons, 1616. 4 to., one vol. In C. M. Ms. list 
and 1723 Catalogue. 

g. Samuel Rutherford, Influences of the life of 
Grace, London, 1659. 4to., one vol. In C. M. 
Ms. list and in 1723 Catalogue (edition of 1655 in 

h. James Ussher, Answer to a Jesuit, London, 
1625. 4to., one vol. In C. M. Ms. list and in 
1723 Catalogue (edition of 1631 in latter). 
3. That books the titles of which are found in the 
Cotton Mather Manuscript of 1682 and are part of the 
Mather remains in our Library, but are not to be found 
in the 1723 printed Catalogue, may well have come 
from the Harvard College Library. It must be re- 
membered that fortyyears elapsed between the Mather 
list of 1682 and the Catalogue of 1723, and in the 
meanwhile many books may have become lost, or 
replaced by new and varying editions. Therefore in 
this class would come the following titles: 

a. John Gerhard, Locorum Communium Theo- 
logicum, Geneva, 1639. Folio, four vols, in one. 
In C. M. Ms. list, but not found in the 1723 
Catalogue. On first leaf the name "Harvard" is 
scratched out, but still legible. 

b. William Ames, A Fresh Suit against Cere- 
monies, (London) 1633. 8 vo,, one vol. In C. M. 
Ms. list, but not found in 1723 Catalogue. 

c. Nicolas Vedelius,Arcanorum Arminianismum, 
Leyden, 1633. 4to., one vol. In C. M. Ms. list, 
but not found in 1723 Catalogue. On title page 
is the inscription: "Cottoni Matheri, Liber, 

1924.] Report of the Council 19 

While it seems probable that all of the books, the 
titles of which are recorded in the three classes above, 
were possessed by the College Library in 1682, yet since 
in the second and third classes there is the possibility 
of coincidence in titles, or of the later purchase of 
similar copies by Dr. Samuel Mather, it can be safely 
stated that at least seven titles were once in Harvard 
ownership. The Council of the Society believes that 
these particular titles should be restored to the Har- 
vard College Library, and has therefore voted that they 
should be formally returned, with appropriate remarks 
which should form part of the exercises of this meeting. 
The volumes returned include six titles of the first class 
and one of the third, that book in which the name 
Harvard was so carefully obliterated. The titles are 
as follows: 

Ambrosius, Commentaries on the Bible, 1567. 

Two vols, in one. 
John Davenant, Determinationes, 1634. One vol. 
Saint Gasparis, Commentarii, 1623. Seven vols. 
Irenaeus, Against Gnostics and Heretics, 1596. 

One vol. 
Josephus, History of Jews, 1611. One vol. 
Photius, Bibliotheca, in Greek, with notes, 1611. 

One vol. 
John Gerhard, Locorum Theologicum, 1639. Four 

vols, in one. 

At the base of one of the columns of the Union 
Station in Washington is inscribed the motto: "He 
who would view the wealth of the Indies in his travels 
must take the wealth of the Indies with him." This 
sentiment contains a profound truth and it has been 
my aim to show that the wealth of the past is about us 
and can be secured by any one who will unlock its door 
with the key of knowledge which is within the reach of 

Charles L. Nichols, 

For the Council. 

20 American Antiquarian Society [April, 



Gaillard Hunt of Washington, D. C, was born 
September 8, 1862, at New Orleans, La., the son of 
William H. and Elizabeth Augusta (Ridgely) Hunt. 
His father was Secretary of the Navy under President 
Garfield and thereafter Mr. Hunt made his home in 
Washington, where his death occurred, very suddenly 
from heart disease, March 20, 1924. 

He was educated at Hopkins Grammar School, New 
Haven, Conn., and at Emerson Institute, Washington, 
and after the death of his father became an examiner 
of claims in the Pension Office, whence he was trans- 
ferred to the Bureau of Statistics, Department of 
State, in President Cleveland's first administration, 
and from 1900 to 1909 was chief of that bureau. He 
thus became familiar with the rich historical' collec- 
tions of that department and acquired a love of 
historical collection and research which continued 
during his life. In 1909 he was appointed chief of the 
division of manuscripts in the Library of Congress; 
from 1918 to 1920 he was a special officer of the 
Department of State to prepare a history of the World 
War; and from 1920 until his death was editor for that 
department, an office especially created for him. He 
married, October 24, 1901, Mary, daughter of Major 
Henry Goodfellow of the United States Army. 

Mr. Hunt's work in the Library of Congress was 
of great value. Through his efforts the diplomatic 
correspondence of the Revolution; the originals of the 
Declaration of Independence and of the Constitution 
of the United States, and historical papers hitherto 

1924.] Obituaries 21 

buried in several departments were transferred to the 
Library of Congress and thereby made available for 
study. He secured the private collections of men 
formerly prominent in public life and greatly increased 
the Library's collection of historical manuscripts, thus 
rendering a great service to the students of American 
history. He was a prolific writer and the author of 
many valuable books and treatises, the most import- 
ant being, "The Life of James Madison," 1902; 
"The Life of John C. Calhoun," 1908; and "The 
History of the Department of State, " 1914. He was a 
member of the Virginia Historical Society and the 
American Historical Association, and was elected a 
member of this Society in April, 1910. In April, 
1920, he contributed a paper to the Proceedings, 
entitled "William Thornton and Negro Colonization." 

W. L. 


Charles Francis Jenney was born in Middleborough, 
Mass., September 16, 1860, and died November 29, 
1923, at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. 
He was son of Charles Edwin and Elvira Frances 
(Clark) Jenney and was ninth in descent from John 
Jenney, a native of Norwich, England, who came from 
Holland in 1623, and settled in Plymouth. He was 
educated in the public schools of Middleborough and 
Brockton, graduating from the Brockton High School 
in 1878 at the head of his class. After a short experi- 
ence as teacher he entered the law school of Boston 
University, where he received the degree of LL.B. in 
1883, and at once began the practice of his profession 
at Hyde Park, with an office, later, in Boston. In 
1886 he was representative to the General Court and 
in 1907 and 1908 was a member of the Massachusetts 
Senate, serving in the latter year as chairman of the 
judiciary committee. From 1909 to 1919 he was an 
associate justice of the Superior Court and, in the latter 

22 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

year, was appointed by Governor Calvin Coolidge 
associate justice of the Supreme Court, which position 
he held at his death. From 1886 to 1909 he was 
lecturer on Massachusetts practice at the Boston 
University law school. As a judge he was highly 
esteemed; his judicial temperament eminently fitting 
him for the position and the fairness of his decisions' 
winning him universal satisfaction. He married, 
October 12, 1886, Mary E. Bruce of Hyde Park, who 
survived him with two daughters. 

Besides belonging to several bar associations he was 
a member of many societies devoted to the study of 
natural history, being especially interested in botany. 
He was an enthusiastic student of local history and 
bibliography and made a notable collection of Dedham 
imprints, which he presented to this Society. He was 
a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sci- 
ences, the Hyde Park Historical Society, the Colonial 
Society of Massachusetts, and was elected a member 
of this Society in October, 1914. In October, 1921, he 
read before the Society a valuable monograph entitled, 
"The Fortunate Island of Monhegan," a subject to 
which he had given much attention, having been long 
interested in the history of the early settlements of 

W. L. 

^ Samuel Walker McCall, a member of this Society 
since October, 1901, was son of Henry and Mary Ann 
(Elliott) McCall, and was born February 28, 1851, at 
East Providence, Penn. He died November 4, 1923, 
at Winchester, Mass., where he had lived since 1875. 
His early life was passed in Illinois, whither his parents 
removed about 1853, and he was there educated until 
1866 when he was sent to the academy at New 
Hampton, N. H. In 1870 he entered Dartmouth 
College, where he was graduated in 1874, ranking 

1924.] Obituaries 23 

second in a class of sixty and gaining election in the Phi 
Beta Kappa society. He then studied law at Nashua, 
N. H., and at Worcester, Mass., being admitted to the 
bar at Worcester in 1875. Soon after this he removed 
to Winchester and commenced the practice of law in 
Boston. In 1887 he was elected to the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives and began a political career 
which lasted until 1919. He served for four non- 
consecutive years as representative in the General 
Court, during a part of which time he was chairman of 
the judiciary committee and therefore leader of the 
House. In 1892 he was elected representative to 
Congress and continued as such for twenty years, 
during which service he was for ten years a member 
of the committee on the library and for four years its 
chairman, and for fourteen years a member of the com- 
mittee on ways and means. On retiring from Congress 
in 1912, he made an unsuccessful attempt to be nomi- 
nated for the United States Senate and, in 1913, was 
defeated for the governorship, but was elected to that 
office in the three following years. This ended his 
active political life. He married, May 23, 1881, Ella 
Esther Thompson, of Lyndonville, Vt., who, with two 
sons and three daughters, survived him. 

While a senior in college Mr. McCall was editor- 
in-chief of the college paper, the "Anvil"; and during 
the early years of his law practice he delivered speeches 
on public affairs and was a frequent contributor to 
newspapers and magazines on topics of historical and 
political interest. In 1888, with William E. Barrett 
and Henry Parkman, he purchased the Boston 
"Daily Advertiser" and the "Record," and was, for 
some time, editor-in-chief of the former. He was 
author of the life of "Thaddeus Stevens"; "The Life of 
Thomas B. Reed"; and "The Business of Congress," a 
series of lectures delivered at Columbia University. 
He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from many 
Universities and, besides being a member of this 
Society, was a member of the Massachusetts Historical 

24 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Society and fellow of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences and the National Institution of Social 

W. L. 


Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, a noted physicist, was 
born October 4, 1841, at Hanoverton, Ohio, and died 
March 22, 1924, at Ravenna, Ohio, where he had made 
his home after his return from Europe in 1912. He 
was son of Stephen and Mary (Thomas) Mendenhall 
and married, July 12, 1870, Susan Allen Marple of 
Columbus, Ohio, by whom he had a son, Charles 
Elwood Mendenhall, now professor of physics at the 
University of Wisconsin. Beyond a primary educa- 
tion in public schools, he was largely self educated, but 
he attained eminence in his profession and received the 
honorary degree of Ph.D. from Ohio State University 
in 1878, Sc.D. from Rose Polytechnic Institute in 
1887, LL.D. from University of Michigan in 1887 and 
Western Reserve University in 1912. From 1873 to 
1878, and again from 1881 to 1884, he was professor of 
physics and mechanics at Ohio State University, and 
from 1878 to 1881 professor of physics at the Imperial 
University of Japan at Tokio, and while there made 
important calculations as to the mass of the earth, 
which agreed with the results obtained by others using 
different methods. He was with the United States 
Signal Corps from 1884 to 1886, and then served for 
three years as President of Rose Polytechnic Institute 
until 1889, when he resigned to become Superintendent 
of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, which 
position he held until 1894, He was President of the 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute from 1894 until 1901, 
when he resigned on account of failing health. He 
passed the next ten years in Europe, returning to the 
United States in 1911 and living quietly in Ravenna 
until his death. While connected with the Coast and 

1924.] Obituaries 25 

Geodetic Survey he was a member of the United States 
Lighthouse Board; Superintendent of the Department 
of Weights and Measures; and a member of the Boun- 
dary Line Survey Commission, which established the 
boundary between Alaska and the Dominion of 
Canada. From 1896 to 1901 he was chairman of the 
Massachusetts Highway Commission. 

He belonged to several scientific societies and was 
fellow of the American Society of Arts and Sciences, of 
which he was elected Secretary in 1876, Vice-President 
in 1882 and President in 1889. He was a member of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society and was elected 
to this Society in April, 1895, and served as member of 
the Council from the following October until 1901, 
when he resigned. He contributed a paper to the 
Proceedings in October, 1896 on " Twenty Unsettled 
Miles of the Northeast Boundary," and another in 
October, 1898 entitled "A Flag Episode." He also 
prepared the Report of the Council in October, 1896. 

W. L. 


Woodrow Wilson, son of Reverend Joseph R. and 
Jessie (Woodrow) Wilson, was born at Staunton, Va., 
December 28, 1856, and died February 3, 1924, at 
Washington, D. C. Both his mother and father were 
of Scotch-Irish ancestry. He passed a year at 
Davison College, N. C, and then entered Princeton 
University where he was graduated in 1879 with the 
degree of A. B., receiving the degree of A. M. in 1882. 
He studied law at the University of Virginia, and 
practiced his profession at Atlanta, Ga., 1882-3. He 
then took a post-graduate course at Johns Hopkins, 
where he received the degree of Ph.D. in 1886. He was 
given an honorary degree of LL.D. by Wake Forest, 
1887; Tulane, 1898; Johns Hopkins, 1902; Rutgers, 
1902; University of Pennsylvania, 1903; Brown, 1903; 
Harvard, 1907; Williams, 1908; Dartmouth, 1909; and 

26 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

of Litt. D. by Yale, 1901; and while in Europe in 1918- 
19 was the recipient of many degrees from foreign 
universities. He was associate professor of history 
and political economy at Bryn Mawr, 1885-1888; 
professor of the same at Wesleyan, 1889-1890; professor 
of jurisprudence and political economy at Princeton, 
1890-1910; and President of that University from 
August 1, 1902 to October 20, 1910, resigning the office 
to enter a campaign for the governorship of New 
Jersey, to which office he was elected in the following 
November, and which he held until March 1, 1913. 
He then resigned as Governor, having been elected 
President of the United States, which office he held by 
a second election until March 4, 1921. It is unnec- 
essary to detail here any of the events of the years of 
his presidency, they being a part of the history of the 
United States. 

He was a prolific writer on historical and political 
subjects, aside from his numerous addresses while 
Governor and President, his most important work being 
''A History of the American People" published in 
1908. He married, first, June 24, 1885, Ellen Louise 
Axson of Savannah, Ga., who died August 6, 1914; and 
he married, second, December 18, 1915, Mrs. Edith 
Boiling Gait of Washington, who survived him as did 
three daughters by his first wife. 

He was elected to membership in this Society, in 
October, 1913, but owing to his official duties was 
never able to attend a meeting. Ten members of this 
Society have been Presidents of the United States, but 
of these only four, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, 
William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson, were 
members while holding office, the others having been 
elected while Ex- Presidents. 

W. L. 

1924.] William Cook of Salem, Mass. 27 


Preacher, Poet, Artist and Publisher 
by lawrence w. jenkins 

THE booklover who is able to scan the well-filled 
bookshelves of some old-time Salem family is 
reasonably sure of finding tucked away in some odd 
corner a small bundle of the curious publications of the 
Reverend "Billy" Cook. These are pamphlets each 
of some twenty-five or more pages, bound in manila 
wrappers, and usually having on the front cover some 
extraordinary illustration cut in wood by the author- 
publisher. Between 1852 and 1876 Cook produced 
about forty different titles, writing the text, engrav- 
ing the numerous wood-cut illustrations and, after 
laboriously printing the result, proceeded to peddle his 
pamphlets about the streets in true chapman fashion. 
Everybody bought them and laughed — behind his 
back — for Cook was a gentle soul, an educated gentle- 
man whom unkind Nature had failed to supply with a 
complete and well-balanced headpiece. His verse he 
furnished with feet of different length and his illustra- 
tions gave small evidence of a knowledge of the elements 
of perspective; but many of his figure studies compare 
quite favorably with recent manifestations of im- 
pressionistic art. The sale of his pamphlets, however, 
supplemented his meagre earnings from tutoring and 
kept him from actual want. Everybody about town 
spoke of him as "Billy Cook," but always addressed 
him respectfully. A call on Mr. Cook, at his house 
on Charter Street, was one of the things to do in 
Salem, especially by parties of young people in search 
of mild diversion, for at that time golf and tennis were 

28 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

unknown and croquet was the most exciting out-door 
sport. His "Gallery of Art" always furnished a little 
harmless amusement which would be paid for by the 
silver exchanged for his pamphlets, which he always 
sold at such times. In fact he was something of a 
local celebrity — one of Salem's " characters. " 

"I was born on the 7th of March, 1807," he wrote, 
"and my father was a sea captain and furnished me a 
liberal education. I fitted for college at Phillips 
Academy, Andover, then entered Yale College where 
I spent two years. I also spent two years at Washing- 
ton, now Trinity, College, Hartford. Owing to the 
feeble condition of my health, resulting from a severe 
attack of typhus fever, I left college but studied for 
the ministry with the late Bishop Griswold, Rector 
of St. Peter's church, Salem. I never entered the 
ministry but, finding that I had a decided taste for art 
and literature, I adopted an independent position." 

William Cook was a son of Capt. William Cook, an 
experienced navigator, who died in 1820 on board the 
brig Rotund while on her passage from Santiago de 
Cuba. At the time he was one of the oldest com- 
manders sailing out of Salem. As a young man 
William Cook gave evidence of considerable ability 
and some literary genius. The melancholy and eccen- 
tricity that appeared in later years may have resulted 
from the severe attack of typhus fever that caused him 
to leave college. He certainly possessed ability in 
some directions, for the private school that he con- 
ducted was attended by children from some of Salem's 
best families. After this was given up he tutored for 
some time, teaching Greek, Latin and mathematics 
with considerable skill. His theological studies ended 
with a great disappointment. It is said that he was 
admitted to orders; at any rate he was ordained a 
deacon and not long after received permission to read 
a sermon by an approved author. This was in the 
pulpit of St. Peter's church, Salem, and misfortune 
overtook him, for he unhappily began to read an 

1924.] William Cook of Salem, Mass. 29 

ordination sermon and discovered his mistake too 
late and was obliged to read it through to the amuse- 
ment of the congregation and the mortification of the 
Rector. This incident began and ended his clerical 
career. But he could not wholly resign the ambition 
of his life and afterwards frequently conducted 
religious services in his own house, preaching to his 
immediate family and such neighbors and acquaint- 
ances as might attend from curiosity. At one time he 
built a small wooden building on top of one of the 
highest hills in the Great Pastures, which he fre- 
quented for prayer and exhortation, and when this 
building was burned he attempted to replace it with 
one of stone which was never finished. His religion 
seems to have consisted of emotion and ecstasy and 
lacked thought and well-ordered expression. This 
mental exaltation was frequently apparent in later 
years when visitors called at his house to inspect his 
"Gallery of Art." Explaining the subjects of his 
painting his eyes would dilate and he would speak most 
earnestly and with great fluency. Sometimes he 
would recite with much fervor long passages from his 

It is a curious fact that his religious aberrations in 
no way affected his mathematical understanding. For 
many years he had students in arithmetic and book- 
keeping which he taught successfully and he was well 
informed in matters of business accounting and un- 
usually sensible and practical in his consideration of 
such matters. The story is told that a sum of money 
having been loaned to him at the regular rate of 
interest, but without security, many years went by 
without any tender of interest and finally the gentle- 
man who had made the loan mentioned to Mr. Cook 
that he would waive the interest if Mr. Cook could see 
his way clear to pay the principal. This he readily 
agreed to and the next day appeared with a savings 
bank book which he indorsed over to Mr. H. When 
the latter came to look over the book he found that the 

30 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

interest on the loan had been deposited at each period 
as it became due and that it, together with the ac- 
cumulated interest, now equalled the principal. Mr. 
Cook lived with a sister and a brother, a tailor by trade, 
and they always seemed to accept him at his own 
valuation as a man of attainments. r 

During middle life "he experienced a disappointment 
in his affections which produced melancholy" and one 
of the results was his attention to authorship and his 
conception of art. The author always seeks a printer; 
but William Cook could not afford to pay for his fame 
in the printed page, so he built a small hand-lever 
press, bought a few pounds of battered type from a 
local newspaper office and began work on a small book 
which he at last published under the title of "Hope," 
being Number I of "The Eucleia." This was followed 
by "The Olive Grove," "The Ploughboy," "Fre- 
mont," "Chestnut Street," and many others. ^ 

The press on which these books were printed in 
general appearance resembled an old-fashioned high- 
back hand-organ. Unfortunately it is no more. 
The thoughtless administrator of his estate broke it up 
and threw it out of the window. Cook possessed only 
type enough to set one page at a time. The many 
inserted plates were printed from wood-blocks of birch 
or maple, which he engraved with an ordinary jack- 
knife, and usually each impression was touched up with 
a lead pencil. No one but a man of tenacious pur- 
pose and great patience could have produced finished 
results with such a handicap. 

Cook's books treat of a great variety of subjects and 
his literary style is as varied as his themes. Some are 
grave, some are gay, some descriptive and some 
historic. Some contain odd translations from the 
Greek and Latin which found their way into the hands 
of learned men who, we are told, marvelled at Cook's 
scholarship and "were forced to admit that he had 
brought out a meaning in the words never discovered 
before." His pamphlet on Chestnut Street, Salem, 

1924.] William Cook of Salem, Mass. 31 

is of some interest and has a certain historical value 
because it preserves pictures of houses along this 
residential street, well known for its excellent archi- 
tecture. All of these houses are yet standing and it is 
possible to recognize many of their representations in 
Cook's drawings without too great a strain on the 

His poem on Chestnut Street begins with a "Cantus 
Latinus" of three lines and is followed by "Notes," in 
which the author records that the illustrations were 
sketched while " winter had a jubilee — the mercury in 
thermometers often sixteen degrees below zero — there- 
fore no foliage was seen." He further remarks that 
the "Poem" was composed upon the invitation of 
"friends, ladies and gentlemen," and that the First 
Canto was read in Chestnut Street "at a June-sun- 
set" in 1856. It appears that this event took place on 
the steps of No. 34 which he had pre-empted without 
asking permission of the owners. Quite a crowd 
collected and after he had finished reading he offered 
copies of his book for sale with gratifying results. 

The following gem from Canto Second of this literary 
effort by Cook may be accepted as an excellent 
example of his verse. It will be noted that he most 
skillfully incorporates the names of those who live in 
Chestnut Street. 

"Surely 'tis not wrong in my lay 
A few words for Dunlap to say. 
As lamps burn not without a wick, 
'Tis well to have a good Chad wick; 
Thus the light glimmering not 
Blends with historic Endicott. 
Of Williams and Hodges to speak 
From bright themes 'tis for one we seek. 
Where morn shakes her bright fleecy locks 
At elm-shade-entrance dwells a Cox, 
Fenollossa to his song-glee 
Wooed his Lady-Love Silsbee, 
Safford with the grace of martial folks 
And Gardner classic cheer these walks. 

32 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Of those who have to the grave gone 
Remembered is good Robinson, 

We also to song-strain bring 

The late departed Lady King, 
In respect for every one, 
Thus has this my poem flowed on. " 

Another of his poems — "The Ploughboy" — whicb-^ 
was published in several parts, was not lacking in length 
nor in variety of topic. He draws upon all the world 
for his facts and illustrations, not forgetting the 
Kansas emigration, the Jewett Festival at Rowley, the 
Pickering homestead in Salem and the Bunker Hill 
monument, thus making "The Ploughboy" rank high 
among the "curiosities of literature." Of Cupid he 

"Some folks call him a boy with wings, 

And very light they say, 
One that does some curious things, 

And then he flies away. 
I think he must be more than boy, 

Or a fading flower, 
For he does greatest wits employ, 

Swayed by his power." 

As the author was a bachelor, of mature years, this 
picture of the blind God who makes so much mischief 
in the world, must be considered as entirely un- 

Cook viewed with respect his literary audience and 
made frequent use of Latin and French phrases. His 
English, however, was sometimes puzzling and leads 
one to exclaim with Sam Slick, Esq., when conversing 
with the Yorkshireman: "Hullo! What in nature is 
this? Is it him that can't speak English, or me that 
can't understand?" One thing is certain; Cook's 
verse strongly resembles poetry in one respect: 
that each printed line always begins with a capital 
letter. "My rhythm is original and varied to suit my 
taste," said Cook. 

From illustrating books it was but a step for him to 
try his hand at portraiture, and even landscapes, in oil 

1924.] William Cook of Salem, Mass. 33 

and when he announced the opening to the public of his 
''Art Gallery," much merriment arose and the curious 
went to his house in considerable numbers, inspected 
his struggles with a paint brush and after buying his 
books went away feeling well repaid for the visit. 
The walls of the front parlor supplied the required 
space for the gallery. The carved frames in which the 
"paintings" hung were his handiwork and also the 
rugs on the floor and a large cricket which was covered 
with a worsted-work picture of a scene in Salem. 
One of his pictures represented "The Resurrection 
from the Ocean" in which the dead are "coming forth 
from the depths of the sea; from the coral groves and 
foundered vessels" as was earnestly and fluently ex- 
plained by Cook, who always took great pride in 
describing to -visitors the subjects and intended sym- 
bolism of his paintings. Most of the canvases were of 
a religious character, but he attempted a "Scene from 
the Life of the Vicar of Wakefield " and also a "Lexing- 
ton Minuteman." His portraits of Raphael, Shake- 
speare, Lord Byron, Lincoln, Grant, George Peabody, 
Benjamin Butler and others, were undoubted achieve- 
ments and some of them have been preserved to pos- 

Cook said that he worked by inspiration, although he 
did not aver that he was controlled by any particular 
spirit, and he remarked to one visitor that he "saw no 
reason why Raphael or Shakespeare might not be inter- 
ested in his work," but, as he expressed it, "they have 
a great deal to do. " This wondrous " Gallery of Art" 
is feelingly described by a visitor who may have re- 
ceived oneof Cook's characteristic postal cards reading : 

"To you I privilege impart 
To visit my Gallery of Art. " 

At any rate, in a communication to the Salem Gazette 
of Nov. 11, 1874, this visitor writes: 

"You will find Mr. Cook more than willing to entertain his 
guests, and as we made the tour of his gallery of art, 'world 

34 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

renowned and unequalled,' to use his own expression, we 
listened with close attention to his description of each picture. 
Many of them were of a sacred character and required ' months 
of labor' to complete. He called our attention to one in 
particular, the chief beauty of which, consisted in the quantity 
of paint used in execution; he put on, as he said, all the paint he 
could and after exposing it to the weather for some clays, ad- 
ministered another dose, and so on, till the thickness of th%. 
article was satisfactory. Two of the largest and most grotesque* 
(unique, I should say) he had been offered a large sum for, but, 
as he said, what was three thousand dollars to the possession of 
such works of art and the pleasure of exhibiting them to appre- 
ciative visitors. We asked him what would become of them all 
when he should be called away. The answer was, that the 
Essex Institute was very desirous of obtaining the collection 
and he should probably so dispose of it. There was one picture 
I should like to call your attention to — that of a young lady 
reclining in a boat, so that she might see her reflection in the 
water beneath. It must be, for our host said so, true to 
nature, but we thought the lady too large for the boat, or the 
boat too small for the lady, as her head projected over the bow 
while her limbs were some feet beyond the stern. However, the 
innocent ram, caught in the thicket above, was all right. 
Farther on you will notice a picture of our martyred President, 
wrapped in the American flag. He is in the act of ascending, 
with one toe restingon the topmost ball of the Capitol, while one 
finger points heavenward. The idea is very good and wholly 
original, though to our unartistic eye, the whole design was a 
little too square and angular, especially the flag. I will not 
weary you longer with description of things that must be seen 
to be appreciated. At our urgent solicitation our modest host 
next read to us selections from his latest publication, "Ode on 
Woman. " He reads with distinctness and fine expression, and 
occasional hints thrown in by way of explanation, make it very 
entertaining. This book is an essay on woman, in her domestic 
relations, her social life and lastly her relations to politics- 
voting, &c. Mr. Cook gladly offers this for sale, with others of 
his own manufacture. Next in the programme came the 
' Musical ' or chanting by the Rev. Sir. The words as well as 
the harmony were extempore and executed with vigor, es- 
pecially the part illustrative of ' thunder and lightning. ' Some 
of the ladies present, inclined all the evening to be hysterical, 
were so much overcome, at this part of the proceedings, that 
one of them hastened to the entry and there on the stairs gave 
free vent to her pent up emotions. The commotion did not 
seem to disturb the singer however, who kept on the even 
tenor of his way, with closed eyes and face beaming with satis- 

1924.] William Cook of Salem, Mass. 35 

faction. And thus our evening closed and we bade our vener- 
able host ' good night, ' with many thanks — and would say to 
our friends — Whenever you wish to drive dull care away, 'go 
there and do likewise.' " 

William Cook was a man of quiet habits, temperate 
and courteous to all. He was never morose but always 
cheerfully accepted conditions of life as they came to 
him, even when funds were low and food scarce, as at 
times was the case; and when relief came through un- 
expected sales of his books, he gave hearty and devout 
thanks to Divine Providence to whose guiding hand he 
always attributed his good fortune. He was of stocky 
build, a little below medium height, of dark complexion 
and with bushy, iron-grey hair. He was a great 
walker and had a short, quick step. As he walked he 
held his head up with his eyes well opened. He usual- 
ly wore a dark blue cape or cloak of the fashion of 
1840-1850, with a soft hat, and was a familiar sight 
on Salem streets in the days when most Salemites were 
known to each other and he always received a pleasant 
greeting for, with amusement over his eccentricities, 
there was mingled a certain respect for his industry 
and ability to support himself. A well-informed man 
and level headed in the practical affairs of life, it is 
most unaccountable that he should have been so 
irrational whenever his imagination came into play. 


All pamphlets were printed in Salem. They vary in size from 4x6 
to 53^2 x 9, average 5x8. There are irregularities in pagination; in most 
cases the illustrations and covers are counted although not numbered. 
Many of the pamphlets have a design on the cover and some six of the 
earlier ones have one or two text illustrations each. The blocks for the 
illustrations were re-cut or touched up for a number of the reprints. 

There are large collections of William Cook's works at the Essex 
Institute, Boston Public Library and American Antiquarian Society. A 
collection of twenty-three items were in the Albert A. Bieber sale at the 
American Art Association on November 13, 1923. 

1. Monition to Parents. A Sermon for the Promotion of 
Piety. 14 pp. Printed at the Gazette Office. 1839 

36 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

2. Hope. 1852 

Part I of the "Eucleia." No example of the 1852 
edition located. Reprinted in 1859 with preface 
dated Oct. 1858. 18 pp. 

3. Sunbeam through Pagan Clouds, A Poem. 15 pp. 

(March) 1853 
Part II of the "Eucleia." Not printed by Cook.. 
Reprinted by Cook in 1861. 

4. The Olive Grove. Poems. 25 pp., 5 pi. 

(December) 1853 
Part III of the "Eucleia." Reprinted, n. d., with 
illustrations re-drawn or touched up. 

5. The Ploughboy. A Poem. Part first. 32 pp., 6 pi. 

Part IV of the " Eucleia. " Reprinted with same date 
but with an appendix and illustrations touched up. 
pp. 1-36. 

6. The Ploughboy. A Poem. Part second, pp. 37-68, 

7 pi. (January) 1855 

Part V of the "Eucleia." Plates colored, probably 
later. Reprinted (Feb.) 1855. 

7. The Ploughboy. A Poem. Part third, pp. 69-108, 

7 pi. (August) 1855 
Part VI of the "Eucleia." Copyrighted in 1857. 
Reprinted, same date, with notes added on p. 108. 
Some copies colored later. 

8. The Martial Wreath Twined Respectfully for The' Salem 

Independent Cadets. Broadside. (1855) 

9. A Jubilant Canzonet for The Salem Light Infantry. 

Broadside. (1855) 

10. The Telegraph, or Star-Banner Song. A Poem. 40 pp., 

8 pi. (March) 1856 
Part VII of the "Eucleia." Reprinted in 1869. 

11. Fremont. A Poem. 32 pp., 3 pi. October, 1856 

Part VIII of the "Eucleia." Reprinted in 1868. 
Some copies colored. 

12. Chestnut Street. A Poem. 41 pp., 10 pi. April, 1857 

Part IX of the "Eucleia." Copyrighted in 1857. 
Reprinted in Oct. 1857, 1858 and Sept. 1874. 40 pp. 
Some copies colored. 1874 issue paged 295-334. 

13. The Neriah, part first for The Metrical Apocalypse. 

pp. 1-39, 4 pi. February, 185S 

Copyrighted in 1858. 

1924.] William Cook of Salem, Mass. 37 

14. The Neriah, part second for The Metrical Apocalypse. 

pp. 41-82, 5 pi. March, 1859 

Copyrighted in 1859. 

15. The Ploughboy's Harrow, Number one. pp. 1-4. 

October, 1859 

16. The Ploughboy's Harrow, Number two. pp. 5-8. 

November, 1859 

17. The Ploughboy's Harrow, Number three, pp. 9-16, 

2 pi. January, 1860 

Part X of the "Eucleia" is composed of the three 
parts of The Ploughboy's Harrow. 
The Eucleia, in ten parts, bound, was issued in 1861 and 
in 1865. 

18. The Neriah, part third for The Metrical Apocalypse. 

pp. 85-120, 5 pi. May, 1860 

Copyrighted in 1860. 

19. The Neriah, part fourth for The Metrical Apocalypse. 

pp. 121-160, 5 pi. March, 1861 

Copyrighted in 1861. 

The Neriah, volume one, in four parts, was issued 

20. The Star-Banner Song. Broadside. May 16, 1861 

Paged as 41 of number 10. 

21. The Fragments. 20 pp., 2 pi. March, 1862 

Part I of "The Guides." 

22. The Bank. 22 pp., 2 pi. November, 1862 

Part II of "The Guides." Reprinted in 1871. 

23. The Result. 13 pp., 1 pi. May, 1863 

Part III of "The Guides. " 

24. Potsandove. 15 pp., 1 pi. July, 1864 

Part IV of "The Guides." 

25. The Columbia. An Address. 12 pp., 2 pi. 

November, 1863 
Part V of "The Guides." Reprinted in Jan. 1864 
and 1868. 

26. Burnside. Broadside. (1864?) 

No example located. 

27. A Christmas Carol for Engine Company No. Three, 

Fire Department, Salem, Mass. Broadside. 

December 25, 1864 

38 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

28. The Firemen's Liturgv. 10 pp., 2 pi. August, 1865 

Part VII of "The Guides." 

29. The Eudromia. 6 pp., 1 pi. March, 1866 

Part VI of "The Guides." 

30. The Motiveboat. 8 pp., 1 pi. May, 1867 

Part VIII of "The Guides." 

31. The Hearttrier. 18 pp., 2 pi. May, 1867~ 

Part IX of "The Guides." 

32. Lilygrow. 8 pp., 1 pi. May, 1867 

Part X of "The Guides." 
"The Guides," in ten parts, was issued, bound, in one volume . 

33. Dona Bona. pp. 1-20, 3 pi. June, 1869 

First division of part I of " Cor Felix. " This may be 
a reprint. 

34. The Incarnation, pp. 21-40, 3 pi. December, 1869 

Second division of part I of "Cor Felix. " This may 
be a reprint. 

35. The Water Lily. pp. 41-60, 3 pi. March, 1869 

Part II of "Cor Felix." Reprinted in 1874, plates 

36. The Correspondent, pp. 61-80, 3 pi. April, 1870 

Part III of "Cor Felix." 

37. College, pp. 81-100, 3 pi. August, 1871 

Part IV of "Cor Felix." 

38. Text Song. pp. 101-120, 3 pi. V May, 1872 

Part V of "Cor Felix." 

39. A Protest. Broadside. September 2, 1872 

40. Martyn. pp. 121-142, 3 pi. June, 1873 

Part VI of " Cor Felix. " 

41. Talk about Indians, pp. 143-164, 3 pi. June, 1873 

Part VII of "Cor Felix." 

42. Woman, pp. 165-186, 3 pi. May, 1874 

Part VIII of "Cor Felix. " Reprinted in Sept. 1874. 
Plates of both editions colored. 

43. Woman, second part. pp. 187-210, 3 pi. February, 1876 

Part IX of "Cor Felix." Plates colored. Part X 
of " Cor Felix " was never issued. 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 39 

IN 1626 



THE stepping-stones of history are often rough- 
hewn, tripping the unwary in the ascent to truth. 
The history of the primitive period of European con- 
tact with the Atlantic coast of North America in the 
environs of New York has suffered from an insufficiency 
of critical judgment applied to a sparsity of evidence 
by nineteenth-century writers. It seems fitting in 
this introduction to sum up the results of later study 
derived from a reexamination of the sources available 
to these writers and from the interesting evidences that 
have since come to light. 

It is now generally established as a result of nine- 
teenth-century controversy, followed by the discovery 
of better evidence in the twentieth century, that in 
1524 Giovanni da Verrazzano, the Italian who sailed in 
the interest of France, entered the present harbor of 
New York in the ship Dauphine. But he did not 
reach Manhattan Island; he never came back, and his 
visit was fruitless. 1 

'Texts or translations of the older corrupt texts of Verrazzano's letter to Francis I., 
of France, dated July 8, 1524, announcing his discoveries in North America, have been 
often printed, first in Ramusio's Navigationi, vol. Ill (1556), in Hakluyt's Divers Voyages 
(1582), in Collections of N. Y. Hist. Soc., 2d ser., vol. I (1841), p. 37, and reprinted in 
Asher's Henry Hudson (1860), and elsewhere. These left much to be desired. But the 
discovery of a codex in the possession of Count Giulio Macchi di Cellere of Rome and its 
first publication in 1909 by Alessandro Bacchiani in Bollettino della Societa Geografica 
Jtaliana, fasc. XI, pp. 1274-1323, established beyond peradventure the genuineness of the 
letter and the certainty of the discovery. This original codex, since purchased by J. 
Pierpont Morgan, is in the Morgan Library. It is reproduced in facsimile in Stokes's 
Iconography of Manhattan Island, vol. II. The text with an English translation is given 
by Edward Hagaman Hall in Fifteenth Annual Report (1910), of the Amer. Scenic and 
Hist. Preservation Society. 

40 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Estevam Gomez, a Portuguese pilot engaged in the 
service of Spain, in 1525 sailed along the North 
Atlantic coast and noted the inlets. It is not at all 
probable that he entered the Upper Bay of New York, 
though his explorations as a whole along the coast 
from Newfoundland to Cape May had a great effect 
upon the map-makers of his century. The period' 
from Gomez to Hudson, that is from 1525 to 1609, is 
a void of myth and mystery, so far as the environs of 
Manhattan Island are concerned. 

The significant date in the discovery of Manhattan 
Island is the afternoon of September 12, 1609, when 
Henry Hudson in the ship de Halve Maen (the Half 
Moon) anchored off Manhattan Island. We do not 
know whether Hudson or any member of his crew then 
set foot on Manhattan Island. But we know that no 
settlements anywhere resulted then from this voyage 2 . 

Joannes de Laet, a Director of the Dutch West 
India Company, who in 1630 became interested in 
patroonships in New Netherland, published at Leyden 
in 1625 a work entitled Nieuwe Wereldt ofte Be- 
schrijvinghe vanWest-Indien (New World or Description 
of the West Indies), of which a second revised Dutch 
edition was issued in 1630, and of which amplified 
versions appeared in Latin and French, respectively, 
in 1633 and 1640. 3 De Laet admits that the coastal 

»The earliest printed account of this third voyage of Hudson is in Emanuel van Meteren'a 
Commentarien ofte Memorien van den N ederlandlsen Staet, preface dated February, 1610, 
the only known copy of which, formerly owned by the late John Boyd Thacher, of Albany, 
N. Y., is now in the Library of Congress. A pirated edition appeared in 1611, and 
another in 1614. Robert Juet's account in Purchas His Pilgrimes, vol. III. (London, 
1625), pp. 581-595, and reprint edition, vol. XIII (London, 1906, pp. 333-374, has been 
often reprinted in whole or in part, and is easily accessible in Jameson's Narratives of New 
Netherland, pp. 16-28. The account of Hudson's discovery in book III, chap. 7 of Joannes 
de Laet's Nieuwe Wereldt (1625) is perhaps based on a lost journal or other papers of 
Hudson. Hudson's contract and instructions, Dutch with English translation, taken 
from an unpublished manuscript history of the East India Company by Van Dam, are 
in Henry C. Murphy's Henry Hudson in Holland, edition by Wouter Nijhoff (The 
Hague, 1909), and the page of Van Dam showing the contract is facsimiled in Eleventh 
Annual Report of American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society (1906). 

3 The New Netherland matter is in Book III, chaps. 7-11. A highly important map was 
added to the second Dutch edition and repeated in the Latin and French versions. There 
have been several English translations of the New Netherland parts; but the best of them, 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 41 

region of New Netherland had been seen by navigators 
of other nations, but alleges that none had sailed the 
inner harbor or had explored the great river before 
the feat was accomplished by Hudson in 1609. And he 
adds: "From all that they could judge and learn, 
there had never been any ships or Christians in that 
quarter before." He states that after Hudson had 
"returned to Amsterdam with his report, in the year 
1610, some merchants again sent a ship thither— that 
is to say, to the second river discovered, which was 
called Manhattes from the savage nation that dwells at 
its mouth. " In the Latin and French versions he adds 
that these merchants were "of Amsterdam." This is 
all there is about 1610, and nothing more than a state- 
ment about a ship sent to the river by the merchants. 
The place is not localized. The river's name is given 
as Manhattes, and the explanation of the name is, 
that it was derived from certain Indians, a "savage 
nation," that dwelt at the mouth of the river, yet 
without indicating just whereabout the mouth of the 
river. There is not the least hint of a settlement by 

We come now to the mythical attributions of 1613. 
Part 2 of Joseph W. Moulton's History of the State 
of New York is known as Novum Belgium and was 
published in 1826. He refers to four houses alleged 
to have been built on Manhattan Island in 1613 as a 
trading post, and in a footnote adds: "On the site of 
the Macomb houses in Broadway, according to tradi- 
tion as related by the Rev. John N. Abeel, in Mss. of 
the New- York Historical Society." When Moulton 
was securing materials for his History he had access to 
the New York Historical Society and several times 
cites "Abeel MSS. " He also cites other manuscripts 
of this Society, among them the Miller Papers. The 

embodying the longer additions of the Dutch edition of 1630 and the variants of the Latin 
and French versions, is in Jameson's Narratives of New Netherland, pp. 36-60. De Laet 
was also the author of a history of the Dutch West India Company, entitled, Historie ofte 
Jaerhjck Verhael (Leyden, 1644), but there is almost nothing in this work pertaining to 
New Netherland. 

42 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

story of Moulton has been copied, enlarged upon, 
and even immortalized in a tablet erected by The 
Holland Society of New York, so deserves space for 
criticism. James Grant Wilson, the general editor of 
the Memorial History of the City of New York, himself 
wrote the fourth chapter of vol. I. He accepts the 
alleged 1613 occupation of Manhattan Island and the 
so-called tradition respecting the site of the Macomb 
houses, but says he could not obtain a view of the 
Abeel manuscripts at the New York Historical 
Society. I relate my experience. When more than a 
dozen years ago I asked to see the Abeel manuscripts, 
I was told there were no papers of that kind owned by 
the Society. I was examining great quantities of 
manuscripts in the possession of the Society. On the 
day that I asked for the Abeel manuscripts, I was using 
the papers of the Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller, which were 
in the main correspondence and memoranda procured 
by him with the idea of writing a history of New York. 
Here I discovered the Abeel manuscripts, consisting of 
translations from Dutch papers at Albany, and other 
notes and memoranda, among them a garbled quotation 
from a tract entitled New Albion, whose alleged author 
is Beauchamp Plantagenet, and the origin of the so- 
called "four houses," which Abeel suggested were 
located where the Macomb houses then stood. Abeel, 
a clergyman who had some understanding of the Dutch 
language, had made his translations and notes for Dr. 
Miller. But as Dr. Miller's contemplated History 
did not materialize, the Miller Papers eventually came 
into the possession of the New York Historical 
Society. Here Moulton found them and the Abeel 
manuscripts among them. This it was that Moulton 
had appropriated. The Plantagenet tract is the 
originator, Abeel is the amplifier, and Moulton and his 
endless followers are the victims of this superstition. 

Now, the little quarto, no larger than a Shakespeare 
quarto play, is called : A description of the province of 
New Albion, by Beauchamp Plantagenet, printed at 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 43 

London, 1648, also reprinted. The original edition is 
very rare and a rich man's hobby, but should not be a 
historian's pony. Among the extraordinary state- 
ments in this singular tract is one which says that 
"Sir Thomas Dale and Sir Thomas Argall" on a return 
voyage from the French settlements in Acadia, in 1613, 
made avisit "at Manhatas Isle in Hudson's River where 
they found four houses built and a pretended Dutch 
governour under the West India Company of Amster- 
dam." So far as there is a shadow of truth in this 
tract, it can be traced to the printed works of Purchas, 
Captain John Smith, and other contemporary authors, 
as well as to the diplomatic history of the times, from 
which the fabricator had drawn his cues for the dis- 
tortion of truth and the concoction of statements that 
are contrary to all contemporary history. This tract, 
as already shown, was accepted by uncritical com- 
pilers of history as gospel truth. In a broad way, its 
use in the history of New York has come about by its 
accessibility in the Collections of the New York His- 
torical Society, 2d series, vol. I (1841). pp. 333-342, in 
a contribution by George Folsom, who accepted the 
work as of "undoubted" authority. But his article 
shows no critical acumen and he reached conclusions 
without supporting them by authority. Moreover, it 
is indeed singular that Folsom did not know that 
only a year before, in 1840, there had appeared an 
excellent critical examination and analysis of the 
tract by John Penington, in the Memoirs of the Histori- 
cal Society of Pennsylvania, vol. IV, pt. 1. Penington 
exposed with lucidity many of the falsehoods of the 
tract and concluded that even the name of the author, 
Beauchamp Plantagenet, was a fabrication — the 
raison d'etre of the tract resting in motives to bolster 
up unworthy speculative schemes. Brodhead's His- 
tory of N. Y., vol I (various pages) gives a sane exposi- 
tion of the subject. Henry C. Murphy showed his dis- 
belief in Collections of the New York Historical Society, 
2d series, vols. II and III. Berthold Fernow in Win- 

44 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

sor's America, vol. IV, discredits the alleged visit to 
Manhattan and the authorship of the tract. Mrs. 
Schuyler Van Rensselaer in her History of the City of 
N. Y., vol. I, shows how the "belief in the four houses 
which Argall was said to have seen on Manhattan 
topples down in the general destruction of the story." 
Other recent doubters have been Alexander Brown in~~ 
his First Republic in America (1898), and Amandus 
Johnson, in his Swedish Settlements, vol. I. 

The story of an alleged visit to Manhattan by Argall 
or any other Englishman in 1613 rests entirely upon 
the tract of 1648 and later works of Heylin, Ogilby, 
and others, who copied from it or copied from one 
another. Brodhead said of the tract in 1853, that itwas 
then "generally held to be a mass of absurd and incon- 
sistent errors," and he added: "It is extraordinary 
that no English or Dutch State Papers corroborates the 
story." The fact is as well true that Father Biard's 
Relation and letters know nothing of the story. Again, 
Argall had not been knighted in 1613, and Sir Thomas 
Dale did not go with him on either of the Acadian 
expeditions. The Dutch West India Company didj/ 
not exist in 1613 — it was chartered in 1621. There 
was no "Dutch Governour, " pretended or otherwise, 
in 1613, and the allusion to "the next pretended Gov- 
ernour" is a garbled reference to Peter Minuit,in whose 
time "Maps and printed Cards, calling this part New 
Netherland, " were made and published. Stuyvesant, 
who is named "Stuy" in the tract, was appointed in 
1646 and arrived at New Amsterdam in 1647, so could 
not be guilty of acts attributed to him about three 
years before his arrival. So far as the acts mentioned 
in the tract have even a modicum of truth in them, 
they are applicable to Willem Kieft. This baseless 
fabrication may be allowed to rest in the cabinets of 
collectors; it should no longer intrude itself in the 
writing of history. 

In his seventh chapter, De Laet mentions without 
elaboration the charter that was granted by the States 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 45 

General in 1614 to " merchants" who had been inter- 
ested in the expedition of 1610, giving to them the 
"exclusive privilege of navigating" the Hudson 
River "and trading there"; and in the later versions 
of his work he adds, "our people wintered there." 
Also in this connection he states that in 1615 " a redoubt 
or small fort was erected, up the said river, and 
occupied by a small garrison," and "our countrymen 
have continued to make voyages thither each year 
[i.e. from the granting of the aforesaid commercial 
privileges], and continuously some of our people re- 
main there [i. e. 'up the said river,' where the small 
fort was built], for the purpose of trafficking with the 
natives; and on this account the country has justly re- 
ceived the name of New Netherland. " 

De Laet in his ninth chapter returns to mention this 
fort, which now he says "was built in the year 1614 
(in his seventh chapter he said 1615), and he now 
definitely locates it "upon an island on the west side 
of the river, where a nation of savages dwells called the 
Mackwaes [Mohawks], the enemies of the Mohicans." 
He continues: "The fort was built in the form of a 
redoubt . . . and the garrison consisted of ten or 
twelve men. Hendrick Christiaensz. first commanded 
here, and in his absence Jacques Elckens, on behalf of 
the company 4 which in 1614 received authority from 
their High Mightinesses, the States General. This 
fort was constantly occupied for three years, after 
which it partly went to decay. On this river there is 
a great traffick in the skins of beavers, otters, foxes, 
bears, minks, wild cats, and the like. This land is 
excellent and agreeable, full of noble forest trees and 
grape vines." In this connection it is pertinent to 
point out that Hudson's carpenter "went on land," 
while the Half Moon lay at anchor near the present site 

4 The allusion is to the charter granted to the United New Netherland Company, an 
association of thirteen merchants of Amsterdam and Hoorn, on October 11, 1614, for a 
monopoly during four voyages within three years of time. The original manuscript of 
this charter is in the Rijksarchief at The Hague, and is reproduced in facsimile in Wilson's 
Memorial History of the City of N. Y., vol. I. 

46 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

of Albany, "and made a fore-yard," the first but not 
the last evidence of early shipbuilding in that region. 

In his tenth chapter, De Laet again speaks of Hud- 
son, quoting from a lost report of Henry Hudson. He 
does this to describe the land and the manners of the 
Indians, and particularly the region above 42°, situate 
about the present Albany. He tells of the very cold' 
winters and the "strong drift of ice in the river," 
which "occurs some years more than others," a condi- 
tion still true today in the upper reaches of the Hudson 
River. From thence he proceeds, thus: "We have 
before stated how the country there abounds in timber 
suitable for ship-building [i.e. in his ninth chapter 
describing theregionaroundCastlelsland, near Albany]; 
it is sought by our people for that purpose, who have 
built there several sloops and tolerable yachts. And 
particularly Captain Adriaen Block, when his ship was 
accidentally burnt in the year 1614, constructed there el 
yacht with a keel thirty-eight feet long, forty-four and 
a half feet from stem to stern, and eleven and a half 
feet wide. In this vessel he sailed through Hellegat into 
the great bay, and explored all the places thereabout; 
and continued therewith as far as Cape Cod. " 5 

Wassenaer, 6 in part 6 (preface dated June 1", 1624), 

'This is the evidence relating to the burning of Block's ship, the Tiger, and the building 
of the Onrust (Unrest, incorrectly translated Restless). It is indeed singular that, with 
this evidence available, writers have uniformly placed these events on Manhattan Island 
and, one error following naturally upon another, have assumed that Block and his party 
built huts or winter quarters near the southern point of Manhattan Island, an assumption 
bo untenable from the only existing evidence. 

•Nicolaes Janszoon van Wassenaer was a learned Dutch scholar and physician, son of a 
minister of the Reformed Church at Amsterdam. He was the compiler of one of the 
earliest news-journals or annals printed in Holland. Usually cited in short as His- 
torisch Verhael, its fuller title, in translation, is: Historical Narrative of all the most 
memorable occurrences which have come to pass in Europe, etc. These annals were printed 
semi-annually in twenty-one parts, of which parts 1-17 are by Wassenaer and 18-21 con- 
tinuations by Dr. Barent Lampe, another Amsterdam physician. The meagre accounts 
that relate to New Netherland are in parts 6-10, 12, and 16 by Wassenaer, and part 18 
by Lampe. The first use of the material as a source by American historians was made by 
Brodhead in Collections of New York Historical Society (1849), and the extracts were first 
printed in English translations in Doc. Hist. N. Y., vol. Ill (1850). The latest revised 
translation is in Jameson's Narratives of New Netherland (1909). The major part of 
Wassenaer's New Netherland material relates to the ethnology of the Indians and to the 
physiography and natural history of the country. 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 47 

speaking of voyages made prior to those under the 
West India Company, says: "Many from the United 
Provinces did formerly and do still trade there; yea, 
for the greater security of the traders, a castle — Fort 
Nassau — has been built on an island [i.e. Castle 
Island] in 42 degrees, on the north side of the River 
Montagne, now called Mauritius" {i.e. Hudson River], 
He gives no date, but the date we know is 1615. 
Wassenaer, however, says that "the builders let it fall 
into decay," and other evidence shows it was aban- 
doned in 1617, because the spring freshets inundated 
the island. In another place Wassenaer speaks of 
"great quantities of water running into the river, over- 
flowing the adjoining country, which was the cause 
that Fort Nassau frequently lay under water and was 

In part 8 (preface dated May 20, 1625), Wassenaer 
digresses from his story of 1624, to tell about "Hen- 
drick Christiaensz. " who "first sailed to " the "country, 
or the River Montagne, called by ours Mauritius"; 
that he had not reached there, but was "desirous to 
do so another time," and that "it so happened that 
he and the worthy Adriaen Block chartered a ship 
with the skipper Ryser, " and were successful. Then 
Wassenaer continues: "This aforesaid Hendrick Chris- 
tiaensz., after Adriaen Block had dissolved partner- 
ship with him, made ten voyages thither, under a 
grant from the Lords States, who granted him that 
privilege for the first opening up of the place. On the 
expiration of that privilege, this country was granted 
to the West India Company." Christiaensen was 
killed in 1616 by an Indian at Fort Nassau on Castle 
Island, near Albany. 

From the preceding data we see that all the trading 
and wintering activities of the Dutch were in the 
vicinity of the present city of Albany. After the 
expiration of the privileges of the United New Nether- 
land Company, in 1618, several detached voyages were 
made to New Netherland. Of them we know almost 

48 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

nothing. The movement for further authorized trade 
through a Dutch West India Company was slow in its 
fruition. The Octroy 7 granting charter-rights came 
finally on June 3, 1621. It took two years to perfect 
the internal organization of the new company, and it 
was even longer before its funds and operations were 
in order for equipping its first expedition of settlers to 
New Netherland. 

Because writers on the beginnings of New Nether- 
land have treated as a capstone of the arch of history 
two depositions made at the end of the seventeenth 
century by Catelina Trico (or Tricot), an octagenarian, 
and have thereby given insecurity to the whole struc- 
ture of events, it is pertinent to examine the materials 
upon which they have relied as granite and to show 
them to be made of sand. In her deposition on 
February 14, 1685, before Gov. Thomas Dongan, her 
age is given as 80 years "or thereabouts." She de- 
posed that she came over either in 1623 or 1624 "to 
the best of her remembrance," in a ship, not named, 
she errs in giving the skipper's name as that of the 
Dutch governor. In this deposition she is not sure of 
her age, nor sure of the year when she arrived in New 
Netherland, nor correct as to the name of the Director 
or governor; does not name the ship, and alleges 
marriages on shipboard that are dubious. In her 
deposition made before William Morris, justice of 
the peace, on October 17, 1688, her age is given as 
"about 83 years." 8 She now deposes "that in y e year 
1623 she came into this Country w th a Ship called y e 
Unity [Eendracht] whereof was Commander Arien 
Jorise. " So now she fixes upon 1623 as the year and 
names the ship, and makes Adriaen Jorissen the 
"Commander," whilst in her 1685 deposition she 

''Octroy, By de Hooghe Mogende Heeren Staten Gtnerael, verleent aende West-Indische 
Companie, in date den derden Junii 1621 . In s'Graven-Haghe, By Hillebrant Iacobssz, . . 
Anno 1621. Small 4to. This is the original edition. The most reliable English trans- 
lation, by A. J. F. van Laer, is in Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts (Albany, 1908), 
pp. 86, ff., running parallel with a reprint of the Dutch text. 

8 Both depositions are printed in Doc. Hist, of N. Y., vol. 3 (quarto edition), pp. 31-32. 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 49 

dubbed him "governor." But there is nowhere 
evidence connecting a ship Unity (Eendracht) with 
voyages to New Netherland at this time, or associating 
Adriaen Jorissen Tienpont as skipper with a vessel of 
that name. Some years later, in 1630, a ship Eendracht 
is first found of record as associated with New Nether- 
land. There were other ships' bottoms under that 
name. One of this name was in a group of ships com- 
manded by Schouts of Schouten, who in 1623 and 1624 
was preying upon Spanish treasure ships in the Gulf of 
Mexico, and the actual commander of this Eendracht 
was named Garbrandt. 

The remainder of the 1688 deposition of Catelina is 
unsupported by any evidence of the times to which she 
refers, except the date 1626, when she says she "came 
from Albany [meaning Fort Orange] & settled at N : 
Yorke [meaning New Amsterdam] where she lived 
afterwards many years. " This date 1626 is supported 
by ample evidence as the time when Director Minuit 
put into effect the concentration of all families in New 
Netherland at New Amsterdam. Virtually all the 
speculations, perhapses, buts, and maybes, connected 
with these two depositions to exhibit faith in them, are 
to be found in volume four of Stokes's Iconography of 
Manhattan Island. But these mischievous depositions 
are to be rejected as evidence. Dr. Jameson, in 
Narratives of New Netherland, says of them, "we are 
not to place much reliance on recollections stated sixty 
years later/' and Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, in her 
History of the City of New York in the Seventeenth 
Century, has characterized them as having "no value. " 

Great expectations awaited the publication of a 
series of six documents, contemporary copies of 1624 
to 1 626, five of which relate to New Netherland. These 
have lately appeared in a sumptuous form — facsmiles, 
transliterations, and English translations, with intro- 
duction and annotations by Arnold J. F. van Laer. 9 

'Documents relating to New Netherland 1624-1626. In The Henry E. Huntington Library. 
Translated and Edited by A. J. F. van Laer. San Marino, Cal. The Henry E. Huntington 

50 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

The form in which they have appeared permits the 
historical scholar to use them and make his own 
deductions. They have value with respect to an under- 
standing of the methods for colonization and provincial 
administration provided by the Dutch West India 
Company at this juncture, and add new information 
about persons who came over and had a part in the ' 
public affairs. But the documents, whilst revealing 
provisional ideas or instructions of intention, do not 
add to the solution of the history of the origin of settle- 
ments. Mr. van Laer has added an introduction in 
which he essays to make some observations about 
settlements, but he draws for his conclusions not from 
these documents, which are helpless in this matter, 
but upon other materials, such as Baudart and the 
depositions of Catelina Trico. And this is all the more 
surprising as we shall see from an examination of his 
points. Baudart, 10 an author not over careful as to 
dates, refers to a ship, unnamed, returned to Holland, 
after having taken over to New Netherland some 
families from Holland. This unnamed ship Mr. van 
Laer seeks to connect with the yacht Mackreel, but he 
himself otherwise demolishes any hope in that. He 
assumes that another ship sailed from Holland on 
January 25, 1624, antedating the ship Nieuw Neder- 
landt, and that that ship may have been called 
Eendracht (Unity) and have been commanded by 
Adriaen Jorissen Tienpont. This is a result of looking 
at Catelina Trico's depositions. None the less, in 
another place Mr. van Laer says that "Catelina Trico's 

Library and Art Gallery, 1924. Folio. These documents have come to be called by the 
confusing designation of "The Van Rappard Documents, " because a family of that name, 
in no way identified with their origin, had a late possession of them and offered them for 
sale with other materials at auction by Frederik Muller & Co., of Amsterdam, on June 
16-17, 1910. They were bid in by Mr. John Anderson, Jr., of New York, who had them 
translated by J. A. J. de Villiers, chief of the Map Room of the British Museum. Mr. 
Anderson later sold them to Mr. Huntington, under whose auspices they have now 
appeared, after revision of the transcripts and retranslation. The second piece, desig- 
nated Document B, does not relate to New Netherland. 

10 Memoryen . . . der gedenckweerdichste geschiedenissen van Nederland. (Arn- 
heim, 1624-5). By Willem Baudart, latinized Baudartius. See also Stokes's Icon- 
ography, IV: 60. 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 51 

statements cannot be depended upon," and that 
"most writers have treated the depositions of Catelina 
Trico as being unreliable. " Yet, after playing safe like 
that, he accepts Catelina's name of the ship in which 
she declared she had come over, the Unity (Eendracht), 
even though he knows that she named the ship only in 
her latest deposition of October 17, 1688, and that in 
the original document the name was first written as 
"y e hope," then crossed out and "unity" written in its 
stead and above the line, presaging a faulty memory 
and a changing mind in the aged deposer. To support 
his theory that a ship sailed on January .25, 1624, pre- 
ceding the Nieuw Nederlandt, Mr. van Laer alleges that 
"there is one contemporary statement . . . which 
seems to imply . . . that the 'Nieu Nederlandt' must 
have been preceded by another ship, which left Holland 
on or shortly after January 25, 1624." This alleged 
evidence is a memorandum in the Copie-Boek of the 
Consistory of the Dutch Church of Amsterdam, rela- 
tive to Bastiaen Jansen Krol, appointed "kranken- 
bezoeker" or visitor of the sick. But in order to make 
out a case, Mr. van Laer is obliged to find Krol's own 
depositions, respecting the length of his service in New 
Netherland, as inaccurate; and he avers "there seems 
to be no sufficient reason for rejecting the explicit 
statement in the Copie-Boek that Krol sailed for the 
West Indies on January 25, 1624." But in order to 
fasten this claim he attacks the reliability of the 
"Report of the Board of Accounts, " alleging that it has 
an error, whereas we can see no error at all, merely Mr. 
van Laer's misunderstanding of the limited language of 
the documentary entry, since the reference to building 
Fort Amsterdam in 1626 is not allocated to Mey and 
Tienpont. Then, having so far set aside evidence that 
collided with his theory, Mr. van Laer adds: "The 
supposition that there was such another ship, and that 
this ship was the 'Unity,' is rendered plausible by the 
fact that in the instructions to Willem Verhulst, which 
were issued before the end of January 1625, . . . 

52 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

reference is made to 'trading-goods sent with Jan 
Brouwer and Cornelis Jacobsz Mey and those that 
came over for Pieter Courten. ' " But just because of 
this passing reference in this undated document and 
because he finds that in 1630 and later a Jan Brouwer 
made voyages as a skipper to New Netherland in a 
ship called the Eendracht (Unity), though no records 
have shown a ship of that name in New Netherland 
earlier than 1630, Mr. van Laer comes to the final 
declaration, that " therefore, it is not impossible that 
this same ship came to New Netherland in 1624, and 
that it was the ship referred to by Catelina Trico." 
So Catelina bobs up again and makes possibilities out 
of imagination. But Mr. van Laer having hoisted his 
petard now blows up the superstructure he has reared. 
He adds: "From the foregoing facts it appears that 
the date of settlement of New Netherland cannot be 
determined with absolute certainty, and that, apart 
from the question whether the colonists who came over 
on the 'MackreeP, or those who followed on the 'Nieu 
Nederlandt, ' must be regarded as having established 
the first permanent settlement in the colony, there is a 
possibility that the latter vessel was preceded by 
another ship, which sailed from Holland on January 
25, 1624." And he adds again: "The question 
whether there was such a ship not only affects the date 
of settlement, but is of considerable interest in con- 
nection with the location of the first settlements that 
were made in New Netherland. " 

Another theory is broached by Mr. van Laer. In 
this one he argues for 1625 as the year of the first 
permanent settlement of Manhattan Island, and refers 
to a statement by Wassenaer about cattle that were 
transferred from Noten Eilant (now Governors 
Island) to Manhattan. Mr. van Laer thinks "it is 
evident, however, that when the cattle were trans- 
ferred to Manhattan Island, there must have been 
some people there to guard them. " Of course a study 
of Wassenaer shows that the reference is to temporary 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 53 

herders, who cared for the cattle while the Fort Orange 
colony was preparing its journey northward on the 

First Settlements in New 

In this thesis we design to demonstrate that there 
were no settlements of families in New Netherland 
before 1624; that, so far as the present confines of the 
State of New York are concerned, the first settlement 
was made in 1624 at Fort Orange (now Albany); that 
this settlement was augmented by other settlers in 
1625; that the first permanent settlement on Man- 
hattan Island was begun in 1626 by the founding of 
New Amsterdam, and that later in the same year the 
families at Fort Orange and on the Delaware River 
were removed to New Amsterdam, which then became 
the only settlement with family-life in New Netherland 
until patroonships, under the Freedoms and Exemp- 
tions promulgated in 1629, gave birth to other settle- 
ments in the Dutch jurisdiction. 

In the eleventh chapter (Virginia section) of the 1625 
Dutch edition of De Laet's Nieuwe Weereldt, he makes 
no mention of either a fort or settlement on Man- 
hattan Island. His first mention thereof is in the 
Dutch edition of 1630, and again with some additions 
in the Latin version of 1633 and in the French version 
of 1640. The reference in the 1630 Dutch edition is 
thus: "Into New Netherland, and upon both these 
rivers [i.e. the Hudson and the Delaware] described by 
us in the foregoing chapters, several colonies have been 
sent by the Directors of the Chartered West India 
Company, from the very commencement of that 
company, to wit, from the year 1623 11 , in order to 

"The West India Company was still engaged during the first half of 1623 in setting up 
its internal organization, and funds for sending out a party of settlers and other arrange- 
ments pertinent thereto were not completed before the autumn, when the season was 
unfavorable for undertaking the new adventure; therefore, although the arrangements 
had been begun by the Company "from the year 1623," execution was deferred to a 
more propitious season. 

54 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

continue the possession of those quarters, and to main- 
tain the trade in peltries. They have there, at the 
upper-most part of the North River 12 , in the latitude 
of 43 degrees or thereabouts, a small fort, which our 
people call Fort Orange ['t fort van Orangien], round 
about which several colonizers have settled themselves 
under the patronage of the aforesaid company. And 
again another fort of greater importance at the mouth 
of the same' North River, upon an island which they 
call Manhattes or Manhatans Island, because this 
nation of Indians happened to possess the same, and 
by them it has been sold 13 to the company. Here 
our people have made, as it were, their headquarters or 
principal colony, which they call New Amsterdam 
[Nieuw- Amsterdam]. The ships which are yearly sent 
thither harbor there, and prosecute their trade with 
boats and sloops higher up the North River, in the 
South River, and in all the other rivers and bays herein- 
before described by us. " 

A document of the West India Company, containing 
"Provisional Regulations," of March 28, 1624, for the 
conduct of the expedition of settlers sent out at this 
time, has been known from a superior text in the Alge- 
meen Rijksarchief at The Hague, in a "Resolution 
Book," 1623-1624. This Dutch text was known to 
Mr. Stokes and the writer before its publication in 
Dr. J. S. C. Jessurun's Kilaen van Rensselaer, and an 
English version is given in the fourth volume of the 
Stokes Iconography of Manhattan Island. Another and 
inferior text, from a contemporary copy, is given in 
facsimile and translation, as Document A, in the recent 
publication of the so-called "Van Rappard Docu- 
ments," already cited more definitely on a preceding 
page. In the "Resolution Book" is the following 
minute: "Whereas the colonists going to New Nether- 

12 North River (Noord Rivier) means the Hudson, as South River (Slid or Zuid Rivitr) 
means the Delaware. 

13 This statement of the sale of Manhattan Island is confirmed more particularly by 
Pieter Schaghen's letter of November 5, 1026, and by AVio York Btecutivt Council Minutes, 
vol. 1 (Albany, 1910), p. 47, under date of April, 1070. 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 55 

land for the Chamber of Amsterdam will be mustered 
to-morrow, there is read an articulbrieff [i.e. the 
Provisional Regulations] for the colonists, drawn up 
by Messrs. Albert Coenraets, Samuel Godyn and 
Johannes de Laet (heretofore appointed thereto by the 
Chamber of Amsterdam), which is approved and here- 
by ratified" [i.e. by the Nineteen, or executive body of 
the Company]. Then the text of the "Provisional 
Regulations" follows. Now it is very important to 
observe in this connection the name of the historian 
Joannes de Laet as one of a committee of three charged 
with this business. Moreover, he and his fellow- 
committeemen, Coenrats and Godyn, were identified 
later with patroonships in New Netherland and their 
names were a part of the primitive geographical 
nomenclature of New Netherland. And we see why 
the evidence of De Laet as a primary participant in this 
enterprise, as well as the trusted historian of the 
Company, should not be brought into clash with the 
depositions of Catelina Trico. Again, we here see that 
the "Provisional Regulations" were recorded the day 
preceding the mustering of the colonists. Two days 
after this record, on the 30th, the "Provisional 
Regulations" were read to the colonists, then in readi- 
ness to sail on the ship Nieuw Nederlandt to the coun- 
try in America of the same name. 

The historian Wassenaer, who at Amsterdam had 
access to the records of the Company and contact with 
its adventurers, in part 6 (preface dated June 1, 1G24), 
under his chronological section for February, 1624^ 
states that the Dutch were "intending now to plant a 
colony among the Maickans [Mohicans], a nation 
lying 25 leagues on both sides of the river." This 
relates to the region about Albany. Again in the same 
part 6, he continues: "A ship is fitting out 14 under a 
commission from the West India Company, and 
freighted with families, to plant a colony among this 

"The translation of the tense is not correct in Jameson's Narratives of New Netherland 
and the correction is important. 

56 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

people. But to go forward safely, it is first of all 
necessary that they be placed in a good defensive 
position and well provided with forts and arms, since 
the Spaniard, who claims all the country, will never 
allow any one to gain a possession there. " Remember 
that Wassenaer says this in 1624, and that he promises 
more at length in his next or seventh part of tne annals, 
because " this Book cannot contain it. " 

Now in part 7 of Wassenaer (preface dated Decem- 
ber 1, 1624), his promise of further details is kept. By 
November persons had returned from New Netherland 
to Holland, notably Bastiaen Jansen Krol, the 
krankenbezoeker or visitor of the sick, and the people of 
the yacht Mackreel. From them Wassenaer had 
first hand knowledge of what had been accomplished 
by the expedition. He digresses to discuss man as a 
social animal, living together in peace, in hamlets, etc., 
as applicable to the new situation in New Netherland. 
He says: " And whereas, God be praised, it hath come 
about that the Honorable Messrs. Directors of the 
West India Company, have, with the consent of the 
Noble High and Mighty Lords States General, under- 
taken to plant some colonies, I shall give the paritculars 
of them, as follows: 

"We treated in our preceding discourse of the dis- 
covery of some rivers in Virginia [i.e. New Netherland]; 
the studious reader will learn how affairs proceeded! 
The West India Company being chartered to navigate 
these rivers, did not neglect so to do, but equipped in 
the spring 15 a vessel of 138 lasts, called the Nieu 
Nederlant, whereof Cornells Jacobsz May of Hoorn 
was skipper, with a company of 30 families, mostly 
Walloons, to plant a colony there. They sailed in the 
beginning of March, and directed their course by the 
Canary Islands, steered towards the Wild Coast, and 
gained the west wind which luckily [took] them in the 

ls It is to be remembered that he gives thia under date of April, 1624, in his part 7, the 
preface of which is dated December 1. 1624. It is at this point that so many writers have 
fallen down by assuming the year to be 1023. 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 57 

beginning of May [1624] into the river called, first 
Rio de Montagues, now the River Mauritius [the 
Hudson], lying in 40J/£ degrees. He found a French- 
man lying in the mouth of the river, who would erect 
the arms of the King of France there; but the Hol- 
landers would not permit it, forbidding it by com- 
mission from the Lords States General and the Direc- 
tors of the West India Company; and in order not to* be 
frustrated therein, with the assistance of those of the 
yacht [Mackreel] which had lain above [i.e. trading 
with the Indians during the winter, from December, 
1623, on the upper Hudson, and which had come down 
the river with its cargo in the spring when the river was 
open], they caused a yacht of two guns to be manned, 
and convoyed the Frenchman out of the river, who 
would do the same thing in the South River [Delaware] 
but he was prevented by the settlers there" [i.e. those 
settlers who has been sent ahead to settle on the 
Delaware and whom the Frenchman immediately 
thereafter met to his sorrow]. "This being done 
[i.e. the Frenchman having been gotten rid of from 
New York Harbor], the ship sailed up to the Maykans 
[Mohicans, who at this time had a settlement near 
Albany], 44 leagues, and they built and completed a 
fort named 'Orange,' with four bastions, on an island, 
by them called Castle Island." 16 Wassenaer goes on 
thus: "They forthwith put the spade in the ground 
and began to plant." By the time the yacht Mack- 
reel left them, "the grain was nearly as high as a 
man." Wassenaer hopes this good beginning will be 
"zealously sustained," adding: "For their increase 
and prosperous advancement, it is highly necessary 
that those sent out be first of all well provided with 
means both of support and defence, and that being 
freemen, they be settled on a free tenure." Regard- 
ing their government and superiors, he avers: "'Tis 
better to rule by love and friendship than by force." 

"Here Wassenaer has a geographical error, confusing the deserted older Fort Nassau on 
Castle Island, and putting the new Fort Orange on the island instead of upon the main 
land, the present site of Albany. 

58 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

In part 8 (dated May 20, 1625), Wassenaer, under 
the chronological heading of December, 1624, tells 
what had been learned from Skipper May, of the ship 
Nieuw Nederlant, who had returned to Holland the 
previous month (November, 1624). Here is an ex- 
tract : ' ' As regards the prosperity of New Netherland, 
we learn by the arrival of the ship whereof Jan May 17 
of Hoorn was skipper, that everything there was in 
good condition. The colony began to advance bravely 
and live in friendship with the natives." Here is a 
reference to the "prosperity of New Netherland" 
relative to "the colony," which he had already located 
in his annals at Fort Orange (now Albany). Not a 
word is anywhere found in any of these annals before 
1626, relative to a colony on Manhattan Island. 
Bastiaen Jansen Krol, the lay worker or comforter of 
the sick, returned with Skipper May on the Nieuw 
Nederlant, in November, 1624, and before the Classis 
of Amsterdam interposed for the colonists of Fort 
Orange, whowanted a minister tobaptise their expected 
children, a need of which Krol was aware before he 
sailed with Skipper May for home. Moreover, Krol 
had been seven and a half months with the colonists, 
as he tells in a deposition; and, being what we would 
now call a religious social worker, he certainly had 
unusual opportunities for observation and information. 

Wassenaer, in part 9 (preface dated December 1, 
1625), states under the chronological heading of April, 
1625, that the Directors have been solicitous of "the 
colony . . . near the Maykans" [Mohicans], adding: 
"an extraordinary shipment was sent thither this 
month [April, 1625], to strengthen it with what was 
needful." He refers several times to the colony. 
With this expedition of 1625 he says "forty-five new 
comers of inhabitants are taken out, to remain there," 
among them being "six completely equipped families," 
the others were "single persons." In the so-called 
"VanRappard Documents," published in 1924 by The 

"Here Wassenaer errs in the given name, which was Cornells Jacobsen (not Jan) May. 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 59 

Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, are 
three that fit in here. Document C is the "Instruc- 
tions" to Willem Verhulst, undated but assigned to 
January, 1625, in which he is addressed as " Commis op 
de voyagie naer Nieuw-Nederlant ende by provisie 
directeur van de coloniers die reede daer te lande syn 
ende noch ghebracht sullen worden" {i.e. "supercargo 
on the voyage to New Netherland and, provisionally, 
director of the colonists, as well those that are already 
in the country as those that shall yet be transported 
thither") ; and this provisional appointment was " until 
another government shall be erected there at the 
pleasure of the Company." These "Instructions" 
also show that Verhulst was "to have his usual place 
of residence on the South River, the skippers being 
present there "being joined unto him as councilors, 
with whom" he was charged to "deliberate and act 
upon all matters of importance." This South (Dela- 
ware) River station was Fort Nassau (in present 
Gloucester County, N. J.), which had been established 
the preceding year (1624) by Cornelis Jacobsen May. 
But although instructed to make his headquarters 
there, Verhulst was at the same time directed "also 
from time to time, as ocassion may require, betake 
himself to the North River to regulate matters there, 
leaving there in the North River in his absence Adriaen 
Jorissen Thienpont as vice-director and Daniel van 
Cryeckenbeeck as sub-commissary of trading-goods. 
These, with the skippers present and Franchoys 
Fezardand Johan Lampo" were "to serve as council- 
ors," with whom Verhulst, "when present," was to 
"deliberate and act upon everything as above, but in 
his absence the aforesaid Adriaen Jorissen Thienpont" 
was to "preside." All these directions were provisional, 
subject to the further order of the Company. Another 
of the directions to Verhulst was that he should "have 
Pierre Minuyt 18 as volunteer, and others whom he 

"In the few autographs that are known he always signed himself "Peter Minuit." 
A new fact brought out in these newly-discovered documents is the evidence that Minuit 
came over to New Netherland at this time, serving as a councilor and in other useful 
capacities in the Dutch affairs of New Netherland. 

60 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

deems competent thereto, sail up the river [Hudson] 
as far as they can in any way do so, in order to inspect 
the condition of the land, supplying them with provi- 
sions and arms, as well as with some trading-goods, 
in case they should be able to do some bartering with 
the Indians on their way. " 

Document D of the so-called "Van Rappard Docu- 
ments," dated April 22, 1625, is the "Further Instruc- 
tions" for Verhulst and the council in New Netherland. 
It is signed by Albert Coenraets [i.e. Dr. Albert Coen- 
raetsz Burgh], S. Godin [i.e. Samuel Godin or Godyn], 
and Kiliaen van Rensselaer, all persons afterwards 
numbered in the first grants of patroonships in New 
Netherland. Instruction no. 2 directed as follows: 
"The officers and head-farmers now going over shall as 
soon as with God's help they have arrived in the 
North River, before they discharge any cargo or allow 
any cattle to be landed, summon Willem Verhulst, our 
commissary, or Adriaen Jorissz Thienpont and Daniel 
van Cryeckenbeeck, or those who in the event of their 
decease occupy their places, in order by common 
advice to choose the most suitable places for their 
dwellings, pastures, and cultivated fields, taking care 
that they choose the most suitable, healthful,- and 
largest before others, it being especially advisable that 
the choice were made near the entrance of the river, 
preferably at a spot where some shallows secure it 
against approach, to which end we recommend to them 
in the first place the west side, about where the runners 
pass from the North to the South river, then the hook 
of the Manattes, north of Noten [now Governors] 
Island, or such other spot as upon inspection they may 
find most advantageous, taking care that the place 
chosen is well provided with water and with timber for 
fuel and building, and that the rivers thereabouts are 
full of fish." 

These "Further Instructions" of April 22, 1625, 
then continue, thus : ' ' After the choice has been made 
the Commissary or the person who occupies his place 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 61 

shall, with the advice of the Council, consisting of 
Willem van der Hulst [same as Verhulst], Adriaen 
Jorissz Thienpont, Joost van den Boogaert, Daniel van 
Cryeckenbeeck, Gerrit Fongersz, Pierre Minuyt, Cryn 
Fredericxsz 19 , the skippers who come there from time 
to time, Johan Lampo, colonist, and Franchoys Fezard 
— which persons or such of them as are present we 
appoint general councilors, in order that from among 
them may be chosen councilors required in particular 
places, saving the order made in our previous instruc- 
tions [Document C, undated, but attributed to 
January, 1625] — immediately divide the people in the 
most expedient manner, to the end that each one may 
be in his [proper place and the] work may be done and 
the needs be supplied by the common labor and dili- 
gence of all." 

From the analysis of the above quoted documents we 
get a glimpse of intentions in the minds of the Directors 
of the Company in Amsterdam. The various instruc- 
tions were provisional enough and they were not exe- 
cuted to the letter. 

Under date of July, 1625, Wassenaer tells of the 
arrival of a small ship from New Netherland. It 
brought no news of the arrival of the 1625 expedition. 
This ship and those of the expedition had crossed each 
other in transit. Wassenaer describes the matter, 
thus: "The vessels with the cattle had not yet got 
there; the crops which our colonists had planted, 
looked well, but there was no certain information there- 
of. The next [ship] will bring their owners full infor- 
mation. ' ' 20 So Wassenaer, under the chronological date 
of November, 1625 (in his part 10, preface dated June 
1, 1626), is able to tell that in November, 1625, a ship 
"laden mostly with peltries" had arrived in Holland, 

"Document E of the series is also dated April 22, 1C25, and is the particular instructions 
for the engineer and surveyor Cryn Fredericxsz (or Fredericksen), as well as for the 
Director and the Council, with respect to building fortifications and houses, etc., but 
naming no more definite spot. 

20 A better translation and more pertinent than the "good news" in Jameson's Narra- 
tives of New Netlierland. 

62 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

and he adds: "The cattle carried thither [New 
Netherland] were removed upwards to a convenient 
place abounding with grass and pasture." In his 
part 12 (preface dated June 14, 1627), he makes a 
further statement about this matter, thus: "In our 
preceding discourse mention was made of New 
Netherland and its colony planted by the West 
India Company . . and that some families were 
sent thither out of Holland . . . and afterivards 
[1625] some ships" with horses, cows, and hay, and 
"two months afterwards a fly-boat . . . carrying 
sheeps, hogs, wagons, ploughs and all other implements 
of husbandry." Then he goes right on, as follows: 
"These cattle were, on their arrival, first landed on Nut 
[now Governors] Island . . . where they remained a 
day or two. There being no means of pasturing them 
there, they were shipped in sloops and boats to the 
Manhates, right opposite the said island. Being put 
• out to pasture here, they throve well, but afterwards 
full twenty in all died," supposedly from having eaten 
' ' something bad from an uncultivated soil. " 21 He says 
"they went in the middle of September [1625] to 
meadow grass, as good and as along as could be desired, 
which agrees with what he had stated in part 10, under 
November, 1625, that "The cattle carried thither were 
removed upwards to a convenient place abounding 
with grass and pasture. " 

It is also in part 12 (preface dated June 14, 1627), 
that Wassenaer gives his first statements, as well as the 
fullest known account 22 , of the founding of Minuit's 

"The colonists were not able to get away from Nut (Governors) Island at once, and as 
their cattle could not feed there and the nearest place that seemed promising was across 
on Manhattan, they naturally got them over there, under herders; but the loss of some 
twenty was disastrous and so they were removed. 

^Document F of the so-called "Van Rappard Documents" is an important addition 
to our knowledge of this time. It is a letter from Isaack de Rasiere to the Directors of the 
Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, dated at Fort Amsterdam on Man- 
hattan Island, September 23, 1626. It reveals that De Rasiere came over as provincial 
secretary, sailing from Plymouth on May 29th and arriving at "Fort Amsterdam" on 
July 28th. When he landed Minuit was absent at Fort Orange, where he had gone " to 
inquire into the disaster caused by the reckless adventure of Crieckenbeeck, " who had been 
killed. De Rasiere handed to Minuit his papers when Minuit came down again to Man- 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 63 

settlement of New Amsterdam, and this information 
he records under his chronological date of November, 
1626, the month in which the ship Wapen van Amster- 
dam (Arms of Amsterdam) returned to Amsterdam, 
recording the news of events to September 23, 1626, 
when that ship sailed from Manhattan for Holland. 
Wassenaer clearly presages a new establishment — a 
settlement that has made a beginning. Here are his 
words: "The colony is now established on the Man- 
hates, where a fort has been staked out ... It is 
planned to be of large dimensions." The people were 
living in houses "of the bark of trees, " as we know from 
other sources, mere temporary hovels. These "thirty 
ordinary houses" were "on the east side of the 
river" (Hudson). 

It is also in this part 12 (printed in 1627), that 
Wassenaer has been able to set forth Minuit's plan for 
consolidating the several colonies with his own at New 
Amsterdam. Already he is able to say: "Those of 
the South River will abandon their fort [Fort Nassau], 
and come hither"; and that "at Fort Orange . . . 
no more than fifteen or sixteen men will remain; the 
remainder will come down." Again, in the same 
part, Wassenaer says that in 1626 "There were eight 
families . . . and ten or twelve seamen in the 
Company's service" at Fort Orange, and that "The 
families were to leave there this year — the fort [there] 
to remain garrisoned by sixteen men, without women — 
in order to strengthen with people the colony near the 
Manhates"; and in the same part 12, he tells us that 
the total population of New Netherland, up to Septem- 
ber, 1626, when the Wapen van Amsterdam sailed from 
there, had "now increased to two hundred souls." 

Now, as Wassenaer's parts were written as annals, 

hattan. We also can now understand from this new text that Minuit, who had been in 
New Netherland and had returned to Holland, and had come back in 1626, was upon his 
return to New Netherland "placed in command by the Council, on account of the bad 
conduct of Verhulat." It has hitherto been supposed that he came over in 1626 under 
direct commission as Director General of New Netherland. The De Rasi£re letter casts 
doubt upon that. 

C4 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

sequentially, as he obtained new information, this fact 
must be considered by the historian. In the same part 
12, before it was closed by him (preface dated June 
14, 1627), he was in possession of new data and able to 
amplify parts of that chapter, for example, he still 
mentions the fort as "staked out at the Manhates, " 
but adds that when "completed it is to be named- 
Amsterdam "; and with respect to the fort on the 
Delaware he now says: "The fort at the South River 
is already vacated, in order to strengthen the colony," 
namely the colony is now the concentration which 
Minuit has brought about since his elevation to the 

And, again, in part 12 Wassenaer mentions the 
cargo 23 of the ship Wape?i van Amsterdam, the data 
agreeing mainly with the facts given in Peter Schag- 
hen's letter of November 5, 1626. Adriaen Jorissen 
Tienpont is revealed as the skipper "who went out 
there on the 19th of December of the year 1625 with 
the ship Sea-mew and conveyed Pieter Minuit . . . 
who now sends for his wife thither. The Sea-mew 
arrived there [New Netherland] 4th May, 1626." 
In part 16 (preface dated June 1, 1629), it is said that 
Minuit "went thither from Holland on January 9, 
Anno 1626, and took up his residence in the midst of a 
nation called Manates, building a fort there, to be 
called Amsterdam. " 

The Mohican (Maykans) who went to war against 
the Mohawks in 1626 were assisted by the Dutchman 
Krieckenbeeck, who lost his life in the expedition. 
Minuit, who had his hands full in forming a settlement 
on Manhattan, was obliged to go up to Fort Orange on 
account of the disturbed conditions there in conse- 
quence of the aforesaid affair. His visit to Fort Orange, 
what he learned there, as well as what he knew of the 

n The new De RasiSre letter of September 23, 1C26, is undoubtedly the source, directly 
or indirectly, for the data about the peltries given by both Schaghen and Wassenaer. The 
figures are prolix, so that the calculation of sum totals of furs accredited to the Company, 
apart from those mentioned as of private credit, is subject to disagreement. 

1924.] Founding of New Amsterdam in 1626 65 

feeble conditions of the settlers in general, may explain 
his action before the end of the year in withdrawing all 
families from Fort Orange and Fort Nassau, concen- 
trating them on Manhattan Island. The concentra- 
tion included all persons except certain traders and 
officials. By October, 1628, this concentrated popula- 
tion at Manhattan had come to number "two hundred 
and seventy souls, including men, women and children." 
Wassenaer was able to add : ' ' There are now [October 
1628] no families at Fort Orange . . . They have all 
been brought down. Five or six and twenty persons, 
traders, remain there. Bastian Jansz Crol [Krol] is 
vice-director there; who has remained since the year 
1626, when the others came down. " 

In 1628, there was another war near Fort Orange 
between the Mohawks and Mohicans, when the latter 
were driven out of that region and settled on the 
Connecticut River. Getting rid of these Algonquian 
Indians from the environs of Fort Orange changed 
materially the intercourse of the Dutch with the 
Mohawks and other Iroquoian Indians. 

66 American Antiquarian Society [April, 



TAURING the years in which I was engaged in 
*-* teaching history to college or university classes it 
fell to my lot to listen, more or less involuntarily and 
reluctantly, to a good many addresses or discussions 
about the meaning of history, usually with sidelong 
glances at the particular usefulness of history as a 
primary element of the educational programme. 
Most, if not all, of the persons who talked of the matter 
seemed to be uneasily influenced by some supposed 
necessity of justifying the study of history, especially 
when the subject was required, on ethical grounds, 
either by demonstrating the great moral purposes 
which it was assumed were implicit in the varied 
experience of the human family, or else by showing that 
experience, if rightly interpreted, was profitable for 
correction, reproof and instruction in righteousness for 
the generation that then was and for all the generations 
that were to come. History, we were assured, was to 
be studied not only for information and intellectural 
discipline, but also, and in the case of the young very 
largely, for the something or other of a moral kind 
that was to be obtained from the subject-matter and 
the exercise. Rather curiously, no one of those who 
propounded such views made any point, as far as I now 
recall, of religion as a basis of their argument; indeed, 
I think that I do them no injustice in saying that all of 
them would have looked with suspicion, if not with 
aversion, upon any attempt to emphasize the religious 
motive. The whole tone of the discussions was rather 
an implication that history as such involved ethical 

1924.] Do We Learn from History? 67 

processes, and that both processes and results carried 
practical moral lessons as obvious as they were useful. 

I should not have thought it particularly worth 
while to recall such discussions here if they had been 
confined to the proceedings of teachers' associations. 
They would in that case seem to belong only to the 
category of well-meant and on the whole praiseworthy 
efforts of teachers to justify one of the important 
subjects of the school or college curriculum or to defend 
the arduous and expensive work of historical research. 
One who devotes himself to studying events that have 
passed or to examining the careers of men who are dead 
needs some sustenance for his pains, especially if it is a 
part of his task to communicate his enthusiasm for that- 
kind of inquiry to others; and if the assumption that 
there is in history a moral purpose from which valuable 
lessons are actually being learned can afford such 
sustenance, it would be ungracious to quarrel with 
opinions or their expression. No minute or extensive 
examination of the field of historical scholarship of the 
larger and more learned kind, however, is needed to 
show that the idea of history as a moulding influence in 
the education of the race is not at all confined to pro- 
fessional teachers or to the practical routine of 
pedagogy. Books on the meaning of history, the 
lessons of the past, ethics and economics, spiritual law 
in the material world, and the like, are numerous 
enough to form a considerable literature, and the bulk 
of that literature would be appreciably increased were 
there added the innumerable scattered passages in 
which historians have interrupted for a moment the 
narrative of events in order to comment upon the 
ethical significance of the story, pointing the moral to 
adorn the tale. 

It is the soundness of this contention that I should 
like as a student of history briefly to examine. That 
the study of history, no matter how small the area 
studied may be, adds to the knowledge of what has been 
done or said or thought in the world, and that such 

68 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

knowledge is a highly interesting addition to the 
intellectual equipment of the educated man in any 
age, are assertions which no one, presumably, will deny. 
Some of the greatest conquests of science have been 
won by investigators whose only purpose was to know 
the facts, and who felt neither material nor moral 
urging in the search for them; and the historian, 
though not in all respects a scientist, has the same 
intellectual right to cut loose from the dogging of pur- 
pose and usefulness as he traverses the fields of the past. 
But does mankind actually learn anything of a guiding 
nature from his past? Individually, no doubt, we 
often learn much, and it would appear to be open to 
any one of us to learn as much or as little as he chooses, 
or to pick and select at will from the mass of what 
history offers; but do we learn anything as societies or 
nations? Do we, in our collective capacity, do or 
avoid doing today anything whatever merely or 
chiefly because the same thing, or something very 
closely resembling it, was or was not done by a former 
generation or another people with successful or dis- 
astrous results? Is the experience of the past which 
the historian has made known a recognized influence, 
for either good or bad, in the public policy of any na- 
tion at the present time, or has it been, as far as we 
can see, such an influence at any time? Is it by the 
steps of a dead past that we climb to higher things, all 
the while taking note of the mistakes that former 
generations have made and of the successes that they 
have won, weaving their experiences into our own for 
more intelligent combat or more assured reward? If 
such be the use that we actually make of history, then 
surely is the historian one of the greatest of moral 
teachers, and the lessons of history ought to be magni- 
fied and broadcast for the guidance of each succeeding 
age; but if not, it would seem that attempts to draw 
lessons from the six or seven thousand years of some- 
thing that may be called history may be somewhat 
beside the mark. Professor Remsen, the great chemist, 

1924.] Do We Learn from History? 69 

is said to have remarked on one occasion that he felt it 
to be his proper business in life to investigate the laws 
of matter, not to invent new baking powders; and the 
historian may do well to ask himself whether, in dwell- 
ing upon the usefulness of history as a guide in the 
everyday affairs of nations, he has not confused issues 
that ought to be kept distinct. 

Since striking events, if any, would seem to be the 
ones most likely to impress the national consciousness 
and influence national policy, let us take first some 
illustrations of a striking kind. Political murder, 
dignified as assassination, and judicial killing as a 
penalty for political offenses, have been resorted to 
from the earliest times as devices for ridding the 
community of undesirable citizens. Both procedures 
have often been denounced by moralists as heinous at 
the same time that they have been defended by their 
promoters as necessary, just or inevitable, but while 
they have effectually disposed of the victims they have 
rarely failed to pave the way of the rise to prominence 
of other persons at least equally undesirable, or of the 
increased use of physical force in other directions by 
government, or of the development of plotswhose object 
was revenge; at the same time that the weapon of 
killing has come to be regarded as legitimate in the 
case of persons whose influence in general was notably 
great — witness the assassination of Jaures, the French 
Socialist leader, on the eve of the World War — and 
new growths of hero-worship have arisen to cover with 
glory both the good and the bad. Historically, 
assassination and judicial killing have befogged issues 
rather than cleared them, bringing in their train more 
trouble than they dissipated. It can hardly be said 
that the assassination of Russian grand dukes did any- 
thing for the cause of freedom in Russia; and the whole 
history of the American Civil War and Reconstruction 
is still under the spell of a mythically great Lincoln 
sanctified by pistol shots in Ford's Theatre. Yet with 
a long record of complete futility open to be read, 

70 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

statesmen and commoners were wildly demanding only 
a few years ago that the Kaiser be hanged, Bolshevist 
rulers in Russia were executing their opponents by 
the thousand, and the assassination or attempted as- 
sassination of rulers elsewhere has gone on, always, 
apparently, with an underlying feeling on the part of 
large numbers of people that while such things were 
in a way disagreeable and piously to be regretted, 
involuntary death really solves some problems and the 
victims probably get what they deserve. I take it that 
there are probably some millions of men and women in 
this country who have regretted that the numerous 
reports of the assassination of Lenin were exaggerated, 
and who see nothing but propriety in the death 
penalties adjudged upon Germans by French courts- 
martial in the Ruhr, and I have yet to see any consider- 
able protest either in this country or in England against 
the bombing of defenceless native villages in India by 
British airplanes. The only moral lesson, apparently, 
that history has to teach in these matters is that those 
who go in for this kind of thing would do well to have a 
justifying argument ready for use in order to prevent 
the acts from being classed as vulgar crimes, and that 
the real instigators ought to be powerful enough not to 
be punished if they are known. 

Or take the question of revolution, a question in 
regard to which we in America ought to have clear 
ideas because our own existence as a nation springs 
from revolution. Historically, about all that can be 
said for revolution is that it is justifiable if it succeeds 
and unjustifiable if it fails; in the language of the 
street, it is a great and glorious thing if you can get 
away with it, but a very dismal enterprise if you can 
not; and this is a pretty poor basis for moralizing. I 
doubt if there is any revolution that could properly be 
held up as a model for any oppressed people to follow 
today, nor do I think that any historian would care to 
urge any people to resort to revolution on any recorded 
historical lines as a remedy for their political ills. As a 

1924.] Do We Learn from History? 71 

matter of fact, of course, the law steps in to punish 
anyone who publicly advocates the overthrow of a 
government by force or who actively joins in plans to 
bring such overthrow about, so that even the American 
Revolution, although open to any kind or degree of 
glorification as a fait accompli, cannot possibly be used 
as an inspiration of public conduct now or in the future. 
There cannot be much doubt regarding what would 
happen to a teacher who should seriously advise his 
students that if at any time the government of the 
United States were to become destructive of the ends 
of government which Jefferson set out in the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and should "evince a design to 
reduce them under absolute despotism," it would be 
their right and their duty "to throw off such govern- 
ment and to provide new guards for their future 

Moreover, the enlightened principles in whose behalf 
revolutions are often set on foot do not always carry 
over into the post-revolutionary period. The Ameri- 
can Revolution is a striking illustration in point. 
The Declaration of Independence, the foundation of 
the American state, embodies not only the idea of a 
justifiable revolt against what was somewhat heatedly 
called absolute despotism, but also the more import- 
ant constructive ideas of the equality of men, of life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness as the great ends 
of government, and of government itself as grounded 
in the consent of the governed. Yet when a revised 
Constitution for this revolutionary state came to be 
framed, one of the'most rigid systems of government 
that the modern world has known, a system especially 
designed by the influential propertied classes to curb 
the activities of what John Locke more than a century 
before had felicitously described as "a numerous 
democracy," beyond the possibility of change in its 
legislative and executive departments as a whole at 
any one time no matter what might be the state of 
public opinion, susceptible of change only in part at 

72 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

fixed chronological intervals, and without the require- 
ment of a popular vote on any proposition of amend- 
ment, was fastened upon the country, to be made more 
secure and comprehensive year by year as Congress 
encroached upon powers clearly intended to be re- 
served to the States, as the executive encroached upon 
Congress, and as the Supreme Court upheld the actions 
of both. Today, in the United States, government by 
the consentof the governed existsonly at asecond, third 
or fourth remove from the people themselves; nineteen 
amendments have been added to the Constitution 
without any opportunity of a popular expression re- 
garding any of them, and life, liberty and happiness are 
no better safeguarded than in many other countries 
nor so well safeguarded as in some. Evidently, if one is 
to draw from the history of our national establishment 
lessons that shall hang together, one must choose 
between the Declaration and the Constitution as we 
now have it in practice, since what appears to be 
taught by the one is more or less directly contradicted 
by the other. 

The character and achievements of the founding 
fathers have come in for so much manhandling of late 
that one may hesitate to add anything to the burden 
that historians have laid upon their memory, but I 
nevertheless venture to draw an illustration of which 
the fathers are a part. Recent eviscerations of early 
New England, and particularly of Massachusetts, 
have only confirmed what was, I think, a fairly general 
impression that Puritan intolerance and highhanded- 
ness, however explicable by the conditions from which 
Puritanism sprang or the new-world situations with 
which it sought to deal, bore its natural fruit in a 
certain glorification of force, in intellectual formalism 
and sterility, in provincial satisfaction with a little 
Americanism, and eventually in popular resentment 
and revolt. The Puritan character was doubtless 
rock-ribbed, but it was also hide-bound. If history 
teaches lessons that later generations learn, it would 

1924.] Do We Learn from History? 73 

seem that, with a fairly accurate conception of the 
nature of Puritanism spread broadcast in the schools 
and in literature for some forty years at least, the 
essential spirit of Puritan policy would not now be 
revived. Anyone who thinks so may find food for 
reflection in the recent book by Professor Mecklin of 
Dartmouth College on the Ku Klux Klan. The 
numerical strength of the Klan, Professor Mecklin 
points out, is in the small town and country district 
parts of the United States, the overwhelming majority 
of whose population prides itself on an American 
descent unmixed with recent foreign blood; and it is in 
those areas that some 42 per cent of the total pop- 
ulation is to be found. Here, in regions remote from 
large cities or industrial centres, largely untouched by 
the intellectual or social interests which to most of us 
seem best worth attention, the Klan has built up a 
powerful autocracy of class control, dominating 
business, politics and social life, ruthlessly repressing 
dissent, and gathering strength from an intellectual 
atmosphere which embalms antique theologies in the 
wrappings of fundamentalism and drives from their 
chairs professors in State universities who believe in or 
teach evolution. Substitute for the leaders of the 
Klan the clerical hierarchy of colonial Massachusetts 
or Connecticut, replace the fiery cross or the hooded 
parade with the heresy trial or the public rebuke of 
political or sectarian objectors, and exchange the anti- 
evolutionary discourses of Mr. Bryan and his devoted 
following of Baptist and Methodist preachers for the 
Calvinist sermons of a colonial sabbath or a mid-week 
lecture day, and we have reproduced, to the satis- 
faction and spiritual delight of a region which holds 
some two-fifths of the population of the United States, 
the essential elements of a Puritan spirit which to most 
of us, I fancy, seem least desirable to imitate. If the 
time shall ever come when a popular novelist shall draw 
a picture of the social life of Puritan New England with 
the same skill and power with which the intellectual 

74 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

and social life of the parts of the United States in which 
the Klan thrives has been drawn in "Main Street," 
the populace which takes its history only from the 
pages of the best sellers will find the historical parallel 
tolerably complete. 

The period since 1914 abounds in illustrations of the 
way in which peoples and rulers disregard what, to the 
historian, must often seem to be the obvious lessons of 
experience. President Wilson's plea for a peace with- 
out victory, the phrase torn from its context and dis- 
torted into a plea for tenderness with the enemy 
Powers, was a historical generalization whose sound- 
ness has for more than five years been in process of 
demonstration, and the end is not yet. There will be, 
I take it, no denial that the systematic cultivation of 
hate, the magnification of acts of harshness or cruelty, 
the violation of the rights of non-combatants whether 
individuals or neutrals, the wanton devastation of 
territory or waste of private property, the imposition 
of excessive punitive damages, the establishment of 
oppressive systems of alien control, the disregard of 
minority rights or aspirations, or the attempt to check 
the natural economic development of nations large or 
small, have been abundantly shown historically, 
wherever they have appeared, to be the sure promoters 
of revenge, evasion, fraud or war; yet the clear histori- 
cal record has not prevented one or another of the 
Powers that were involved in the World War from 
doing or attempting, singly or in various combina- 
tions, all of these things on a large and drastic scale, 
and with some, at least, of the results that were to be 
foreseen. Perhaps there has never been so large and 
perverse an exhibition of contempt for the experience 
of the race as was exhibited for four or five years by the 
Allied and Associated Powers on the one hand and the 
Central Powers on the other. 

And what shall be said of the period which, almost in 
irony it would seem, is commonly referred to as "the 
peace"? What can we say about the teachings of 

1924.] Do We Learn from History? 75 

history in the face of the deliberate bankruptcy of 
Germany, the ail-but bankruptcy of France and 
Poland, the serious talk about inflating the currency in 
Great Britain, the erection of economic barriers along 
four thousand miles of new frontiers in Europe when 
the revival of trade was urgent, or the scheming and 
recrimination which the questions of reparations and 
war debts have produced? Why, after all that we 
have seen of the horror and costlinessof war, are most of 
the great Powers, including the United States, and 
some of the small ones pressing hard for greater arma- 
ments, encouraging scientists to perfect still more 
deadly instruments of destruction, meantime talking 
unctuously about disarmament and peace? In France, 
more than one influential newspaper has pointed out 
that the use of force in the effort to extort reparation 
payments from Germany is a direct encouragement to 
Germany to use force to resist, yet it does not appear 
that the French Government and its supporters are 
disposed to abandon a policy which is widely regarded 
both within and without France as wrong in principle. 
This is the darker side, the side of failure not from 
ignorance but from disregard. There is another side, 
less conclusive than one might wish, but at least more 
agreeable, and less in need of elaboration because its 
features are on the whole well enough known. The 
world has practically abandoned slavery, rightly judg- 
ing it after long experience to have been inhuman and 
unprofitable, and the few vestiges of the system that 
remain seem destined soon to disappear. The attempt 
to conduct government upon any other basis than that 
of practically universal male suffrage has for the most 
part been given up where the white race alone is con- 
cerned, and the extension of the suffrage to women 
has made substantial progress. The right of the whole 
people, irrespective of race or color, to education of 
various grades is very generally conceded, notwith- 
standing wide differences of thoroughness in the 
application and much covert denial of the right in 

76 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

particular localities. The right of private property 
is no longer to be asserted in all cases against 
society, and private right in certain kinds of property 
is increasingly denied where it has not disappeared alto- 
gether. The attempt to prevent wage-earners from 
organizing in behalf of their rights or for the improve-, 
ment of their condition has been generally abandoned, 
notwithstanding the continuance of attempts to belittle 
such organizations or impede their activities. If war 
has not yet ceased to be a thing in which any people 
can rather easily be induced to engage, opposition to 
war among all classes is certainly more widespread than 
formerly and denunciation of its evils is more readily 
tolerated, at the same time that the arbitration of inter- 
national disputes susceptible of dissociation from 
national honor seems on the whole to be making its 
way. It would be superfluous to cite the numerous 
scientific matters which represent improvement upon 
the past, the conscious search for business methods 
more efficient than those which former generations 
employed, or the substantial acceptance of the lessons 
of experience in health and disease. 

Neither of these two groups of illustrations, nor yet a 
comparison of one with the other, leads to entirely 
precise conclusions. Taking the facts or tendencies 
last mentioned, it would appear that social progress is 
not a meaningless phrase, and that progress follows in 
part from a more or less conscious effort to apply 
the lessons of historical experience. The direct con- 
nection between progress and history, however, is 
clouded by the considerable volume of speculation that 
is constantly being put forth about ideal states of 
society, the still very imperfect application of any of 
the newer practices whose principles have been 
elaborated, and the readiness with which institutions 
apparently upon the point of establishment are thrown 
to the winds under the pressure of bigotry or frenzy or 
temporary enthusiasm. The World War, it will be 
remembered, burst upon the nations at a moment when 

1924.] Do We Learn from History? 77 

disarmament, international arbitration and the devel- 
opment of administrative or consultative organizations 
of international scope had for twenty years been 
actively discussed and hopefully tried. 

From the many instances of apparent disregard for 
history the inference is more definite. What we 
commonly think of as the teachings of history are at 
best of a large and general kind, easily accepted in their 
sweep but as easily disregarded in concrete circum- 
stances. The world has witnessed many revolutions, 
some of which have succeeded and some of which have 
failed, but we have not learned from their history how 
to make a revolution or whether, indeed, a revolution 
is the only remedy to adopt. There is abundant 
experience to show that inflation of the currency en- 
tails economic trouble and may bring bankruptcy, but 
no nation appears to have been deterred from in- 
flating its currency if it cared to take the chances which 
inflation involved. There is hardly a nation in the 
world that has not on occasion taken a gambler's 
chance, hoping to win where others have failed or at 
least to keep its losses at a minimum. 

For this there are, I think, two primary reasons. 
The first is the fact that no two sets of historical cir- 
cumstances are ever exactly alike. Just as a court, 
confronted with an imposing list of judicial precedents 
which counsel insist are exactly applicable to the case, 
nevertheless often finds that the precise circumstances 
of the case have never arisen before and that the pre- 
cedents are not wholly binding, so nations, notwith- 
standing a long record of experience with what on the 
surface appear to besimilarmatters,have little difficulty 
in perceiving in the circumstances, colored as they are 
likely to be by ambition or fear, something unique 
which may be dealt with at discretion. The second 
reason is that peoples do not, save perhaps in rare 
instances, generalize their experiences. Their attitude 
towards history is much like that of a child regarding 
the landscape which unfolds from a car window: its 

78 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

untrained and immature eyes do not connect with the 
beauty or sweep of plain or mountain or wood, at the 
same time that they fasten unerringly upon an 
isolated cow or automobile. The fault is not with the 
historian, but with the immaturity of the community 
and the irrational forces that form its moral judgments. 
We might learn from history if we would, but we do 
not. The wise course for the historian is to go on with 
his researches, verifying and ordering the truth of what 
has been and spreading abroad the results of his study 
for the information and enlightenment of whomso- 
ever will attend; but he will court disappointment and 
waste his time if he thinks that knowledge of the road 
which has been travelled will exercise much control 
over public councils, restrain popular impulse, or pre- 
vent the wisest nation in the world from choosing the 
worse rather than the better part. If the acceptance 
of this necessity should help to lift history out of the 
hazy domain of ethics and give it more the character 
of science, it would, I think, better the position of 
history everywhere. 

1924.] Rhode Island 79 




The following bibliography attempts, first, to present a 
historical sketch of every newspaper printed in the United 
States from 1690 to 1820; secondly, to locate all files found in 
the various libraries of the country; and thirdly, to give a 
complete check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society. 

The historical sketch of each paper gives the title, the date 
of establishment, the name of the editor or publisher, the fre- 
quency of issue and the date of discontinuance. It also 
attempts to give the exact date of issue when a change in title 
or name of publisher or frequency of publication occurs. 

In locating files to be found in various libraries, no at- 
tempt is made to list every issue. In the case of common 
papers which are to be found in many libraries, only the longer 
files are noted, with a description of their completeness. Rare 
newspapers, which are known by only a few scattered issues, 
are minutely listed. 

The check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society follows the style of the Library of Con- 
gress "Check List of Eighteenth Century Newspapers," and 
records all supplements, missing issues and mutilations. 

The arrangement is alphabetical by States and towns. 
Towns are placed according to their present State location. 
For convenience of alphabetization, the initial "The" in the 
titles of papers is disregarded. Papers are considered to be of 

80 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

except in the names of the libraries where files are located, and 
these should be easily understood. A superior italic "m" is 
used in the listing of the Society's files to signify mutilated 
copy. The bibliography includes only newspapers, and does 
not list magazines; the distinction has sometimes been difficult 
to draw, but the test has generally been the inclusion of current 
news. Neither in the historical sketches nor in the listing of" 
files is any account taken of the existence of the paper after 

All files, except in a few instances, have been personally 
examined by the compiler of this list, and the facts stated have 
been drawn from an inspection of the papers themselves and 
not based on secondary authorities. 

The bibliography will be published in the Proceedings in 
about seventeen installments, after which the material will be 
gathered into a volume, with an historical introduction, ac- 
knowledgment of assistance rendered, and a comprehensive 
index of titles and names of printers. Reprints of each in- 
stallment will not be made, nor will the names of papers or 
printers be indexed in the Proceedings. The compiler will 
welcome additions and corrections. 

1924.1 Rhode Island 81 


[Bristol] Mount Hope Eagle, 1807-1808. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 10, 1807, with the title of 
"The Mount Hope Eagle, " printed for the Proprietors by- 
Charles W. Duhy. In March, 1807, Duhy retired, and the 
paper was printed for the Proprietors by Golden Dearth. 
With the issue of Sept. 10, 1808, Erastus Sterry was taken 
into partnership, the publishers being Dearth & Sterry. 
The last issue located is that of Oct. 8, 1808, vol. 2, no. 40. 
Munro's "History of Bristol," p. 381, says that David 
A. Leonard was the editor. 

Harvard has Feb. 21, Mar. 28, Apr. 4, May 23, June 20, 
July 3, 25, Aug. 15, Sept. 5, 19, 26, Oct. 31, Nov. 14, 
Dec. 12, 1807; Sept. 24, Oct. 8, 1808. R. I. Hist. Soc. has 
Aug. 22, Sept. 12, 1807; Oct. 1, 1808. Lib. Congress has 
Sept. 5, 1807. A. A. S. has: 

1807. Jan. 10, 17,31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Mar. 28. 

Apr. 18. 
May 16, 30. 
June 20, 27 m . 
July 3, 11, 18 m . 
Aug. 1,8,29. 
Sept. 19. 
Oct. 3, 10. 
Nov. 14. 
Dec. 19. 

1808. Jan. 30. 
Feb. 27. 
Mar. 19. 
June 18. 
Aug. 20. 

[Chepatchet] Scourge, 1811. 

The issue of Dec. 4, 1811, vol. 1, no. 3, was published by 
"Frank Flog'em" under the title of "The Scourge." 

82 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Apparently this was the first issue since the publication 
of vol. 1, no. 2 at Providence on Aug. 25, 1810, and the 
preface of the Chepatchet issue explains why it was pub- 
lished and accounts for its "long silence." It was an 
anonymous, virulent anti-Republican sheet, of quarto 
size, aimed especially against Jeremiah B. Howell, Sena-^ 
tor in Congress. Although it bore the name of Chepatchet " 
in the imprint the paper was probably printed in Provi- 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 4, 1811. 

[Newport] Companion, 1798-1799. 

Weekly. Established May 2, 1798, by Havila and 
Oliver Farnsworth, with the title of "The Companion; 
and Commercial Centinel." With the issue of Sept. 15, 

1798, the title was changed to "Weekly Companion; and 
the Commercial Centinel." With the issue of Apr. G, 

1799, the partnership was dissolved, and the paper was 
published by Oliver Farnsworth. The last issue located 
is that of June 15, 1799, vol. 2, no. 8. 

G. L. Shepley Coll. has Dec. 15, 1798- Apr. 13, 1799. 
R. I. Hist. Soc. has May 2, 9, 16, 1798; June 15, 1799. 
Harvard has May 9, 16, 1798. A. A. S. has : 

1798. May 2 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: July 14, Aug. 18, Sept. 22, 29, 
Oct. 6, Nov. 10, 17, Dec. 15, 22, 29. 

1799. Jan. 12, 19, 26. 
Feb. 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 2, 9, 16, 30. 
Apr. 13. 

Newport Gazette, 1777-1778. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 16, 1777, by John Howe, 
with the title of " The Newport Gazette. " The last issue 
located is that of Oct. 6, 1779, vol. 3, no. 139, which must 
have been nearly the last number, as the British evacuated 
Newport, Oct. 25, 1779. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Jan. 16, Mar. 6 -May 15, 29- 
June 12, 26, July 3, 17-Sept. 25, Oct. 16-Nov. 6, 

1924.] Rhode Island 83 

20, 27, Dec. 11-26, 1777; Jan. 1, 8, 22 -May 28, June 
25, Oct. 22, 29, 1778; Mar. 25, July 1-Oct. 6, 1779. 
Redwood Lib. has Jan. 1, 1777-Jan. 15, 1778; Mar. 12, 
Apr. 22, 1778. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Jan. 30- Feb. 6, 
Mar. 27-Apr. 24, 1777. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 13, 
20, 1777. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1, 1778. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has Aug. 27, Sept. 10, Nov. 19, 1778. Newport 
Hist. Soc. has Oct. 22, 1778. R. I. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 19, 
1778. This paper has partially been reproduced by photo- 
stat, which set is in many large libraries. 

[Newport] Gazette Francaise, 1780-1781. 

No copy of this paper has been located. The only 
reference to it is in the "American Journal" of Dec. 23, 
1780, where the following advertisement was printed: 
"Subscriptions for the French Gazette, printed at New- 
port, are taken in by the Printer hereof, at Half a Dollar 
per Month." The advertisement was also printed in 
French, when the newspaper is called "la Gazette Fran- 
chise." The French remained at Newport from July 11, 
1780 to June 10, 1781, and there maintained a press, which 
was called "LTmprimerie Royale de l'Escadre." 

[Newport] Guardian of Liberty, 1800-1801. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 3, 1800, by Oliver Farns- 
worth, with the title of "The Guardian of Liberty." It 
was continued under this title until Sept. 26, 1801, vol. 1, 
no. 52, when the title was changed to "Rhode-Island 
Republican, " which see. 

Newport Hist. Soc. has Oct. 3, 1800 -Sept. 26, 1801. 
R. I. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 24-Nov. 22, Dec. 6-27, 1800; 
Jan. 3 -Sept. 26, 1801. Harvard has Dec. 30, 1800; Jan. 
3, 17, 24, Apr. 18, May 16, June 6, 20, 27, July 11 -Aug. 8, 
29-Sept. 19, 1801. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Oct. 3, 1800, 
May 9, Aug. 1, 22, 1801. Lib. Congress has Dec. 13, 
1800; Feb. 6, Mar. 7, June 6, 13, July 11, 1801. A. A. S. 

1800. Oct. 3 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Oct. 24. 

Missing: Oct. 3, 10, 17, Nov. 22, 29, Dec. 27. 

84 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

1801. Jan. 3 to Sept. 26. 

Mutilated : Apr. 11, Aug. 29. 
Missing: Feb. 14, 28, May 2, Aug. 22, 
Sept. 5, 12, 26. 

Newport Herald, 1787-1791. " 

Weekly. Established Mar. 1, 1787, by Peter Edes, 
with the title of "Newport Herald," changed to "The 
Newport Herald " with the issue of Mar. 22, 1787. It was 
so continued to the date of the last issue located, that of 
Sept. 17, 1791, vol. 5, no. 237. 

Yale has Mar. 1, 1787-Sept. 17, 1791. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 1, 1787-Dec. 10, 1789; 
Jan. 7 -Dec. 23, 1790, fair; Jan. 27, Feb. 10, 17, Mar. 5, 
Apr. 23, June 18, Aug. 13, 1791. 

Redwood Lib. has Mar. 1, 1787-June 10, 1790; 
July 8-Aug. 26, Oct. 14, 21, Nov. 4, 25, Dec. 2, 16-30, 
1790; Jan. 6-27, Feb. 10-24, Apr. 16-30, May 14, 21, 
June 4, 18, July 23- Aug. 13, 1791. 

Newport Hist. Soc. has Mar. 1, 1787-Dec. 30, 1790. 

Shepley Coll. has Mar. 1, 1787-Dec. 25, 1788; Jan. 1, 
1789-Dec. 16, 1790, fair; May 14, Aug. 6, 1791. 

Conn. Hist. Soc. has May 1787 -Nov. 1789. 

Univ. of Mich, has Aug. 2 -Dec. 6, 1787, scattering; 
Jan. 3, Aug. 28 -Dec. 11, 1788, scattering; Apr. 23, May 
21, 1789; Apr. 1, July 1, 15, Aug. 5, 12, Nov. 18, 1790; 
Jan. 27, 1791. 

Lib. Congress has Mar. 22, 1787-Nov. 18, 1790, scat- 
tering file. 

N. Y. State Lib. has July 31, 1788; Oct.-Dec. 1789; 
Apr. 8, May 13, Dec. 16, 1790. 

J. Carter Brown Lib. has June 3, July 8-Aug. 12, 1790. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 13, 1788; Sept. 3, 1791. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 15, 1789; Aug. 19, Sept. 23, 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has May 7, 1789. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Sept. 9, 1790. 

Harvard has June 25, 1791. 

1924.] Rhode Island 85 

A. A. S. has: 

1787. Mar. 1 to Dec. 27. 

1788. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: June 26, Sept. 18. 
Missing: June 12. 

1789. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Apr. 2, Oct. 22. 

Missing: June 11, 18, Sept. 17, Dec. 17. 

1790. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Sept. 2. 

1791. Jan. 6 to Sept. 17. 

Mutilated: June 18. 

Missing: Mar. 12,26, June 4, July9, Sept. 17. 

Newport Mercury, 1758- 1820 +. 

Weekly. Established June 19, 1758, by James Franklin, 
with the title of "The Newport Mercury, or, the Weekly 
Advertiser. " At some time between Jan. 23 and Mar. 20, 
1759, the title was shortened to "The Newport Mercury. " 
James Franklin died Apr. 21, 1762, after which the paper 
was published by his mother, Ann Franklin. With the 
issue of Aug. 17, 1762, Mrs. Franklin took Samuel Hall 
into partnership under the firm name of A. Franklin and 
S. Hall. Ann Franklin died Apr. 19, 1763, and with the 
issue of Apr. 25, 1763, the paper was printed by Samuel 
Hall. On Mar. 28, 1768, Hall retired and was succeeded 
by Solomon South wick. In November 1775 South wick, 
on account of the threatened British attack upon Newport, 
removed part of his materials from his office, and brought 
out his paper in reduced size. The issue of Nov. 6, 1775, 
was entitled "An Occasional Paper," and those of Nov. 
13, 20 and 27, 1775 "Freshest Advices. " With the issue 
of Dec. 4, 1775, the title of "The Newport Mercury" was 
resumed. The paper was suspended with the issue of 
Dec. 2, 1776 (no. 954 so numbered instead of 955), and six 
days later the British occupied Newport. 

Southwick buried his press and types (see Mercury, 
June 12, 1858) and fled to Rehoboth, Mass., where he ob- 
tained John Waterman's press and soon began printing 

86 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

some of the Rhode Island Laws. In the spring of 1777, he 
removed to Attleborough, where he continued printing 
until November 1778, when he removed to Providence and 
formed a partnership with Bennett Wheeler. Here he 
remained uhtil the British evacuated Newport, Oct. 25, 
1779, when he returned to Newport to aid in the re- 
establishment of the Newport Mercury. 

The first issue of "The Newport Mercury" after its 
suspension was that of Jan. 5, 1780, no. 955. Henry 
Barber became the publisher and editorially stated "The 
Newport Mercury having been discontinued ever since 
Monday the second of December, 1776, because it was 
determined, by its former publisher, it should die, or be 
free." All the issues from 1780 to 1785 have the imprint 
of Henry Barber. With the issue of May 7, 1785, Solo- 
mon Southwick became a partner, the firm name being 
Southwick & Barber. With the issue of Jan. 8, 1787, 
Solomon Southwick became sole publisher. Because of 
sickness and lack of paper, Southwick suspended publica- 
tion from Nov. 8, 1787 to Dec. 22, 1787, and in the issue of 
Dec. 22, no. 1360, stated that he hoped the newspaper would 
be "revived again on a full sheet in January, and carried 
on with Spirit, by himself or some other Person." The 
next issue located, that of Jan. 28, 1788, no. 1364, was 
published by Henry Barber, who then continued as sole 
publisher. With the issue of Jan. 7, 1800, the title was 
changed from "The Newport Mercury" to "Newport 
Mercury." Henry Barber died Sept. 11, 1800, and with 
the issue of Sept. 16, 1800, the paper was published for Ann 
Barber, his widow. With the issue of Aug. 19, 1809, a 
"new arrangement" was made and the publishers became 
L[ewis] Rousmaniere & Wm. Barber. With the issue 
of Nov. 22, 1817, Rousmaniere withdrew and the pub- 
lishers became Wm. & J[ohnl H. Barber, who continued 
the paper until after 1820. 

Redwood Lib. has Dec. 5, 26, 1758; Jan 23, Mar. 20, 
Apr. 10, 17, May 8, 22, June 5, 26, July 3, Aug. 14, Oct. 9, 
23, Nov. 20, Dec. 4, 1759; Jan. 1, June 10, Dec. 15, 1760; 
Mar. 16, 23, May 11, Aug. 24, 1762; Feb. 14, 1763; Jan. 

1924.] Rhode Island 87 

23, 30, Oct. 1, 15, Nov. 19, 1764; May 13, 1765; Mar. 24, 
Apr. 7, 14, 28-May 12, June 2, Oct. 6, 1766; Mar. 30, 
May 11, Sept. 28, Dec. 21, 1767; Mar. 7, Nov. 28, 1768; 
Aug. 21, 1769; Jan. 1-Feb. 5, 26, Mar. 5, 19, Apr. 2, 23, 30, 
May 14, 28 -June 18, July 9, 23, Aug. 13, 20, Sept. 17, 
Oct. 1, 8, 29, 1770; June 24, Sept. 2, Nov. 11, Dec. 9, 1771 ; 
Apr. 20, 27, May 18, July 13, Aug. 3-17, Sept. 21 -Oct. 12, 
1772; Jan. 4, 1773-Dec. 26, 1774; Jan. 2-Oct. 30, 1775, 
fair; Mar. 25, Apr. 8, 29, May 13, June 3, 10, Aug. 19, 
Sept. 23, Oct. 7, 21, Nov. 4, 11, 1776; July 22, Dec. 14, 
1780; Jan. 13-27, Feb. 17, Mar. 3, Apr. 14, 1781-Dec. 21, 
1782; Jan. 4, 11, 25, May 24, June 21, July 5, 12, Aug. 23, 
30, Sept. 13, 20, Oct. 11, Nov. 1, 1783; Jan. 3, Mar. 13- 
Dec. 25, 1784; Jan. 1, Mar. 5, Apr. 2, 1785 -July 23, 1787, 
fair; Sept. 17, 1787; Jan. 28- Apr. 28, Sept. 29, Oct. 13, 
1788; Mar. 9-Dec. 30, 1789; Jan. 6, Mar. 8, June 21, 28, 
1790; Jan. 26, July 2, 9, 23, 30, Aug. 20, Oct. 1, 22, Dec. 
3, 1791; July 2, Sept. 17, Dec. 24, 1792; Jan. 14, July 2, 
Oct. 1, Dec. 3, 1793; Jan. 7-May 6, Nov. 4-Dec. 23, 1794; 
Jan. 6, 1795 -Dec. 30, 1820. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has June 19, 1758; July 3, 1759; Dec. 

15, 1760; May 19, 1761; Apr. 18, 1768-Mar. 26, 1769, 
fair; Apr. 20, 1772-Dec. 13, 1773; June 6-Dec. 19, 
1774, fair; Apr. 10, 17, June 12, July 10, Oct. 16, Dec. 

18, 1775; Apr. 22, 1776; Nov. 17, 1781; June 29, July 13, 
Aug. 3, Sept. 7-28, Oct. 26, Nov. 9, 1782; June 14 -Dec. 
13, 1783, fair; Jan. 31, Feb. 7, 21, Mar. 20, May 22, 29, 
1784; Sept. 18, 1786; Dec. 22, 1787; Apr. 13, 20, July 22, 
1789; Oct. 22, Nov. 19, Dec. 17, 1792; Jan. 7-28, Apr. 1- 

16, 30, May 7, 21,28, 1793; Feb. 25, Apr. 8, May 6, 13, 
June 17, 24, Nov. 4, 1794; Jan. 13-Dec. 29, 1795, fair; 
Jan. 12, 1796-Dec. 31, 1799; Jan. 7, Mar. 11, Sept. 30, 
Oct. 14-Nov. 4, 18, Dec. 2, 16, 30, 1800; Jan. 6, Dec. 29, 
1801; Jan. 11, 1803-Dec. 30, 1820. 

Newport Hist. Soc. has Jan. 16, 1759; May 25, Aug. 24, 
1762; June 18-July 2, 1764; Sept. 22, 1766; Apr. 17, 
May 1, June 26, July 17 -Dec. 18, 1769; Jan. 22, 29, Feb. 

19, Mar. 26, Sept. 17, Oct. 29, 1770; May 20, 27, June 17, 
Aug. 5-Oct. 28, Dec. 2, 1771; Nov. 30, 1772; May 3, 

88 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Oct. 11, 1773; Jan. 10-31, Mar. 7, 1774-Dec. 25, 1775; 
Jan. 22, Feb. 5, Apr. 15- June 3, 1776; June 24, July 15, 22, 
Aug. 12, 19, Sept. 9, Oct. 9, 1780; Mar. 24, Apr. 28, June 
2-July 14, Aug. 18, 25, Sept. 8, 22, Oct. 20- Nov. 3, 17, 
Dec. 15, 1781; Jan. 5, 19, Feb. 9, Mar. 2- June 15, July 13, 
Aug. 24, Sept. 14, 1782; Apr. 5, 19, June 28, July 12, Nov. 
22, 29, June 28, 1783; May 14, 28, Sept. 17, Oct. 15, 1785;' 
Jan. 30, Feb. 17, Mar. 27, Apr. 17, May 8, 29, June 5, Aug. 
21,28, Dec. 4, 1786; Feb.5,1787; Feb. 2-Sept. 2, 1789,fair; 
Oct. 21, Nov. 18, 1789; Jan. 6, 20, 27, Feb. 15, Mar. 1, 15, 
May 1, 8, June 28- July 19, Sept. 6, Oct. 25, Dec. 13, 1790; 
Mar. 24, June 25, Oct. 8, Dec. 31, 1791; Mar. 3, Apr. 30, 
May 21, June 25, July 9, Oct. 15, Nov. 12, 1792; Jan. 14- 

28, Mar. 11-Dec. 31, 1793; Mar. 18, Apr. 1, 8, May 6, 13, 
June 24, July 22 -Aug. 5, Sept. 2, 16, 23, Oct. 21, 28, 
Nov. 18, Dec. 23, 30, 1794; Jan. 6, 1795-July 19, 1790; 
Aug. 23, Sept. 13-27, Oct. 18, Nov. 8, Dec. 6, 27, 1796; 
Jan. 3, 1797-Dec. 18, 1798; Jan. 15, 1799-Nov. 24, 1801, 
fair; Jan. 5, 1802-Dec. 31, 1814; Jan. 28-Dec. 30, 1815, 
fair; Jan. 6, 1816- Dec. 30, 1820. 

Lib. Congress has Aug. 10- Dec. 27, 1762; Jan. 3, 1763- 
Mar. 21, 1768; Aug. 3, 1772; Aug. 22, Sept. 12, Oct. 3, 
Nov. 7, 1774; July 3, 24, Aug. 14, Sept. 4, 1775; Nov. 3, 
1781; June 29, 1782; Dec. 6, 1783; Feb. 7, 1784; Apr. 6, 
1789; Feb. 18, June 25-Dec. 31, 1793; Jan. 7, 1794-Dec. 

29, 1795, fair; Jan. 5, 1796-Dec. 30, 1820, good. 
Newport Mercury Office has Sept. 2, 1780; June 16, 

1781; June 15, 1782-Dec. 4, 1786; Jan. 7-Nov. 26, 1792; 
Feb. 4, 1793-Jan. 5, 1796; Jan. 10, 1797-Dec. 30, 1800; 
Jan. 19, 1805-Dec. 27, 1806; Jan. 7, 1809-Dec. 25, 1819. 

Brown Univ. Lib. has Aug. 17, 24, Sept. 7 -Oct. 12, 
1782; June 9, 1788; May 12, 1791 -May 27, 1794; July 2, 
9, 30, Aug. 6, 20, Oct. 8, Nov. 5, Dec. 3, 1793; Apr. 26, 
1796; Jan. 5, 1811 -Dec. 31, 1814. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has July 18, 1763; Mar. 19, June 11, 
1764; July 4, Nov. 14, 1768; Jan. 23, Feb. 6, 1769; Feb. 
25, Mar. 4, 6, Sept. 9, 1771; Sept. 14,1772; Jan. 11, Aug. 8, 
Dec. 7, 1773; Apr. 25, May 16, 1774; Jan. 30, Mar. 20, 
1775; Mar. 18, June 6, 20, July 22, Aug. 5, Sept. 30, 

1924.] Rhode Island 89 

Oct. 11, Nov. 22, 25, Dec. 2, 1776; Jan. 5, Apr. 5, Aug. 12, 
Sept. 25, Nov. 23, 1780; Feb. 24, Mar. 17, Apr. 21, Sept. 
22, Oct. 27, 1781; Jan. 5, 12, Feb. 9-23, Mar. 9-23, June 
15, July 6, 20, Aug. 3, 30, Sept. 7, 21, 28, 1782; Nov. 29, 
1783; Jan 3, Feb. 21, Apr. 17, May 15, July 31, Oct. 30, 
1784; Jan. 1, Mar. 26, Apr. 2, Aug. 20, 1785; Jan. 30, 1786; 
Apr. 28, 1788; Dec. 31, 1791; Mar. 24, 1795; Dec. 12, 1812. 

Yale has Jan. 7, 1765 -Dec. 29, 1766; May 29, 1775; 
July 9, 1785; Nov. 19, 1792; Jan. 21, 1800-Dec. 22, 1801. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Nov. 3, 1761 ; Apr. 2, 1764; Aug. 14, 
1769; June 13, Oct. 24, 1774; Mar. 15, 1775; May 14, 1793; 
Feb. 9-Mar. 1, 15, 29, May 10-24, June 7, 14, July 5, 12, 
26, Aug. 9, Dec. 6, 13, 1796; Jan. 31 -Feb. 28, Mar. 28- 
Apr. 11, May 2, 16, June 27, July 4, 18, Aug. 1, Sept. 5, 
19, Oct. 24, Nov. 7-21, 1797; Feb. 13, Mar. 13, Apr. 3, 
June 19, July 3, 17, Sept. 25, 1798; Feb. 26, Apr. 16, 
Dec. 3, 1799; Jan. 3, 1807; Sept. 16, 1809; Sept. 26, 1818. 

British Museum has June 6, 1763; June 6, 1768; July 9, 
1770; Sept. 2, Nov. 18, 1771; Jan. 6, 1772; Jan. 11, 1773; 
July 5, 1773 -Dec. 19, 1774, fair; Jan. 2, 9, 23, Feb. 20, 
Mar. 20, Apr. 10, May 1-15, July 10, Aug. 28, Oct. 16, 
Dec. 11, 1775; Feb. 5, 19, Mar. 25, May 29, Sept. 30, 
1776; Mar. 22, 1783. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 19, 1785; Apr. 2, 1785 -Dec. 
21, 1786; Jan. 22-Nov. 8, 1787, fair; Mar. 25, 1793; Nov. 
17, 1795; Aug. 1, 1797; Mar. 6, 1798; Dec. 28, 1802; Feb. 
21, June 13, 1807; July 29, 1809; June 8, 1811; Mar. 20, 
1813; Mar. 6, 1819. 

Univ. of Mich, has Aug. 15, 1774; June 20, 1776; 1791- 
1799, scattering issues; 1801-1804, scattering file; Jan. 5, 
1805 -Dec. 29, 1810, fair; 1811-1813, scattering issues; 
Jan. 1, 1814-Oct. 31, 1818, scattering file; June 17, July 
29, Sept. 16, 1820. 

Harvard has June 11-25, 1791; July 16, 1792; Jan. 27, 
1795 -Nov. 12, 1808, scattering file. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has June 23, 1761; Apr. 26,1773; 
Aug. 7, Sept. 25, 1775. 

N. Y. State Lib. has Apr. 5 -Oct. 25, 1806; Mar. 7- 
Dec. 19, 1807, and a few later scattering issues. 

90 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Aug. 12, Oct. 28, suppl., Nov. 11, 
1765; Sept. 24, 1793; Mar. 15, Apr. 5, 19, July 19, Aug. 16, 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 16, 1767; Dec. 12, 1818. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Apr. 9, 1785. 

There is a photostat reproduction of this paper from 
1758 to 1782, which is to be found at the J. Carter Brown 
Lib., R. I. Hist. Soc, Amer. Antiq. Soc, Mass. Hist. Soc, 
Harvard, N. Y. Pub. Lib., Lib. Congress, Univ. of 111., 
and Univ. of Mich. 

A. A. S. has: 


Dec. 19. 


Jan. 23. 


Oct. 27 m . 


May 18. 

June 1, 22. 


June 13 m . 


Sept. 18. 

Dec. 11, 25™. 


Mar. 14 TO . 


May 18. 


Feb. l m , 15, 22. 

Mar. 8. 

Apr. 12, 19. 

May 10. 

June 21 TO , 28. 

July 5, 12, 19, 26 m . 

Aug. 16. 

Nov. 1, 15. 


Jan. 3, 10- 17, 24, 31 

Mar. 7 m , 14 m . 

Apr. 25. 

May 9 m , 30. 

June 6, 13, 20 m , 27. 

July 18, 25 m . 

Aug. 15, 22, 29 m . 

Sept. 5 m , 12, 19, 26. 

1924.] Rhode Island 91 

Oct. 3, 10, 17,24,31. 

Nov. 7, 14, 21. 

Dec. 12. 

Supplement: May 30, Oct. 3. 

1775. Mar. 13. 
Aug. 14,21. 
Sept. 4, 18". 
Oct. 16. 
Extraordinary: Mar. 15 m . 

1776. Feb. 5. 
Apr. 1. 
May 20. 
June 3. 
July 22. 

1781. June 9. 

Oct. 27, fac-sim. 

1783. Aug. 23. 
Nov. 29. 

1784. Mar. 13,20. 
May 22. 
June 12, 26. 
Sept. 11. 
Oct. 9, 16, 30. 
Nov. 20. 

1785. Apr. 23. 
May 21, 28. 
June ll" 1 , 18,25. 
July 2 m , 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Aug. 6, 13, 27. 
Sept. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Oct. 1,15,22. 

1786. Jan. 9 m , 19 m , 30 m . 
Mar. 6", 13, 20. 
Apr. 24. 

May 8"'. 

June 5. 

Aug. 21. 

Sept. 25. 

Nov. 6 m , 13 m , 20'". 

92 American Antiquarian Society [April 

1787. Mar. 12, 19. 
Apr. 9, 30. 
June 1. 
July 23. 

1788. Mar. 3, 17. 

1789. Apr. 13. 
May 11. 
July 1,29. 
Aug. 12, 26. 
Sept. 9, 16. 
Nov. 4, 25. 
Dec. 2, 23. 

1792. Jan. 21. 
Feb. 4, 18, 25. 
Apr. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
May 21. 

June 4, 11,25. 
July 9, 16,30. 
Aug. 6, 27. 
Sept. 10. 
Oct. 1,8, 15. 
Nov. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Dec. 10, 17. 

1793. Jan. 21. 
Mar. 25. 
Apr. 1,8. 
May 7 m , 21,28. 
Dec. 3. 

1794. Apr. 1. 
May 20. 
Dec. 23, 30. 

1795. Jan. 13, 20, 27"*. 
Apr. 14. 

May 19, 26. 
June 30. 
July 14. 
Aug. 11, 18. 
Sept. 29. 
Oct. 13. 

1924.] Rhode Island 93 

Nov. 3, 10, 17. 
Dec. 15, 22. 

1796. Apr. 26"*. 
May 17, 24. 
June 7, 14. 
July 5, 12, 19. 
Sept. 6. 

Oct. 11"*, 25. 
Nov. 8, 22. 
Dec. 6. 
Supplement: June 21. 

1797. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: July 11, Nov. 14, Dec. 19, 26. 
Missing: Jan. 3, 10, Mar. 28, Aug. 15, 
Oct. 31, Nov. 21. 

1798. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Apr. 17. 

Mutilated: Feb. 13, 20, Oct. 9, 16. 
Missing: Jan. 9, Mar. 6, June 12, July 31- 

Aug. 28, Sept. 11, 18, 25, Oct. 2, 30, 

Dec. 18, 25. 

1799. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Apr. 9, Oct. 8, 15, 29, Dec. 31. 

Missing: Jan. 1, 29, Feb. 5, 12, 26, Mar. 5, 
19, May 14, 21, June 4, July 9, Aug. 27, 
Oct. 1, Nov. 5, 19, 26, Dec. 10, 17, 24. 

1800. Feb. 18. 
Apr. 1. 
Sept. 16. 
Nov. 18. 
Dec. 9. 

1801. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: Jan. 20. 
Extract, May 21. 

Missing: Jan. 6, Feb. 17, 24, Mar. 10, 24, 
31, Apr. 7, May 12, June 16, July 21, 
Aug. 4, 11, 18, Nov. 3, 10, Dec. 1. 

1802. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 
Supplement: Feb. 16. 

94 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Mutilated : Jan. 5. 
Missing: Apr. 6, 13. 

1803. Jan. 4 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Mar. 1, 8, May 31, July 5, 12, 

Sept. 13, Dec. 17. 
Missing: Jan. 18, Feb. 1, 8, 15, 22, Mar. 15, 

22, 29, Apr. 5, 19, 26, May 24, Sept. 6, 

Oct. 6-15, Dec. 31. 

1804. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Jan. 7, 14, 21, Feb. 11, May 5. 

1805. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Important Intelligencer, Dec. 21. 

1806. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
President's Message, Dec. 9. 

Mutilated: Aug. 9, 30, Sept. 6. 
Missing: Dec. 20. 

1807. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. . 

1808. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
• 1809. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Mar. 11, May 27, June 3, 10, 
Sept. 2. 

1810. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 13,20, Apr.21, June 9,Dec.8. 
Missing: Jan 6, 27, Feb. 17, 24, Mar. 10, 
24, Aug. 18, 25, Dec. 22. 

1811. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated : Jan. 12, Apr. 6, Sept. 21. 
Missing: Jan. 5, June 22, 29, July 6, 13, 20, 

27, Aug. 17, 24, 31, Sept. 28, Oct. 5, 12, 

19, Nov. 2, Dec. 14, 28. 

1812. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Sept. 12, Oct. 10, Dec. 12. 

Missing: Jan. 4, 11, 18, 25, Feb. 1, 22, Mar. 
7, 14, Apr. 25, May 2, 23, June 13, 20, 
July 11, 25, Nov. 14, 21, 28, Dec. 19, 26. 

1813. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Address: Jan. 1. 

Mutilated: Jan. 16, June 19. 


Rhode Island 95 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 


Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Jan. 28, July 1, Aug. 19, Sept. 2, 

30, Oct. 28. 


Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 

Missing: Jan. 6. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Aug. 30. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Sept. 9, Dec. 16. 

[Newport] Rhode-Island Gazette, 1732-1733. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 27, 1732, by James Frank- 
lin, with the title of "The Rhode-Island Gazette." The 
last issue on record is that of Mar. 1, 1733, no. 20 (so 
noted by Munsell in 1874 in his footnote in Thomas's 
"History of Printing," but given as no. 22 by Hammett, 
in his " Bibliography of Newport, " 1887) . Thomas in his 
"History of Printing" (1874 ed., vol. 2, p. 80) states that 
the paper was discontinued May 24, 1733. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25, Nov. 1, 8, 16, 
23, Dec. 7, 14, 21, 1732; these have been reproduced by 
photostat, which set is possessed by several libraries. 
R. I. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 4, 1732. Charles E. Hammett in his 
"Bibliography of Newport," p. 108, records the issues of 
Jan. 11, 25, Feb. 22, and Mar. 1, 1733, in his possession, 
and reproduces the issue of Jan. 25; but he told the writer 
twenty-five years ago that these issues had disappeared. 
A. A. S. has: 

1732. allfac-sim. 

Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Nov. 1,8, 16,23. 
Dec. 7, 14,21. 

[Newport] Rhode-Island Museum, 1794. 

Weekly. Established July 7, 1794, by Henry C. South- 
wick and Co., with the title of "The Rhode-Island 

96 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Museum. " The last issue located is that of Dec. 29, 1794, 
vol. 1, no. 26. 

Newport Hist. Soc. has July 7 -Dec. 29, 1794. R. I. 
Hist. Soc. has July 7, 28, Sept. 15, 22, 1794. A. A. S. has: 

1794. Sept. 29. 

[Newport] Rhode-Island Republican, 1801-1806, 1809-1820+. 

Weekly. A continuation, so far as concerns volume 
numbering and advertisements, of "The Guardian of 
Liberty," the last issue of which was on Sept. 26, 1801. 
The first issue with the title of "Rhode-Island Republi- 
can" was that of Oct. 3, 1801, vol. 2, no. 1, published by 
Oliver Farnsworth. With the issue of Oct. 25, 1805, 
Farnsworth retired as editor, and the paper was published 
for Noah Bisbee, Jun. It was so continued until June 26, 
1806, vol. 6, no. 298, when it was evidently suspended. 
On Mar. 22, 1809, it was revived by William Simons, with 
new volume numbering, with the title of "The Rhode- 
Island Republican," but with no allusion to its pred- 
ecessor. With the issue of Mar. 21, 1810, the initial 
"The" in the title was omitted. It was so continued by 
Simons until after 1820. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 9, 1802 -Dec. 6, 1804; Jan. 24- 
Apr. 11, 1805; Oct. 25, 1805- June 26, 1800; Mar. 22, 1809- 
Dec. 27, 1820. 

Newport Hist. Soc. has Oct. 3, 1801 -June 13, 1805; 
Sept. 19, Nov. 7, Dec. 26, 1805; Mar. 22, 1809-Dec. 27, 

Yale has Jan. 3, 1805 -June 26, 1806; Mar. 22, 1809- 
Mar. 29, 1820. 

Redwood Lib. has Mar. 22, 1809 -Mar. 31, 1819. 

Harvard has Oct. 10, 1801 -Nov. 10, 1803, fair; Feb. 9, 
1804- June 12, 1806, scattering. 

Brown Univ. Lib. has Apr. 12, 1809-Mar. 25, 1813. 

Lib. Congress has Mar. 19, July 16, Aug. 13, 27, Sept. 3, 
10, 1803; Mar. 8, May 10, 1804; Apr. 5, Aug. 2, Sept. 13, 
1809; Jan. 31, 1810-Sept. 10, 1817, scattering file; Dec. 
17, 1818; Jan. 6, 1819-Dec. 27, 1820. 

1924.] Rhode Island 97 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 8, 29, June 19, Nov. 6-20, 
Dec. 25, 1802; Jan. 1, 22, May 21, 1803; Mar. 21, Sept. 26, 
Dec. 12, 1805; May 17, Aug. 9, 1820. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Dec. 7, 1810; Jan. 22, Feb. 1, 
22, Mar. 12, Apr. 23, June 14, 18, Aug. 9, 30, Sept. 20, 
24, Nov. 22, 29, Dec. 3, 1811; Aug. 3-17, 1814; May 24, 

Univ. of Mich, has Feb. 2, 1804; June 20, 1810; Apr. 29, 
1812; Aug. 26, Oct. 18, 1815; June 25, 1817. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 19, Apr. 13, Oct. 8, Dec. 10, 

N. Y. State Lib. has Dec. 3, 1812; Feb. 4, June 10, 1813. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Mar. 17, 1814. 

A. A. S. has: 

1801. Dec. 12 m , 19"*. 

1802. Jan. 2, 9, 23, 30 m . 
Feb. 6, 13™ 

Oct. 9 m . 

Nov. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

Dec. 4, 11, 18,25. 

1803. Jan. 1 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Mar. 12, 26, July 9. 
Missing: Mar. 5, May 7 -June 18, July 23, 
30, Sept. 24, Oct. 9, 16, Nov. 3. 
1S04. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: June 2S, Dec. 13. 
Missing: June 7, Sept. 13, 20, 27, Oct. 4, 18, 
25, Nov. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, Dec. 20, 27. 

1805. June 13. 
Aug. 1. 
Sept. 26. 
Oct. 10, 17. 

1806. Jan. 30. 
1809. Mar. 29. 

Apr. 5, 12. 
May 17, 24. 
June 7, 28. 
July 12, 19. 

98 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Aug. 2, 23. 
Sept. 6, 13, 27. 
Oct. 11,18,25. 
Nov. 8. 
Dec. 13, 20. 

1810. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Sept. 26. 

Missing: Jan. 17, Feb. 14, 21, Mar. 21, 28, 
Aug. 8, 29, Nov. 7, 14, 28, Dec. 5, 12, 19. 

1811. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Apr. 24, May 15, 22, 29, June 
5, 12, Nov. 6. 
Missing: Jan. 9, 23, 30, Feb. 6, 13, 27, 
Mar. 27, Apr. 3, May 8. 

1812. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Sept. 10. 

1813. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: July 8, Oct. 14, 21, 28, Nov. 11, 
Dec. 23. 

1814. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Apr. 7, 13, 20, 27, May 11, 18. 
Missing: Mar. 10, May 4, July 6, 13, Aug. 

1815. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Missing: Jan. 18, Feb. 8, 15, 22, Mar. 22, 
29, Oct. 11, 25, Nov. 1, 8, 15, 22, Dec. 13, 

1816. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Oct. 30. 

Missing: Jan. 3, 17, 24, 31, Feb. 28, Mar. 6, 
20, 27, May 1, June 26, July 10, 24, 31, 
Aug. 21, Sept. 11, 18, 25, Oct. 2, 9, Nov. 
20, 27, Dec. 4, 11. 

1817. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated : Apr. 16, June 4. 

Missing: Feb. 5, 12, 26, Mar. 5, 19, May 21, 

July 9, 16, Aug. 6, 27, Sept. 24, Nov. 19, 

26, Dec. 3, 17,31. 

1818. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

1924.] Rhode Island 99 

Missing: Apr. 8, 15, 22, 29, May 6, 13, 20, 
27, June 3, July 8, Aug. 19, Sept. 9, 30, 
Oct. 7, 14, Dec. 30. 

1819. Mar. 31. 
Apr. 7. 
June 9. 
July 7, 28. 
Sept. 29. 
Oct. 6, 13. 
Dec. 22 m , 29 m . 

1820. Jan. 19,26". 
Feb. 2, 9 m , 16, 23. 
Mar. l m , S m , 22 m , 29. 
Apr. 5, 26. 

May 3, 10, 17,31. 

June 28. 

July 5, 12, 19, 26. 

Aug. 2, 9, 16, 30. 

Sept. 6, 13. 

Oct. 18. 

Nov. 29. 

Dec. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

[Newport] Weekly Companion, see Companion, 1798-1799. 

[Providence] American, 1808-1809. 

Semi-weekly. Established by Dunham & Hawkins 
[William W. Dunham and David Hawkins, Jun.], Oct. 21, 
1808, with the title of "The American." It was so con- 
tinued until the issue of Oct. 17, 1809, vol. 1, no. 104, when 
the title was changed to "The Rhode-Island American," 
which see. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. and Brown Univ. have Oct. 21, 1808- 
Oct, 17, 1809. Boston Athenaeum has Oct. 25, 1808- 
Oct. 17, 1809. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 30, 1808- 
Oct. 13, 1809. Univ. of Mich, has Oct. 21, Nov. 1, Dec. 
2, 1808; Jan. 6 -Oct. 6, 1809, fair. Lib. Congress has 
May 2, 1809. A. A. S. has: 

1808. Oct. 21 to Dec. 30. 

1809. Jan. 3 to Oct. 17. 

100 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

[Providence] American Journal, 1779-1781. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established as a weekly 
Mar. 18, 1779, by Southwick and Wheeler [Solomon 
Southwick and Bennett Wheeler], with the title of "The 
American Journal and General Advertiser." Southwick 
returned to Newport upon the news of the evacuation by,, 
the British, the issues of Nov. 18 and 25, 1779 bore no 
imprint, and with the issue of Dec. 2, 1779, the name of 
Bennett Wheeler appeared alone as publisher. With the 
issue of Oct. 14, 1780, the title was slightly altered to read 
"The American Journal, and the General Advertiser." 
With the issue of Jan. 31, 1781, the paper was issued semi- 
weekly and the title reverted to its former wording. The 
paper was discontinued with the issue of Aug. 29, 1781, vol. 
3, no. 157. 

Brown Univ. Lib. has Mar. 18, 1779 -July 19, 1780 
R. I. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 1, 1779 -Aug. 29, 1781. N. Y 
Hist. Soc. has Apr. 8,' 1779 -Feb. 10, 1780, fair. Mass 
Hist. Soc. has Mar. 18, Apr. 22, Sept. 23, 1779; Apr. 19 
Oct. 5, 1780; Feb. 21, Mar. 17, June 23, July 7, 28, 1781 
Newport Hist. Soc. has Apr. 8-29, May 20-July 29 
Aug. 12, 19, Sept. 2-16, 30, Oct. 7, 1779; Jan. 27, Feb. 3 
1780. Lib. Congress has May 13, July 22, Aug.. 5, Oct 
21, Nov. 11, Dec. 16-30, 1779; Jan. 6 -Feb. 17, Mar. 3 
Apr. 6, 19, Aug. 16, Oct. 5, 1780; Jan. 20, Apr. 21, 1781 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has May 27, 1779; June 7, 1780. Univ. of 
Mich, has Dec. 16, 1779; Feb. 3, 10, Oct. 5, 1780. Red- 
wood Lib. has Feb. 3, 1780. A. A. S. has : 

1779. Mar. 18 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Apr. 1, June 18. 

Mutilated: May 13. 

Missing: Mar. 18, 25, Apr. 29, May 20, 27, 
Aug. 12, Sept. 2, Oct. 21. 

1780. Jan. 6 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: Mar. 6. 

Missing: Mar. 23, 30, Apr. 6, 13, May 3, 
July 19, 26, Aug. 2, 9, 23, 30, Sept. 6, 20, 

1924.] Rhode Island 101 

27, Oct. 28, Nov. 11, 18, 25, Dec. 2, 9, 16, 
1781. Jan. 13, 20, 27, 31. 
Feb. 7, 10. 
Mar. 3. 

Apr. 4, 11, 14, 18,25,28, 
. May 2, 5, 12, 16, 30. 
June 2, 6, 9, 20, 27, 30. 
July 4. 

Providence Centinel, 1814. 

Semi-weekly. Established Nov. 7, 1814, by David 
Hawkins, Jim., with the title of "Providence Centinel, 
and American War Chronicle. " The last issue located is 
that of Dec. 15, 1814, vol. 1, no. 11. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 7-21, 28, Dec. 5, 8, 15, 1814. 
Wis. Hist, Soc. has Nov. 24, 1814. A. A. S. has: 
1814. Nov. 14, 24, 28. 
Dec. 5, 8, 12, 15. 

[Providence] Columbian Phenix, 1808-1814. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Phenix." The first issue with the 
new title of "The Columbian Phenix" was that of Jan. 
16, 1808, vol. 6, no. 297, published by [Josiah] Jones and 
[Bennett H.] Wheeler. With the issue of July 22, 1809, 
the name of the publishing firm became Wheeler, Jones & 
Co., but this reverted to Jones & Wheeler with the issue 
of Feb. 24, 1810. With the issue of Jan. 19, 1811, the 
title was altered to "Columbian Phenix: or, Providence 
Patriot." The last issue with this title was that of Jan. 
8, 1814, vol. 11, no. 52, after which the title became 
"Providence Patriot. Columbian Phenix." See under 
" Providence Patriot. " 

R. I. Hist. Soc. and Brown Univ. have Jan. 16, 1808- 
Jan. 8, 1814. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan 23, 1808-Jan. 8, 
1814. Univ. of Mich, has Jan. 16 -Dec. 31, 1808; July 15, 
Sept. 16, Oct. 7, 21 -Nov. 18, Dec. 23, 1809; Jan. 27, 1810- 
Dec. 12, 1812, scattering file; June 26, 1813. Lib. Congress 
has Jan. 23, 1808-Nov. 2, 1811, scattering file; Jan. 11, 

102 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

1812 -Nov. 20, 1813. Harvard has July 30 -Dec. 30, 

1808. Boston Athenaeum has Jan. 6, Mar. 11, May 6, 27, 

1809. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 23, Dec. 28, 1811; 
Nov. 21, 1812. A. A. S. has: 

1808. Jan. 16 to Dec. 31. 

1809. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Dec. 11. 

Mutilated: Feb. 11, Apr. 29, May 6, June 

24, Aug. 12. 
Missing: Jan. 7, 14, 21, Mar. 18, Apr. 8, 

May 13, 20, 27, June 3, 10, 17, July 1, 22, 

Aug. 19, Sept. 2, 9, 23, 30, Nov. 25, Dec. 


1810. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Extra: Aug. 18. 

Mutilated: Jan. 6. 
Missing: Dec. 29. 

1811. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated : Apr. 13, May 4. 
Missing: Jan. 26, Feb. 16, 23, Apr. 20. 

1812. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: June 27. 
Missing: Apr. 18, Oct. 3. 

1813. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: Jan. 16, Feb. 13, Mar. 6, Apr. 10, 
May 8, Aug. 28, Sept. 11. 

1814. Jan. 1,8. 

Providence Gazette, 1762-1820+. 

Weekly and semi- weekly. Established Oct. 20, 1762, by 
William Goddard, with the title of "The Providence 
Gazette; and Country Journal. " Because of lack of sup- 
port, the paper was suspended with the issue of May 11, 
1765, no. 134. William Goddard removed from Provi- 
dence, leaving the press in charge of his mother, Sarah 
Goddard. On Aug. 24, 1765, an unnumbered issue of the 
paper was brought out, with the title "Vox Populi, Vox 
Dei. A Providence Gazette Extraordinary," printed by 
S. and W. Goddard. The paper was resumed with the 

1924.] Rhode Island 103 

issue of Aug. 9, 1766, no. 135, with its early title, and 
printed by Sarah Goddard, and Company. According to 
a history of the paper in the issue of Mar. 6, 1779, Sarah 
Goddard's partner was Mr. Inslee, unquestionably Samuel 
Inslee of New York. With the issue of Sept. 19, 1767, 
Inslee retired in favor of John Carter, and the paper was 
published by Sarah Goddard and John Carter. With the 
issue of Nov. 12, 1768, Mrs. Goddard retired and John 
Carter became sole publisher. With the issue of Nov. 9, 
1793, William Wilkinson was taken into partnership, under 
the firm name of Carter and Wilkinson. With the issue 
of May 11, 1799, Wilkinson retired and John Carter again 
became sole publisher. The title was shortened to "The 
Providence Gazette," Jan. 10, 1795, but resumed its earlier 
form of "Providence Gazette, and Country Journal," 
Jan. 12, 1811. With the issue of Feb. 19, 1814, Carter 
retired and the publishers became Brown & Wilson (Hugh 
H. Brown and William H. Wilson). With the issue of June 
15, 1816, the firm dissolved, and the name of William H. 
Wilson appeared in the imprint as publisher, but with the 
issue of June 22, 1816, Hugh H. Brown bought out Wilson 
and thenceforth published the paper. With the issue of 
Mar. 1, 1817, the title was altered to "Providence Gazette, 
and Moral, Political & Commercial Register. " With the 
issue of Jan. 3, 1820, Walter R. Danforth was admitted to 
partnership under the firm name of Brown & Danforth, 
and the paper became a semi-weekly. The title became 
"The Providence Gazette," Jan. 3, 1820, and "Provi- 
dence Gazette" from Jan. 6 on. Published after 1820. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 20, 1762- Dec. 28, 1820, prac- 
tically complete and one of the best existing files of any 
early American newspaper. 

Brown Univ. Lib. has Jan. 7, 1764 -May 4, 1765; Oct. 
11, 18, Dec. 27, 1766; Jan. 17, 1767-Dec. 17, 1774; Jan. 9. 
1790-Dec. 31, 1791; Jan. 31, 1795-Oct. 20, 1798; Jan. 12, 
1799-Nov. 14, 1801; Feb. 6, 1802-Dec. 26, 1812; Jan. 1, 
1814-Dec. 15, 1815; Jan. 3-Dec. 28, 1820. 

J. Carter Brown Lib. has Oct. 20, 1762-Sept. 22, 1764; 
Apr. 27, Aug. 24, 1765; Oct. 11, 1766; Oct. 3, Nov. 28, 

104 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

1767; Jan. 9, May 7,. 14, Sept. 10, 17, Oct. 8, Nov. 19, 26, 
1768; Apr. 8, 22, July 1, Aug. 5, Dec. 30, 1769; Jan. 6, 
Feb. 3, 10, Sept. 1-29, Dec. 15, 1770-Dec. 28, 1771; 
Jan. 11-25, Feb. 8-29, July 18, Aug. 29, Nov. 7, 1772; 
Jan. 3, Feb. 6, 13, Mar. 13, 20, Nov. 13, 20, 1773; Jan. 7, 
1775-Dec. 26, 1778, fair; Jan. 2, 1779-Dec. 27, 1800. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Nov. 13, 1762- June 18, 1763; 
July 2, 9, Dec. 10, 31, 1763; Dec. 22, 1764; Jan. 24, 1767- 
Dec. 30, 1769, fair; Sept. 14, Nov. 2, 1776; May 10, June 
21, Aug. 16, 23, Sept. 6, 20, 27, 1777; Jan. 24, Feb. 21, 
Mar. 14, Apr. 14, May 16, June 20, July 4, Aug. 29, 1778; 
Mar. 13, 20, Apr. 10, May 1, June 26, July 17, Aug. 14, 
21, Oct. 2, Nov. 13, Dec. 4, 18, 25, 1779; Jan. 1, 1780- 
Nov. 3, 1781, fair; Jan. 5, 1782-Dec. 27, 1783; Jan. 3, 
1784-Dec. 31, 1785, fair; Mar. 18, Apr. 8, 29, Dec. 2, 16, 
1786; Mar. 3, 24, July 7, 14, 28-Dec. 29, 1787; Jan. 5-19, 
Feb. 16, 23, Mar. 29, Apr. 12, May 10, Aug. 9, 1788; 
Aug. 22, Oct. 17-31, Nov. 14-Dec. 19, 1789; Jan. 23, 
1790-Nov. 24, 1798, fair; Jan. 18, 1800-Aug. 29, 1801, 
scattering; Jan. 9, 1802-Dec. 17, 1803, fair; July 21, 
1804-Oct. 12, 1805, fair; Jan. 4-Oct. 18, 1806, scattering; 
May 16-Aug. 29, 1818, fair; May 4-Dec. 28, 1820. 

Lib. Congress has Apr. 9, May 28, 1763; Aug. 24, .1765; 
Jan. 7, July 22, 1769; Mar. 21, 1771; Oct. 15, 1774; Jan. 
14, Mar. 18, Apr. 8, May 13, Sept. 2, 9, 1775; Mar. 23, 
Apr. 6, 20, May 4, Aug. 17, 1776; Jan. 18, 25, Feb. 8, 
Apr. 19, May 10, 17, June 28, Aug. 2, Sept. 6-20, Nov. 
1, Dec. 6, 13, 1777; Jan. 24, Feb. 14, 21, Mar. 14, Apr. 18, 
June 27, Sept. 12, 1778; Apr. 17, May 22, June 12, 1779; 
June 24, July 22, 29, Aug. 26, Sept. 23, 1780; Sept. 22, 
Nov. 10, Dec. 15, 29, 1781; Apr. 27, May 25 -Dec. 28, 1782; 
Jan. 4-Dec. 27, 1783; Jan. 3, 1784-Dec. 22, 1787, fair; 
Jan. 5, 1788-Dec. 29, 1798; Jan. 5-Oct. 26, 1799, fair; 
Jan. 4-Dec. 27, 1800; Jan. 3, 1801-Dec. 19, 1818, fair; 
Jan. 2-Feb. 13, Apr. 10, May 8, July 31, Sept 11, Nov. 6, 
1819; Jan. 3 -Dec. 28, 1820. 

Yale has Apr. 28, Aug. 18, 1764; Jan. 5, 26 -Apr. 27, 
May 11, Aug. 24, 1765; Mar. 12, Dec. 30, 1766; Jan. 24, 

1924.] Rhode Island 105 

1767; Nov. 10, 1781; Aug. 10, 1782; Jan. 18-Dec. 13,1783, 
fair; May 15-July 24, 1784; June 10, 1786; Apr. 7, July 

14, Oct. 13, 27, Nov. 17, Dec. 1-22, 1787; Jan. 12, 1788- 
Dec. 27, 1794, fair; June 25, July 9, 1796; Sept. 16, 1797; 
July 21, 1798; Jan. 4, 11, 1800; Jan. 10, 1801; Jan. 23, 
1802: Jan. 18-Dec. 27, 1806, fair; 1807-1813, a few 
scattering issues; Jan. 1, 1814-Dec. 31, 1816; June 21, 
1817- Jan. 9, 1819. 

Redwood Lib. has Jan. 11 -Dec. 13, 1777, fair; Feb. 14, 
21, Mar. 7, 14, 28, May 9, Sept. 12, Dec. 12, 26, 1778; 
Jan. 16-July 3, 1779, fair; Oct. 16, 1779; Jan. 15, 1780- 
Oct. 11, 1783, fair; Jan. 29, 1785-Nov. 18, 1786, fair; 
Jan. 6, 1787-Dec. 24, 1796; Jan. 7, 1797-Dec. 20, 1800, 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 29, Dec. 11, 25, 1762; Jan. 8- 
Dec. 17, 1763, fair; Feb. 4, 18, 1764; Jan. 12, 1765; Feb. 
28, Oct. 10, 1767; Nov. 12, 1768; Feb. 18, July 15, Aug. 5, 
12, 1769; June 2, Nov. 24, 1770; July 5, Aug. 9, 16, 30, 
Oct. 25, Nov. 1, 15-29, 1777; Jan. 10-Feb. 7, 21, Mar. 7, 
28, Apr. 4, 25, May 2, June 6, 13, July 4, 18, Sept. 5, 12, 
Oct. 3, 10, 1778; Jan. 16, 1779-Dec. 22, 1781, fair; Nov. 

I, 1783; Jan. 17, 31, Feb. 14, 28, Mar. 13- Apr. 10, 24, May 

15, 1784; July 30, Aug. 6, 1785; Mar. 4, 1786; Apr. 21, 
1787; Feb. 16, 1788; June 27, July 25, Aug. 8, 29, Oct. 10, 
1789; Feb. 27, 1790-Dec. 15, 1792, scattering file; Jan. 5, 
1793-Dec. 27, 1794, fair; Jan. 3-24, Feb. 21, 1795; Sept. 

16, 1797; Apr. 5, 1800; May 8, 1802; Jan. 15, 1803; Jan. 7, 
1804-Dec. 31, 1808, scattering file; July 8, Aug. 26, Oct. 
14, 21, 1809; Oct. 13, 1810; Mar. 23, 1811; Feb. 8, 1812; 
Oct. 2, 1813; May 27, 1815; Feb. 17, 1816; Feb. 15, 1817; 
July 10, 1819. 

Univ. of Mich, has Aug. 24, 1765; Mar. 4, 1769; Jan. 14, 
21, 1775; Apr. 20, June 8, July 6, 13, Sept. 14, 1776; Apr. 
5, 1777; June 26, Sept. 4, 11, 1779; Jan. 1, 8, 22, Mar. 25, 
June 24, Sept. 30, Dec. 20, 1780; Jan. 24, 1781 -Dec. 13, 
1783, scattering file; May 22-June 5, 1784; Jan. 1, June 

II, 1785; Aug. 12, Sept. 30, 1786; Sept. 8, 1787; Mar. 8, 
Apr. 12, 19, May 3, 17, June 7, July 26, Sept. 6, Oct. 18, 
Nov. 22, 1788; Feb. 28, May 9, 23, Nov. 28, Dec. 12, 1789; 

106 American Antiquarian 'Society [April, 

Jan. 9, 1790-Dec. 13, 1794, fair; Feb. 14, 1795-Dec. 28, 
1799, scattering issues; Jan. 4, 1800-Dec. 31, 1803, fair; 
Jan. 18-Dec. 27, 1806; Feb. 28, 1807-Dec. 15, 1810, 
scattering issues; Jan. 12, 1811-Oct. 5, 1816, fair; July 5, 
1817; Apr. 18, June 6, Aug. 1, 8, Sept. 5, 26, 1819; Jan. 3- 
Dec. 26, 1820. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 20, 1764 -May 11, 1765; Aug. 
9-Dec. 27, 1766; Jan. 3, May 30, June 7, Dec. 12, 19, 
1767; Jan. 2, Oct. 15, 1768; Jan. 21, Feb. 4, 11, Mar. 4, 11, 
1769; Mar. 17, 24, 1770; Jan. 26, Feb. 2, 23, Mar. 2, June 

22, Sept. 7, 1771; May 16, 1772; Jan. 23, Mar. 13, Aug. 7, 
1773; Jan. 14, 21, Apr. 29, May 6, Dec. 2, 23, 1775; Jan. 
13, Apr. 20, 27, May 18, 25, June 1, 8, 22-July 27, Aug. 
17-Sept. 21, Oct. 12, 19, 1776; Nov. 1, 1777; Feb. 21, 
Mar. 21, 1778; Jan. 9, Feb. 6, Apr. 10, 17, May 15, 29, 
June 12, 26, July 10-Aug. 14, 28-Sept. 18, Oct. 2- 
Nov. 20, Dec. 4, 18, 1779; Jan. 1, 1780- Dec. 19, 1789, 
fair; May 7-Nov. 12, 1791; Sept. 17, Nov. 12, 1796; 
Sept. 21, 1799. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 10, Feb. 7, 21, Mar. 7, 21, May 

23, Nov. 21, Dec. 12-26, 1778; Jan. 2-30, Mar. 6-27, Apr. 
10, 17, June 12, July 31 -Aug. 21, Sept. 4, Oct. 9, 16, 1779; 
July 19, Aug. 9, 30, Nov. 15, 1783; Jan. 24, 1784; Apr. 25- 
Nov. 28, 1789, fair; Sept. 18, 1790; May 7, June 4, 1*791; 
May 25, 1793; Oct. 6, 1798; Jan. 5, 1799. 

Harvard has May 21, June 18, 25, July 23, 1791; May 
5, 19, June 16, 23, 1792; Dec. 20, 1794-July 20, 1799, 
scattering; Aug. 10, 1799 -Dec. 26, 1801, fair; Jan. 1802- 
Dec. 17, 1808, scattering; Jan. 31 - Dec. 21, 1820. 

Newport Hist. Soc. has May 18, July 27, Sept. 14, 1776; 
Feb. 15, Sept. 27, Oct. 4, 11, 1777; Feb. 7, 1778; Jan. 22, 
1780; Feb. 3, 1781; Mar. 15, 1783; Mar. 12-Oct. 22, 1785, 
fair; Dec. 30, 1786; Jan. 23, 1790; May 21, 1791, and a few 
later scattering issues. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has July 6, 1776; Apr. 15, 1780; Feb. 
2, 23-Mar. 23, 1782; Jan. 25, Apr. 12, May 10-June 7, 
21, 28, July 26, Dec. 6, 20, 1783; Jan. 3, 1784- Dec. 10, 
1785, fair; Feb. 8, 22, 1794. 

1924.] Rhode Island 107 

N. Y. State Lib. has May 17, July 26, Oct. 18, 1783; 
May 14, 1785; Dec. 1, 1787; Jan. 5, 1788-June 22, 1793, 
fair; Feb. 1 -May 31, Aug. 16, 1794, and a few later scatter- 
ing issues. 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Mar. 2, Apr. 6, 8, 13, May 4, Aug. 24, 
1765; Mar. 12, 1766; Oct. 5, 1793; Oct. 31, Nov. 21, 1795; 
Jan. 9, Apr. 2, 1796. 

Amer. Phil. Soc. has Dec. 18, 1779; Jan. 22, 1780. 

A. A. S. has: 

1763. Apr. 9. 
Oct. l m . 
Dec. 17. 

1767. Jan. 10'". 

1768. July 16. 
Sept. 24. 

1769. July 8. 
Dec. 23. 

1770. Jan. 13,20'". 
Feb. 10. 
Sept. 8. 

1771. Oct. 5, 12,26. 
Dec. 14. 

1772. Jan. 11. 

1773. Aug. 28. 
Dec. 25. 

1774. May 7. 
July 9. 
Sept. 24. 
Oct. 15 m , 22 m . 

1775. Feb. 11. 
Mar. 11,18. 
Apr. 1,8, 15. 
May 13. 

Sept. 2, 9 m , 16, 30'". 

Oct. 7, 21. 

Nov. 18 m . 

Dec. 2'", 9"*, 16 m , 23, 30. 

108 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

1776. Jan. 6. 
Feb. 3 m , 17 m . 
Mar. Q m , 23, 30. 
Apr. 6, 20. 
May 18. 

June l m , 29. 
Aug. 3, 17,24,31. 
Sept. 7. 
Oct. 19. 

1777. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: May 17, July 26, Dec. 20. 
Missing: Jan. 4, 11, Feb. 1, Mar. 1, Oct. 4, 
Dec. 27. 

1778. Jan. 31. 

Feb. 14, 21, 28. 

Mar. 7, 14,21,28. 

Apr. 4, 11,25. 

May 9 m . 

Aug. l,8 m , 15 m , 22,29. 

Sept. 5 m . 

Oct. 10. 

Nov. 21. 

Dec. 5, 12. 

1779. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Supplement, Feb. 27, Mar. 20, 27 m , Apr. 10, 

Aug. 14. 
. Mutilated: Feb. 20, 27, Mar. 27, Apr. 24, 
May 1,15, 22, Oct. 9. 

1780. Jan. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Feb. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Mar. 4, 11, 18"\ 
Apr. 8, 22 m . 

July 15. 
Sept. 9. 
Oct. 4, 11. 
Nov. 8, 29. 

1781. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Oct. 13, Dec. 1, 8, 15. 

Missing: Jan. 3, 10, 31, Apr. 7-28, May 12, 

1924.] Rhode Island 109 

26, June 2, 16, July 21, Sept. 15, Oct. 6, 
Nov. 24, Dec. 22, 29. 

1782. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 
Supplement: Oct. 19. 

Mutilated: Jan. 26. 

Missing: Jan. 19, Feb. 9, 16, 23, Mar. 2, 
Apr. 6, 20. 

1783. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Missing: Sept. 6. 

1784. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: July 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Missing: Jan. 3, Mar. 20. 

1785. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Jan. 22, 29, Mar. 12, Apr. 23, 
30, July 23, Aug. 27, Sept. 24, Oct. 1, 8, 
15, 22, 29, Nov. 12, 19, 26, Dec. 31. 

Missing: Sept. 3, 10. 

1786. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 7, Feb. 11, Apr. 22, 29, 
May 20, July 15, Aug. 5, 19, Sept. 9, 16, 
23, Oct. 7, 14, 21, Nov. 25. 

Missing: Jan. 14, 21, Feb. 4, 25, July 8, 
Dec. 9, 23. 

1787. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 6, Sept. 1, 15. 
Missing: Feb. 24, Mar. 17, Apr. 21, 28, 
May 5, June 2, 30, July 21, Aug. 25. 

1788. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

1789. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

1790. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

1791. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1792. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

1793. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 
Extraordinary: Apr. 30. 

1794. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Extraordinary: Jan. 13. 

1795. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Apr. 4, Dec. 5. 
Missing: Apr. 25. 

110 American Antiquarian Society [April, 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
Mutilated: Apr. 30. 


Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Extraordinary: May 20. 
Mutilated: Nov. 25. 


Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Mar. 31. 


Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 
Mutilated: May 11. 

Missing: Feb. 23, Mar. 2, Sept. 7, 28, Oct. 5, 

19, Nov. 16. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Mutilated: Oct. 2. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 


Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 


Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 27 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 


Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: Jan. 18. 


Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Apr. 21. 


Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Jan. 12, Feb. 16, Mar. 2. 
Missing: Jan. 19, Feb. 2, 9, Nov. 23, 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 


Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 


Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: May 22, June 5. 
Missing: Apr. 17, 24, June 26. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 28. 

1924.] Rhode Island 111 

[Providence] Impartial Observer, 1800-1802. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 4, 1800, by Samuel J. 
Williams, with the title of "The Impartial Observer." 
The paper was a small folio, and with the issue of Jan. 26, 
1801, vol. 1, no. 26, it was suspended. It was resumed 
with the issue of Mar. 14, 1801, with new volume number- 
ing, size large folio, and printed for Benoni Williams. It 
was so published until Mar. 6, 1802, vol. 1, no. 52, when it 
was discontinued. 

Brown Univ. Lib. has Aug. 4, 1800-Feb. 27, 1802. 

Harvard has Aug. 11, Sept. 1-15, Nov. 10-24, Dec. 29, 
1800; Jan. 26, Mar. 21, 1801-Feb. 27, 1802. R. I. Hist. 
Soc. has Sept. 1-Oct. 6, 20, 27, Nov. 24, Dec. 1, 22, 29, 
1800; Jan. 5, 19, 26, Mar. 14, 1801 -Mar. 6, 1802. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Mar. 21, 1801 -Mar. 6, June 27, 1802. 
Lib. Congress has May 16, July 18, Aug. 1, 1801. N.Y. 
Pub. Lib. has Sept. 22, 1800. Conn. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 
21,1801. A. A. S. has: 

1800. Aug. 25. 

1801. Mar. 21™, 28. 
Apr. 4 m , 18, 25 m . 
May 2, 9, 16, 23™. 
June 6, 13,20. 
July 18, 25 m . 
Aug. 1,8, 15. 
Sept. 12. 

Nov. 14. 

1802. Feb. 6™, 13. 

Providence Journal, 1799-1801. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 2, 1799, by John Carter, 
Jun., with the title of "The Providence Journal, and Town 
and Country Advertiser." It was so published until the 
issue of Dec. 30, 1801, vol. 3, no. 157, when it was dis- 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 2, 1799-Dec. 30, 1801. Lib. 
Congress has Jan. 2, 1799-Dec. 9, 1801. Brown Univ. 
Lib. has Jan. 23, 1799-Dec. 9, 1801. Boston Athenaeum 
has May 15, 1799-Dec. 30, 1801. Univ. of Mich, has 

112 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Feb. 6, 1799 -Dec. 16, 1801, fair. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 
Jan. 2 -Dec. 25, 1799; Jan. 15, Apr. 2, 1800. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has Jan. 2- Dec. 25, 1799. Harvard has Feb. 13, 
Mar. 6, Dec. 11, 1799; July 16-Dec. 17, 1800, scattering; 
Jan. 7-Dec. 23, 1801, fair. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Apr. 10- 
Dec. 18, 1799, fair. Yale has Apr. 8, July 8, Nov. 18, 
Dec. 2, 16, 1801. A. A. S. has: 

1799. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Jan. 2. 

1800. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1801. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Dec. 2, 23, 30. 

[Providence] Liberty's Sentinel, 1802. 

In the last issue of "The Impartial Observer," Mar. 6, 
1S02, it was announced that "Liberty's Sentinel," which 
was to have been first published on Mar. 13, 1802, would 
be delayed two weeks. In a historical account of the 
Providence press, in the Providence Bulletin of June 25, 
1886, it is stated that the paper was established in the 
spring of 1803 [probably error for 1802] by S[amuel] J. 
Williams, and that a few numbers were issued. No copies 

[Providence] Manufacturers' & Farmers' Journal, 1820+. 

Semi-weekly. Established Jan. 3, 1820, with the title 
of "Manufacturers' & Farmers' Journal, and Providence 
and Pawtucket Advertiser, " published by [John] Miller & 
[John] Hutchens, and edited by William E. Richmond. 
With the issue of June 22, 1820, there was a slight change 
in the set-up of the title. The paper was continued until 
after 1820. 

Brown Univ. Lib. has Jan. 3 -Dec. 28, 1820. Harvard 
has Jan. 13 -Dec. 4, 1820. R. I. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 13- 
Dec. 28, 1820. Phil. Lib. Co. has May 4 -Dec. 28, 1820, 
fair. Lib. Congress* has Feb. 14, Sept. 28, 1820. A. A. S. 

1820. Jan. 3 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: June 29. 

1924.] Rhode Island 113 

Providence Patriot, 1814-1820+. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the "Columbian Phenix: or, Providence 
Patriot. " The first issue with the new title of " Providence 
Patriot. Columbian Phenix" was that of Jan. 15, 1814, 
vol. 12, no. 1, published by [Josiah] Jones & [Bennett H.] 
Wheeler. With the issue of Jan. 14, 1815, the title was 
altered to "Providence Patriot and [&] Columbian Phenix." 
With the issue of Jan. 2, 1819, Jones and Wheeler took 
Barzillai Cranston into partnership under the firm name of 
J. Jones & Co., the paper became a semi- weekly, a new 
series volume numbering was adopted and the title be- 
came "Providence Patriot," although the words "Colum- 
bian Phenix" appeared in small lettering above the regular 
title. With the issue of Jan. 1, 1820, Cranston retired, 
and the paper was published by Jones & Wheeler, being so 
continued until after 1820. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. and Brown Univ. Lib. have Jan. 15, 
1814-Dec. 30, 1820. 

Univ. of Mich, has Jan. 22- Dec. 10, 1814, fair; Jan. 7- 
Dec. 1G, 1815, scattering; Jan. 6, 1816-Dec. 20, 1817, fair; 
Mar. 14, 28, May 9, 1818-Dec. 27, 1820. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 26, 1814-Dec. 27, 1817; Jan. 
3-Mar. 21, Apr. 25-May 16, 1818; Oct. 23, 1819; May 27, 

Lib. Congress has Jan. 29, 1814-Dec. 30, 1815; Aug. 10, 
1816; Jan. 11-Dec. 27, 1817; Jan. 3, 1818; Jan. 2, 1819- 
Dec. 30, 1820. 

N. Y. State Lib. has Oct. 26, 1816- July 5, 1817; Jan. 31, 
1818-Dec. 30, 1820. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 15, 1815; Mar. 20, 1816; 
Dec. 5, 1818. 

Boston Athenaeum has June 25, 1814. 

A. A. S. has: 

1814. Jan. 15 to Dec. 31. 

1815. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Feb. 11. 

114 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Missing: Apr. 8, 22, 29, May 27, June 3, 10, 
17, July 1, 22, Aug. 5, 26. 

1816. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Mar. 16. 

1817. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Feb. 8. 

1818. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Jan. 24. 

1819. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: Jan. 13. 

1820. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

[Providence} Phenix, see Providence Phoenix. 
Providence Phoenix, 1802-1808. 

Weekly. Established May 11, 1802, with the title of 
"The Providence Phoenix," printed by William W. 
Dunham, for T[heodorel A. Foster and W[illiam] W. 
Dunham. With the issue of July 13, 1802, the imprint 
was changed to "Printed by William W. Dunham, for 
T[heodore] A. Foster & Co." and with Dec. 25, 1802, to 
"Printed by Samuel J. Williams, for Theodore A. Foster 
& Co. With the issue of May 21, 1803, Foster retired and 
the paper was printed and published by William W. 
Dunham. With the issue of July 18, 1804, Dunham Fetired 
and William Olney became publisher. Olncy died Jan. 
10, 1807, and with the issue of Jan. 17, [Josiah] Jones and 
[Bennett H.} Wheeler became the publishers. With the 
issue of Feb. 28, 1807, the title was changed to "The 
Phenix," which was continued until the issue of Jan. 9, 
1808, vol. 5, no. 296, after which the title became "The 
Columbian Phenix," which see. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has May 11, 1802- Jan. 9, 1808. 

Brown Univ. Lib. has May 11, 1802-May 5, 1804; Sept. 
15, 1804- Oct. 19, 1805; Jan. 3, 1807- Jan. 9, 1S08. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 11, 1802 -Apr. 30, 1803; Sept. 
22, 1804- July 26, 1806; Mar. 7 -Dec. 26, 1807. 

Harvard has May 11, 1802-Dec. 5, 1807, fair. 

Lib. Congress has June 8, 1802-Dec. 31, 1803; Feb. 25, 
May 12, 19, June 2-16, July 7, Nov. 24, Dec. 22, 1804; 

1924.] Rhode Island 115 

Jan. 19, 26, Mar. 2, 9, 30, Apr. 13-27, Sept. 28, 1805; 
Jan. 11, 18, Feb. 1-May 3, June 14, July 26, Sept. 6, 1806; 
Feb. 28 -Dec. 26, 1807, fair. 

Univ. of Mich, has May 11, 1802- Jan. 9, 1808, scatter- 
ing file. 

A. A. S. has: 

1802. May 11 to Dec. 25. 
Prospectus: Apr. 28. 
Extra: Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: June 15. 
Missing: Sept. 7, Oct. 26. 

1803. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: May 14, 28, June 18, Oct. 15, 

Nov. 26. 
Missing: June 11, Aug. 6, 27, Sept. 3, 10, 

Oct. 29, Nov. 19, Dec. 3, 31. 

1804. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Apr. 21, May 5, 19, Sept. 5. 
Missing: Jan. 7, 28, May 12, June 2, 16, 
30, July 18, Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 

1805. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: July 27, Aug. 24. 
Missing: June 15, July 6, Dec. 14. 

1806. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Missing: Jan. 4, Mar. 8, June 7, Oct. 11, 
Dec. 27. 

1807. Jan. 10, 17,31. 
Feb. 7 m , 21 m , 28. 
Mar. 7, 14, 28. 
Apr. 18, 25. 
May 2, 9, 23. 
June 6. 

July 4 m , 18 m , 25. 
Oct. 10. 

Nov. 14, 21, 28. 
Dec. 12, 19, 26. 

1808. Jan. 2, 9. 

116 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

[Providence] Religious Intelligencer, 1820. 

Weekly. Established May 13, 1820, by James D. 
Knowles, with the title of "Religious Intelligencer, and 
Christian Monitor." It was of large quarto size, and 
although primarily devoted to religious news, it contained 
current intelligence and marriage and death notice.^ 
It was discontinued with the issue of Nov. 4, 1820, vol. 1, 
no. 26. It was revived, May 26, 1821, by B[arber ]Badger. 

Brown Univ. Lib. has May 20-Nov. 4, 1820. R. I. 
Hist. Soc. has May 13 -Nov. 4, 1820, incomplete. A. A. S. 

1820. May 13 to Nov. 4.' 

Mutilated: June 17 -Aug. 19. 

[Providence] Rhode-Island American, 1809-1820+. 

Semi-weekly. A continuation, without change of vol- 
ume numbering, of " The American. " The first issue with 
the title of "The Rhode-Island American, and General 
Advertiser" was that of Oct. 20, 1809, vol. 2, no. 1, 
published by Dunham and Hawkins [William W. Dunham 
and David Hawkins, Jun.] With the issue of May 22, 

1812, the partnership was dissolved and David Hawkins, 
Jun., became sole publisher. With the issue of Oct. 15, 

1813, Hawkins retired, the publishers became Miller & 
Mann [John Miller and William M. Mann], and the 
initial "The" was omitted from the title of the paper. 
With the issue of Apr. 15, 1814, William G. Goddard was 
added to the firm, which became Miller, Goddard & 
Mann. Mann died Mar. 2, 1817, and with the issue of 
Apr. 11, 1817, William G. Goddard became sole pro- 
prietor. With the issue of July 9, 1819, James D. Knowles 
was taken in as a partner under the firm name of Goddard 
& Knowles. With the issue of Oct. 13, 1820, Knowles 
retired and William G. Goddard became sole publisher, 
continuing the paper until after 1820. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. and Brown Univ. Lib. have Oct. 20, 
1809 -Dec. 29, 1820. 
Univ. of Mich, has Jan. 30, 1810-Dec. 29, 1820, fair. 

1924.] Rhode Island 117 

Boston Athenaeum has Oct. 20-Dec. 29, 1809; Jan. 1, 
1813-Sept. 20, 1814; Oct. 13, 1815. 

Lib. Congress has Sept. 3- Oct. 18, Nov. 12, Dec. 17, 
1811; Aug. 25, Oct. 16, 20, 30, Nov. 3, 17-Dec. 1, 11-29, 
1812; Jan. 1-Nov. 23, 1813; Jan. 21, Feb. 15, Mar. 8, 11, 
May 13, June 21, Aug. 23, Sept. 9, 27, Oct. 11, 1814; Jan. 
6, 1815-Oct. 8, 1816; Nov. 15, 19, 22, 1816; Mar. 28, 1817- 
Dec. 26, 1820. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 3, 1809; Jan. 3, 1812- Jan. 12, 
1813, scattering file; Oct. 1, 1813-Oct. 10, 1815; Apr. 30, 
1816; Mar. 10, 24, Apr. 7, 28, May 15, June 2, 30, Oct. 6, 
23, Dec. 1, 11, 1818; Apr. 16, Sept. 7, Nov. 23, 1819. 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 15, 1816-Oct. 6, 1818, fair; 
Oct.6-Dec.29, 1820. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 11, 1816-Oct. 7, 1817; Dec. 3, 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Oct. 9, 1818 -Oct. 3, 1820. 

Newport Hist. Soc. has Apr. 21- June 26, 1812. 

N. Y. State Lib. has Nov. 16, 1810; Sept. 24, 1811; 
July 24, 1812; Oct. 8, 1813; Feb. 28-Dec. 30, 1817, 
scattering issues. 

A. A. S. has: 

1809. Oct. 20 to Dec. 29. 

1810. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Aug. 3, Oct. 16. 
Missing: Feb. 20, July 27, Sept. 28, Oct. 19, 
30, Nov. 2, 6, 9, Dec. 4. 

1811. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Jan. 11, 22, Feb. 15, 22, 26, Mar. 
22, Apr. 30, May 21, 24, 28, 31, June 21, 
July 2, 12, Aug. 2, 16, 27, Dec. 31. 

1812. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: June 26, July 21, Sept. 11. 
Missing: May 8, 15, 22, 26, July 13, Aug. 

1813. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Dec. 11. 

Mutilated: Dec. 24. 

118 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Missing: Aug. 31, Oct. 5, 26, Dec. 3. 

1814. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 28. 

Missing: May 24, Aug. 2, 19, Nov. 29. 

1815. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 
Extra: June 16, 23. 

1816. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

1817. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

1818. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 

1819. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1820. Jan. 4 to Dec. 29. 
[Carrier's Address] Jan. 1. 

[Providence] Rhode Island Farmer, 1804-1805. 

In an article on Providence newspapers in the Providence 
Bulletin, June 25, 1886, it is stated that "The Rhode 
Island Farmer" was established in July 1804, published 
by David Heaton and Benoni Williams, and reputedly 
edited by Amos Hopkins, and was issued weekly for about 
one year. There are references to its "Proposals" in the 
"Providence Phoenix" of July 7, 1804. In an article in 
the "Providence Gazette" of Aug. 4, 1804, a writer refers 
to the Gazette and the Phoenix, and says "There are but 
two papers printed in Providence." No copy of "The 
Rhode Island Farmer" has been located. 

[Providence] Scourge, 1810. 

The issue of Aug. 25, 1810, vol. 1, no. 2, was entitled 
"The Scourge," by "Frank Flog'em." It was a virulent 
anti-Republican sheet, of quarto size. The "Columbian 
Phenix" of Aug. 25, 1810, stated that the first issue ap- 
peared Aug. 18, and was printed from the types of "the 
Subscription-office. " Apparently there were only two 
issues, and the paper did not appear again until Dec. 4, 
1811, when vol. 1, no. 3, was published with the imprint of 
Chepatchet. See under Chepatchet. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. and Lib. Congress have Aug. 25, 1810. 

[Providence] State Gazette, 1796. 

Semi-weekly. Established Jan. 4, 1796, by Joseph 

1924.] Rhode Island 119 

Fry, with the title of "State Gazette, and Town and 
Country Advertiser. " It was so continued until the issue 
of July 2, 1796, vol. 1, no. 52, when it was probably dis- 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Jan 4-July 2, 1796., Harvard 
has Jan 4, Feb. 15, 18, 29, Mar. 10, 31, May 4-11, 18-25, 
June 1, 18, 1796. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Jan. 14-25, 
Feb. 4, 8, 15-Apr. 11, 20, May 11, June 8, 25, 1796. Lib. 
Congress has Jan. 21, 28, Feb. 1, 11, Apr. 14, 23- June 25, 
1796. A. A. S. has: 

1796. Jan. 4 to July 2. 

Mutilated: Mar. 31, June 22. 

[Providence] United States Chronicle, 1784-1804. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 1, 1784, by Bennett Wheeler, 
with the title of "The United States Chronicle: Political, 
Commercial, and Historical." With the issue of Feb. 21, 
1793, the title was shortened to "The United States 
Chronicle." With the issue of Jan. 5, 1804, Bennett 
Wheeler retired and the paper was published for his son, 
John Wheeler. The paper ceased with the issue of May 
17, 1804, vol. 21, no. 1060, which fact was recorded in the 
Providence Gazette of May 26, 1804. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1, 1784-May 17, 1804. 

Brown Univ. Lib. has Jan. 15- Dec. 29, 1784; Jan. 12- 
Dec. 14, 1786; May 10, 1787-Jan. 7, 1790; Jan. 16, 1794- 
Dec. 26, 1799; Mar. 6, 1800; Jan.l5-June 4, Oct. 8, Dec. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Jan. 15, 1784-Dec. 4, 1788; Mar. 5- 
Dec. 10, 1789, fair; Feb. 4, Mar. 18, 25, 1790; Jan. 6, 1791 - 
Dec. 27, 1792; Jan. 3, 24, Feb. 21, 28, Mar. 14, Oct. 3, 
Nov. 21, 1793; Apr. 3, May 15, June 5, Aug. 14, Sept. 11, 
Dec. 18, 1794; Jan. 1, 1795-Dec. 29, 1796; Feb. 23, Mar. 
9, July 6, Sept. 14, 1797 ; Jan. 4, 1798 - Dec. 26, 1799. 

Lib. Congress has Jan. 8, 1784 -Nov. 10, 1785, scattering 
file; Mar. 2, 1786- Dec. 27, 1787, fair; Jan. 3, 1788- Dec. 
27, 1792; Jan. 3, 1793-Dec. 11, 1800, fair; Jan. 1, 1801; 
Mar. 25, July 15, Aug. 26, Oct. 21, Dec. 23, 1802; Jan. 27, 
Aug. 4, 25, 1803. 

120 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Univ. of Mich, has June 17, Aug. 12, 1784; July 28, 
Aug. 11, 25, 1785; Mar. 2, July 6, Sept. 14, Oct. 5, 19-26, 
Nov. 23, 1786; Jan. 25, 1787-Dec. 22, 1791; Jan. 5, 1792- 
Dec. 10, 1795, fair; Feb. 18, 25, May 12, July 7, Sept. 29, 
Oct. 20-Nov. 3, 17,1796; Jan. 19- Dec. 14, 1797, scattering; 
Jan. 11 -Dec. 27, 1798; Jan. 17- Aug. 15, 1799, fair; Dec. 
11, 1800; Jan. 6-Dec. 29, 1803, fair. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has July 1-Dec. 1, 1784; Jan. 4, 1787- 
May 8, 1788; Jan. 15, July 16, 1789; Jan. 28, Feb. 11, 
Apr. 8, Aug. 26, 1790; July 28, Oct, 6, 1791; July 5, 1792; 
Jan. 8, 1795-Dec. 29, 1796; June 8, Oct. 12, Nov. 16, 1797. 

Yale has Apr. 17, 1788-Dec. 16, 1790, fair; Mar. 3- 
Oct. 27, Nov. 10, 1791; Jan. 5, 1792-Dec. 17, 1795, fair; 
Mar. 3, 21, Aug. 11, Sept. 15, Oct. 20, Nov. 24, Dec. 8, 
16, 1796; May 3, 1797; Jan. 3, 1799-May 15, 1800. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1, 1784-Aug. 14, 1788, fair; 
Sept. 2, 1790; Jan. 12, Feb. 23, Mar. 8-22, Apr. 5, Nov. 1, 
1792; July 9, 1793; June 9, 1796. 

Harvard has June 16, July 14, Sept. 15, 1791; May 31, 
June 28, July 12, 1792; Feb. 5, 1795 -May 17, 1804, 
scattering file. 

Conn. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 1786 -Sept. 1788. 

N. Y. State Lib. has Jan. 7, 1790 -Dec. 20, 1792, fair; 
Jan. 2 -June 12, 1794. 

J. Carter Brown Lib. has Aug. 17, 1786; Sept. 17, 1789; 
Nov. 16, 1797; June 21, 1798; Sept. 24, 1801. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 28, Oct. 16, 1788; Apr. 29, 
1790; Sept. 27, 1792; June 6, 1793; June 18, Sept. 10, 
Nov. 20, 26, 1795. 

Newport Hist. Soc. has Mar. 19, 1789; Jan. 21, 1790. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Feb. 19, 1789. 

Boston Athenaeum has Mar. 18, 1790. 

A. A. S. has: 

1784. Jan. 1 to Dec. 29. 

Supplement: Oct. 27. 

Mutilated : Jan. 8, Feb. 19, 26, Mar. 4, Apr. 8. 
Missing: Jan. 15, July 22, Sept. 30, Oct. 20, 
Nov. 10, Dec. 15. 

1924.] Rhode Island 121 

1785. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 13, Mar. 17, 24, 31, Apr. 7, 

14, May 19, June 2, 16, July 14, Sept. 

22, Nov. 3. 
Missing: Feb. 3, 10, 17, 24, Mar. 10, Apr. 

28, May 12, 26, June 9, Oct. 13, 20. 

Nov. 17, Dec. 29. 

1786. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Jan. 12, Feb. 2. 
Missing: Dec. 28. 

1787. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

1788. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Sept. 18. 

1789. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1790. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

1791. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

1792. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

1793. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 
Supplement: Jan. 17, Mar. 21. 

Mutilated: Jan. 10, June 6, Oct. 31. 
Missing: Jan. 3. 

1794. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement : Apr. 10. 

Mutilated: June 26, Sept. 25, Oct. 9. 

1795. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1796. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Apr. 21, Sept. 1 
Missing: Sept. 22. 

1797. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Dec. 21. 
Missing: Nov. 9. 

1798. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

1799. Jan. 3, to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Feb. 21. 

Missing: Sept. 19, Nov. 7, Dec. 26. 

1800. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Aug. 28, Nov. 28, Dec. 18. 

122 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Missing: Jan. 16, May 15, 22, June 19, 26, 
July 3, 10, Aug. 7, 14, 21, Oct. 9, 16, 
Dec. 25. 

1802. Jan. 7, 14, 21. 
Feb. 4, 18. 
Mar. 25. 
Apr. 8, 15, 29. 
May 13, 20. 

1803. Jan. 6 to Dec. 20. 

1804. Mar. 15. 

[Warren] Bristol County Register, 1809-1810. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 11, 1809, with the title of 
"Bristol County Register," published by Golden Dearth 
for the Bristol County Association. The last issue 
located is that of Apr. 7, 1810, vol. 1, no. 50. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 11 -Dec. 30, 1809. A. A. S. 

1809. Mar. 11, 18. 
Apr. 1,8, 15,29. 
May 6, 13,20. 
July 8, 15. 
Aug. 26. 

Oct. 14. 
Dec. 2. 

1810. Mar. 31. 
Apr. 7. 

[Warren] Columbian Post-Boy, 1812-1813. 

Weekly. Established July 25, 1812, by Mason & Bird 
[Joseph Mason, Jr., and James Bird], with the title of 
"The Columbian Post-Boy." On Dec. 5, 1812, Joseph 
Mason, Jr., became sole publisher. The last issue located 
is that of Feb. 20, 1813, vol. 1, no. 30. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 10, 17, Nov. 21, 1812, Jan. 2, 
23, Feb. 20, 1813. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 22, 1812. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 2, Dec. 5, 1812. Wis. Hist. Soc. 
has Jan. 9, Feb. 13, 1813. A. A. S. has: 

1812. July 25. 

1924.] Rhode Island 123 

Aug. 1,8,29'". 

Oct. 3, 17,31. 

Nov. 21. 

President's Message, Nov. 9 m . 

[Warren] Herald of the United States, 1792-1812. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 14, 1792, by Nathaniel 
Phillips, with the title of "Herald of the United States." 
With the issue of Sept. 5, 1807, Nathaniel Phillips took 
his son, John F., into partnership, under the firm name 
of Nathaniel & John F. Phillips. In the summer of 1808 
Nathaniel retired and John F. Phillips became sole pub- 
lisher, continuing the paper as far as the last issue located, 
that of Dec. 12, 1812, vol. 20, no. 50. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 5, Feb. 9, May 11, Dec. 7, 
1793; Sept. 27, 1794; Sept. 3, 1796; Feb. 11, 18, Mar. 18, 
June 24, Sept. 9, Dec. 1, 1797; Mar. 3, 10, 31, Apr. 21- 
June 29, July 13, 20, Nov. 3 -Dec. 29, 1798; Jan. 12 -Feb. 
9, Mar. 9, 23, Apr. 27, May 4, 18 -June 22, July 6, 13, 27, 
Aug. 3, 17, Oct. 26, Nov. 23, 1799; Jan. 25, Feb. 8- Mar. 
1, 15, Apr. 5, July 11, 18, Sept. 19, 1800; Jan. 2, 
Apr. 10-24, May 8-22, June 5, 12, 26, July 10, 24, 31, 
Aug. 21 -Sept. 4, Oct. 16, 30, 1801; Jan. 8, 22, Mar. 5, 
Apr. 2, 30, Aug. 20, Sept. 3, Oct. 21, Dec. 23, 1802; 
Feb. 3, 17, Mar. 10, May 12, June 2, 16, Aug. 11, 25, 
Oct. 6, 25-Nov. 8, Dec. 13, 1803; May 29, June 5, 19- 
July 31, 1804; Jan. 28, 1805; June 8, 1805-Sept. 19, 1807; 
Mar. 19, Oct. 1, Dec. 17, 180S; Apr. 15, Aug. 12, 1809; 
Aug. 11, 1810; Oct. 31, 1812. 

Lib. Congress has Sept. 12, 19, 1795, Nov. 5, 19, Dec. 
3, 17, 1796; Jan. 21, Feb. 4, 11, May 6, 13, July 1, Aug. 5- 
19, Sept. 30, Oct. 7, 27, Nov. 3, 1797; June 15, 1798; 
Jan. 5, 12, Apr. 13, May 11, 25-June 8, 29, July 20, Sept. 
7, 14, 1799; Feb. 1, 8, July 18, Aug. 1, 15-Sept. 12, 26- 
Oct. 10, 24 -Dec. 26, 1800; Jan. 9, 23, 30, Feb. 13 -Mar. 6, 
20-May 22, June 12, 19, July 3, 1801; Jan. 29, Feb. 12, 
Aug. 13, Sept. 3, 10, Oct. 1-14, Nov. 25, Dec. 2, 9, 23, 
1802; Jan. 13, 27, Mar. 3, May 19, June 9, July 21, 28, 

124 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Aug. 4, Sept. 15, Oct. 11, Dec. 27, 1803; Feb. 1-Nov. 14, 

Harvard has Apr. 28, May 12, June 2, 18, 25, 1792; 
Oct. 4, Dec. 20, 1794; Jan. 3, Feb. 7, 14, Mar. 21, 1795; 
June 17, 1797-Dec. 17, 1804, fair; Jan. 7, Mar. 4, 11, May 
21, Oct. 12, 26, 1805. 

Univ. of Mich, has Jan. 5, 13, Apr. 7, June 15, 22, Aug. ~ *" 
3, 17, Sept. 28, Oct. 19, Nov. 3, 1798; July 25, 1800; Jan. 
3, 17, 24, Feb. 28, Mar. 7, Aug. 1, 8, 22, 1807. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 14, Feb. 11, 18, Mar. 10, 17, 
Apr. 7, 1792. 

Yale has July 24, Aug. 11, 1792. 

Brown Univ. Lib. has Nov. 17, 1792; July 12, 1794. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 7, 1793. 

Hail Lib., Warren, has Jan. 3, 10, June 6, 1795; June 25, 
Aug. 27, 1796. 

Newport Hist. Soc. has Jan. 20, 27, June 29, 1798. 

J. Carter Brown Lib., has Dec. 28, 1799. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has July 23, 30, Aug. 13, 1802. 

A. A. S. has: 

1792. Jan. 14 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Jan. 14, 21, 28, Feb. 11, 25, Aug. 
11, 25, Sept. 29, Nov. 24, Dec. 8, 15, 22, 

1793. Jan. 19,26. 
Feb. 2, 9, 23. 
Mar. 9 m , 16, 23. 
Apr. 6, 13, 20, 27 m . 
May 4. 

June 1, 15, 22. 

July 13. 

Aug. 10, 17. 

Sept. 7, 21. 

Oct. 5. 

Nov. 9, 16, 23, 30. 

Supplement: Apr 6. 

1794. Jan. 4, 18. 
Mar. 1, 15. 
Apr. 26. 

1924.] Rhode Island 125 

May 10, 17. 
June 14 m . 
1795.. Jan. 24. 

Feb. 7, 28. 
Apr. 25. 
May 16. 
July 11, 18. 
Aug. 15, 29. 
Sept. 5. 
Oct. 31. 
Nov. 7, 14. 
Dec. 19. 

1796. May 14. 
June 11, 18, 25. 
July 2. 

Aug. 13™. 
Sept. 10 m , 17, 24 m . 
Oct. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Nov. 12, 19. 
Dec. 3, 10,24,31. 

1797. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: July 22, Oct. 21, Dec. 8, 15. 
Missing: Jan. 7, 21, Apr. 29-May 27, June 

10, July 8, 15, Sept. 16, 30, Oct. 7, Nov. 

10- Dec. 1,22,29. 

1798. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Mar. 10. 

Missing: Jan. 6, Mar. 24, July 6, Sept. 7, 
Dec. 8. 

1799. Jan. 12, 19, 26. 
Feb. 9. 

Mar. 9, 16, 23. 
Apr. 13, 20, 27. 
May 18. 

June 1, 8, 22, 29. 
July 6, 13, 20. 
Aug. 11", 24 ; 31. 
Sept. 7, 14*, 21*, 28. 
Oct. 5, 12, 19. 

126 American Antiquarian Society [April, 

Nov. 16. 

1801. Feb. 13*. 

1802. Feb. 15 m . 

1803. Feb. 10, 17. 
Mar. 3 m . 
July 14. 

Aug. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Sept. 1, 8, * 

1804. Feb. 7. 
Mar. 13. 
May 1, 15. 

1805. Apr. 8. 
Nov. 2, 9, 16. 

1806. Jan.4 m , ll m . 
May 24", 31 m . 
June 7. 

Aug. 16. 
Sept. 27. 
Oct. 25. 

Nov. 1,8, 15,29. 
Dec. 6, 13, 20. 

1807. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Feb. 7, 21, 28. 
Mar. 7 m , 14,21. 
May 2, 16,23,30™. 
June 6, 13,20,27. 
July 4, 11,18. 
Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

1810. June 9. 

1811. Apr. 13. 
May 11. 
June 8. 

1812. Oct. 10. 
Nov. 7, 21, 28. 
Dec. 5 m , 12 m . 

[Warren] Telescope, 1813-1817. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 6, 1813, by Samuel Randall, 
with the title of "The Telescope. " It was of quarto size, 

1924.] Rhode Island 127 -/<*» 

but with the issue of May 21, 1814, it was enlarged to folio. 
The last issue located is that of June 28, 1817, vol. 4, no. 31. 

R. I. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 6, 1813-Nov. 12, 1814, fair; 
Jan. 14-28, Feb. 11, Mar. 25, June 17, Aug. 12, Oct. 14, 
1815; Sept 14, Dec. 7, 1816; Jan. 4, Feb. 1, Mar. 1, 29, 
Apr. 5 - 19, May 3, 24, 31, June 21, 28, 1817. 

Lib. Congress has Jan. 1, Apr. 2, 9, 23, July 9, Sept. 17, 
Oct. 17, 1814. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 31, 1814; Mar. 4, 1815. 

T. 0. Mabbott, New York City, has June 3, 24, 1815. 

A. A. S has: 

1814. Jan. 22. 
Mar. 12. 
Apr. 2. 
May 28. 
June 18. 
July 9, 30. 
Aug. 13, 27 m . 
Sept. 17. 
Oct. 29. 

1815. Apr. 1,22. 
1817. Feb. 22. 

1924.] Proceedings 129 



THE Annual Meeting of the American Antiquarian 
Society was held pursuant to notice at Antiquarian 
Hall, Worcester, October 15, 1924, at ten forty-five 
o'clock, a. m. The meeting was called to order by 
President Lincoln and the call for the meeting was 
read by the Secretary. 

The following members of the Society were present: 
Augustus George Bullock, William Eaton Foster, 
Francis Henshaw Dewey, William Trowbridge Forbes, 
George Henry Haynes, Charles Lemuel Nichols, Waldo 
Lincoln, George Parker Winship, Samuel Utley, 
Benjamin Thomas Hill, Clarence Winthrop Bowen, 
Clarence Saunders Brigham, Worthington Chauncey 
Ford, William Coolidge Lane, Julius Herbert Tuttle, 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, Samuel Bayard Wood- 
ward, George Hubbard Blakeslee, Arthur Prentice 
Rugg, Wilfred Harold Munro, Henry Winchester 
Cunningham, Homer Gage, Livingston Davis, Rev. 
Herbert Edwin Lombard, Grenville Howland Norcross, 
Thomas Hovey Gage, Otis Grant Hammond, John 
Whittemore Farwell, Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, 
Alexander George McAdie, Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, 
George Anthony Gaskill, John Woodbury, Charles 
Knowles Bolton, John Henry Edmonds, Samuel 
Lyman Munson, Robert Kendall Shaw, James Ben- 
jamin Wilbur, William Bradford Homer Dowse, 
Chandler Bullock, Alfred Johnson, Gardner Weld 
Allen, George Ichabod Rockwood, Lawrence Counsel- 
man Wroth, George Simpson Eddy, Kenneth Ballard 
Murdock, Alexander James Wall. 

130 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

It was voted to dispense with the reading of the 
records of the previous meeting. 

The report of the Council of the Society was read by 
President Lincoln; the report of the Treasurer was pre- 
sented by Dr. Woodward and the report of the 
Librarian by Mr. Brigham. It was voted to accept 
these reports and to refer them to the Committee of 

Upon motion made by Mr. Charles G. Washburn, in 
reference to suggestions contained in the Council's 
report, it was voted that with a purpose to increase the 
Endowment Fund, the Council be authorized to 
investigate the subject and to take such action as it 
may see fit to promote it; and further shall have the 
authority to enter into such engagements in behalf of 
the Society with donors as, in the opinion of the 
Council, may be desirable or necessary to effect ac- 
quisitions, immediately or ultimately, to the Endow- 
ment Fund. 

The elections of officers being in order, the President 
appointed Messrs. Cunningham, Davis and Shaw a 
committee to distribute and collect ballots for President, 
which committee reported that all the ballots were for 
Waldo Lincoln and he was declared elected. 

The President appointed Messrs. Nichols, Bolton 
and Rockwood a committee to nominate the remaining 
officers of the Society. This committee presented the 
following nominations: 

Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
ClarenceWinthropBowen,LL.D.,of New York, N.Y. 


Samuel Utley, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., of Worcester, 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

1924.] Proceedings 131 

Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B., of Milton, 

George Parker Winship, Litt.D., of Dover, Mass. 
William Howard Taft, LL.D., of Washington, D. C. 
George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D., of Worcester, 


Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., of Worcester, 

James Benjamin Wilbur, Manchester, Vt. 

Samuel Lyman Munson, Albany, N. Y. 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence 

Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., Litt.D., of Wor- 
cester, Mass. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence 

Worthington Chauncey Ford, LL.D., of Cambridge, 

Recording Secretary 
Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 


Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., of Worcester, 


Committee of Publication 
George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, of Dedham, Mass. 
John Henry Edmonds, of Boston, Mass. 
Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., of Worcester, 

Homer Gage, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Daniel Waldo Lincoln, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

132 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

On motion of William T. Forbes, no one objecting, 
it was voted that all persons who desired to vote for the 
election of officers, other than the President, deposit 
their ballots on the President's table. All the ballots 
so deposited were for the persons nominated and they 
were declared elected. 

The Secretary then announced that the Council 
ecommended for resident membership the following: 

Randolph Greenfield Adams, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
William Sumner Appleton, Boston, Mass. 
Wallace Walter Atwood, Worcester, Mass. 
Henry Lewis Bullen, Jersey City, N. J. 
Wallace Hugh Cathcart, Cleveland, Ohio 
Fairfax Harrison, Belvoir, Va. 
Archibald Henderson, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Matt Bushnell Jones, Boston, Mass. 
Andrew Keogh, New Haven, Conn. 
Waldo Gifford Leland, Washington, D. C. 
Daniel Waldo Lincoln, Worcester, Mass. 
James Alexander Robertson, Deland, Fla. 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Hyde Park, N. Y. 
William Glover Stanard, Richmond, Va. 
Clarance MacDonald Warner, Boston, Mass. \ 
Frederic Winthrop, Boston, Mass. 

The President appointed Messrs. Winship, Edmunds 
and Murdock a committee to distribute and collect 
ballots for the election of new members to the Society, 
who reported that the nominees of the Council were all 

The Secretary was sworn to the faithful discharge 
of his duties by Francis H. Dewey, a Justice of the 

The following papers were then presented: "Frank- 
lin's Kite Experiment," by Alexander McAdie, of 
Milton, Mass.; "The Franklin Library," by George 
Simpson Eddy, of New York; "Franklin and Gallo- 
way," by William Smith Mason, of Evanston, 111. 

1924.] Proceedings 133 

Mr. Ford read a letter from John Adams, severely 
criticizing Dr. Franklin. 

Mr. Norcross called the Society's attention to a 
letter in his possession, from John Adams to William 
Temple Franklin, as follows: 

Quincy, May 5, 1817. 
Dear Sir: 

The Volume of Dr. Franklin's Correspondence has seemed to 
make me live over again my Life at Passy. 

I rejoice that the Publick are to have a compleat Edition of 
his Works, for there is scarce a scratch of his Pen that is not 
worth preserving. 

I am pleased to see you at length appearing on the stage of 
human affairs. 

I presume, upon the Virtue of old Acquaintance to introduce 
to you Mr. Theodore Lyman junior of Boston who will not 
disgrace your Country, and you will not regret to know or to 
have known him. 

As I am within a year or two of the age of Dr. Franklin at 
his Decease I cannot expect to see the Sequel of his Works, but 
if ever you visit your native Country, a visit from you will 
greatly oblige your old and sincere 


John Adams 
William Temple Franklin, Esqr. 

Mr. Johnson spoke about the influence of Franklin 
on the French people. Mr. McAdie and Mr. Bolton 
made further remarks upon the public estimation of 
Adams, Franklin and Jefferson. 

It was voted to refer the papers presented to the 
Committee of Publication. 

There being no further business, the Society ad- 
journed. After inspection of the Franklin exhibit in 
the upper hall luncheon was served in the reading 

Thomas Hovey Gage, 

Recording Secretary 

134 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 


'"pHE Society has suffered the loss of five active mem- 
A bers since the April meeting. Granville Stanley 
Hall of Worcester, who was elected to membership in 
October 1888, and was for thirty years a member 
of the Council, died in Worcester, April 24; George 
Leander Shepley of Providence, R. I., who was elected 
to membership in April 1920, died at Providence on 
August 3; Frank Farnum Dresser of Worcester, a 
member since October, 1909, died at Worcester on 
September 9; Lawrence Park of Groton, who was 
elected in October, 1916, died at Groton on September 
27; and Henry Farr DePuy of Easton, Md., who was 
elected a member in April, 1917, died October 14, 
near Montreal, Canada. Brief memoirs of these mem- 
bers will be prepared for the published Proceedings. 
No deaths of foreign members have been reported. 

Owing to the increase in membership voted a. year 
ago there are now twenty-eight vacancies in the active 
or resident list. The Council has been conservative in 
recommending candidates to fill the vacancies oc- 
casioned by this increase and has taken time to consider 
their qualifications, with a view also to their geographi- 
cal distribution, that the Society may be widely as well 
as worthily represented throughout the country. It 
presents today for your favorable consideration the 
names of sixteen candidates, several of them from 
States hitherto with small representation in the 
Society, leaving twelve vacancies for future action. 

The new stack was completed early in the summer 
and one-half of its cost has already been paid. Several 
of the most crowded collections have since been moved 
into it, notably the newspapers, which in their new and 

1924.] Re-port of the Council 135 

extended arrangement make an impressive display of 
the importance and size of the collection. Some two 
thousand volumes which had been stored in the base- 
ment, practically useless for consultation, are now 
properly placed on the shelves and, as one views the 
present arrangement, one wonders how the collection 
was housed in the old stack, even with the aid of the 
basement storage. It has seemed advisable to dis- 
continue binding several of the bulky newspapers, in 
order to reserve the space for important files of the last 
century which are frequently offered. It is an open 
question whether it is not more economical to await 
the offering of bound files of contemporary newspapers, 
rather than to collect and bind them annually. The 
library has recently acquired a file of eighteen years of 
an important western newspaper, at a price about one- 
eighth of what the binding alone would have cost the 

Of the books, only the Government publications, 
which will occupy the whole of the ground floor of the 
addition, and the periodicals, which will occupy the 
second floor', have as yet been moved. Other changes 
will be made as soon as possible and meanwhile the 
basement is being cleared of its somewhat dangerous 
accumulation of unpacked boxes and the fire hazard 
reduced to its lowest terms. 

In order to provide for the additional heating made 
necessary by the building of the extension, the boilers 
have been fitted with " Craigulators, " an appliance 
for the economical combustion of fuel and the chimney 
has been built up seven feet. With these improve- 
ments it is anticipated that the old boilers will be able 
to meet the call upon them without a very great 
increase in the coal bill. 

The completion of the addition has made possible 
an improvement of the southern end of the grounds. 
The evergreen trees have been replanted, giving them 
more room for growth, the land has been graded, trees 
and shrubs have been set out near the building, the 

136 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

lawn is rapidly getting into fine condition and the 
whole estate is attractive and a credit to the Society. 

The total cost of these improvements has been 
$94,860.79, of which all but about $24,000 has been 
paid. The members themselves have given $59,278, 
and certain public spirited citizens of Worcester have 
shown their appreciation of the importance of the- 
library by contributing $8,950. To them the Council 
desires to acknowledge and express the Society's 
obligation and gratitude. The Society's library is one 
of the great institutions of the city, attracting visitors 
from near and far, and it is pleasant to have such sub- 
stantial evidence that its worth is realized. 

On December 1st one-half the bill for the stack, 
$23,600, will become due and that sum, unless pre- 
viously raised, must then be borrowed or paid from the 
Society's invested funds, in either case seriously im- 
pairing the income available for the work of the Society. 
It would be gratifying to the Council to have every 
member of the Society a contributor to this building 
and any sum, no matter how small, from members who 
have not yet given will be much appreciated. 

Tables and chairs, for use in the several studies 
which have been provided in the addition, have been 
ordered but are yet to be delivered and the conversion 
of the present book-lift into a passenger elevator is a 
work which should not be long delayed. 

In addition to the immediate need of raising suffi- 
cient money to pay the debt and finish the work so well 
begun, the Council would suggest the desirability of a 
substantial increase of the Endowment Fund and, if the 
Society concurs in this opinion, it might be appropriate 
to ask the Council to consider means to accomplish it. 

During a visit to Bermuda last winter the writer 
was so fortunate as to secure for this library a con- 
siderable number of copies of the earliest newspapers 
published in those islands. The papers obtained 
include "The Bermuda Gazette "which was established 
in 1784 and continued until 1824; "The Bermudian" 

1924.] Report of the Council 137 

which had a brief existence from 1819 to 1823 and 
"The Royal Gazette" which was first published in 
1828 and has been in continuous existence ever since. 
The early numbers of "The Bermuda Gazette" are 
badly damaged by dampness but the rest of the papers 
are in fair order. The Bermuda Library has a bound 
file of twenty-two of the forty-one volumes of "The 
Bermuda Gazette" and a nearly perfect bound file of 
"The Royal Gazette" up to 1885, thus covering a full 
century. Since that date the file is not so complete, 
is mostly unbound and has consequently suffered much 
damage by insects and dampness, the constant enemies 
of books and papers in tropical and semi-tropical 

The history of the Bermuda press for the first hun- 
dred years presents several points of interest. A brief 
account of it was first published in the "Bermuda 
Almanac" for 1893 and from that article and from 
notes made last winter the following account is 

Although Bermuda was settled as early as 1612, it 
was among the latest of the English colonies in the 
western hemisphere to establish a printing press. It 
was not until 1771 that the matter was seriously 
considered, in which year the Assembly passed a 
resolution that the House" would give every encourage- 
ment to a capable person to come out from England 
and establish a proper press." Nothing came of this, 
however, and ten years later, on March 22, 1781, when 
Mr. Henry Tucker announced in the House of Assem- 
bly that a subscription had been started to establish a 
press, the House again announced its willingness to 
forward the enterprise, but it was not until March 28, 
1783, that the practical action was taken of voting an 
issue of treasury certificates to the amount of £450 for 
this purpose. As a result of this action probably, 
Mr. Joseph Stockdale came from England to St. 
George's and there began the publication of the first 
Bermuda newspaper, entitled "The Bermuda Gazette 

138 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

and Weekly Advertiser," the first number of which 
appeared on January 17, 1784. The paper was crown 
folio, four pages, three columns to a page, published 
weekly, price 20 shillings per annum or sixpence a 
single number. Owing to the difficulty of procuring a 
constant supply of paper, it was frequently necessary 
to reduce the size of the sheet, sometimes for several 
months but usually for a few numbers only. The first 
number exhibited on the first page: "The definitive 
Treaty between Great Britain and the United States 
of America," signed at Paris on September 3, 1783; 
and displayed the following: "Postscript. The 
Printer begs leave to return his hearty and unfeigned 
thanks to the gentlemen of Bermuda for the very 
flattering encouragement he has received since his 
arrival amongst them; his poor endeavors shall be 
exerted to merit their future esteem, and he flatters 
himself he shall contribute a little to keep up a spirit 
of harmony and innocent entertainment, industriously 
avoiding even a hint by which any worthy individual 
may in the least be prejudiced. " Stockdale continued 
to publish the paper until his death in 1806, when he 
was succeeded by his three daughters, Frances, 
Priscilla and Sarah Stockdale. On September 28, 
1816, the press was removed to Hamilton and the 
management of the paper was transferred to Charles 
Rollins Beach, who married Miss Sarah Stockdale; at 
the same time the caption was changed to "Bermuda 
Gazette and Hamilton and St. George's Weekly 
Advertiser," with the motto "Free and Loyal," and 
this notice, "Edited Printed and Published by Charles 
Rollins Beach, Printer to the Colony." With the 
issue of October 6, 1821, the sub-title was dropped and 
thereafter it was known simply as "Bermuda Gazette." 
Beach continued its publication until May 22, 1824, 
when he sold the establishment to a number of mer- 
chants, emigrated to the United States and died, it is 
said, at Buffalo, N. Y. The new owners continued 
the paper for a few months under the management of 

1924.] Report of the Council 139 

J. W. Judkins, the first number, dated May 29, 1824, 
having the following: "Notice. A Half-Sheet of 3 or 
6 columns will continue to be regularly issued each 
Saturday until more assistance can be procured and 
other arrangements made. " This venture seems to 
have been unsuccessful, the last number published by 
Judkins being dated August 21, 1824. No copy of the 
paper for the remainder of 1824 or for 1825 is known, 
but a volume for 1826 in the Bermuda Library begins 
with January 28, the caption being: "The Bermuda 
Gazette. New Series. Vol. ii. No. 23. Edited, 
Printed and Published by James S. Atwood. Hamil- 
ton." The new series began, therefore, with August 
28, 1824, being a direct continuation of the original 
journal. The only known copy of this paper after 
1826, is a single number, dated Monday, September 
12, 1831, in the Bermuda Library and bearing the 
following title: "Bermuda Gazette and Commercial 
Advertiser. Vol. 48. No. 8." It contains this 
notice: "Price Six Dollars per annum. Printed & 
Published weekly by Jackson & L'Estrange-St. George. 
Office of Publication, York Street, St. George's." 
The number of volumes makes this a continuation of 
the original Bermuda Gazette, but whether the 
original press had been moved back to St. George's 
or a new one established is unknown. 

Several years before this, however, a second press 
had been set up in Bermuda. A difficulty having 
arisen in 1809, between Governor Hodgson and the 
people of Bermuda, which led to the publication in the 
Gazette of libellous attacks upon the Governor, he 
sent to Halifax to induce Mr. Edmund Ward to come 
to Bermuda to ■ become "King's Printer." Mr. 
Ward accepted the invitation and established at 
Hamilton the "Royal Gazette," which he continued 
until 1816, when he in turn becoming involved in a 
quarrel with the government, returned to Halifax 
leaving the field to Mr. Beach, who again became 

140 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

"Printer to the Colony." No copy of Mr. Ward's 
paper was found in the islands. 

The third paper published in Bermuda was "The 
Bermudian. A Commercial Political, and Literary 
Journal." The first number known is "No. 12. 
Vol. 1, Wednesday, July 7, 1819," showing the first 
number appeared on April 21. The colophon is: 
"Bermuda: Printed by Alex. Holmes. St. George's." 
No copy of this newspaper was known before last 
winter, in fact it is not named in the article on the 
press in the "Bermuda Almanac." The file now in this 
library was obtained by the writer, through the merest 
chance, from the owner of the papers and, as a result, 
the library acquired 115 numbers of this hitherto un- 
known newspaper, covering the years 1819 to 1822, 
four of the five years of its publication, and also 89 
numbers of the Bermuda Gazette for the same years, 
many of them unique copies, and both lots in unusually 
good condition considering that they had been un- 
bound for over one hundred years in a destructive 
climate. The last number of the "Bermudian " known 
is dated December 5, 1822, and from an item in 
the Bermuda Gazette it is learned that its publication 
was discontinued on April 9, 1823, leaving the Gazette 
the only newspaper in the islands. 

"The Royal Gazette. Bermuda Commercial and 
General Advertiser and Recorder" was first issued on 
January 8, 1828, by David Ross Lee, Commissary 
General of the Colony, but with the third number the 
management was assumed by his son, Donald McPhee 
Lee, who returned from Halifax for this purpose, arri- 
ving on the 11th of January. He continued his labors 
on this paper to within a fortnight of his death, which 
occurred on February 11, 1883, a period of fifty-five 
years, an extraordinary record which has seldom, if 
ever, been equalled. He was succeeded by his son, 
Gregory Vose Lee. In January, 1900, the paper be- 
came a bi-weekly and in 1910 a tri- weekly. In 1922 it 

1924.] Report of the Council 141 

was amalgamated with the " Daily Colonist " and since 
then has been a daily. 

In 1833 "The Bermudian" was revived by a Mr. 
Jenkins, with the sub-title: "A Commercial, Literary, 
and Political Weekly Journal." Mr. Jenkins sold his 
press in 1835 and went to China as a missionary, and 
the paper passed into the hands of Messrs A. & J. W. 
Washington. The only copy known to the writer is 
in this Library, dated: "Hamilton, Bermuda, Saturday, 
July 16, 1842. No. 29. Vol. (blank)," and carries 
the following notice: "Published every Saturday at 
their Printing Office, Second Street, Hamilton. $5 per 
annum or 24 shillings." One of the Washingtons 
continued the paper until his death in 1860, when it 
passed into the hands of his widow, who carried it on, as 
well as the general business of a printing office, until 
1878, when it ceased to exist. 

"The Bermuda Herald" was first published on 
September 19, 1844, by Mr. William Martin, who was 
succeeded in 1846 by Mr. Robert Ward who, having 
published two years later a severe stricture on the 
Assembly, was sued for libel and, after trial in the 
Court of General Assize, was sentenced to pay a 
fine of £50 and costs and to twenty days imprison- 
ment. Public sentiment, however, was with the 
editor and the paper was continued by Mr. Ward until 
1857. No copy has been found. 

"The Bermuda Advocate," first published by Mr. 
W. S. Scobell on September 9, 1863, probably did not 
long continue since Mr. Scobell began the publication 
of "The Chronicle" at St. George's in July, 1865. 
No copy of the Advocate has been located. "The 
Chronicle" was purchased later by Messrs. Kempe 
and Childers and removed to Hamilton, where it was 
conducted by Mr. James Kempe (Childers having 
removed from Bermuda) until 1871, when it was pur- 
chased by Mr. Samuel Parker, senior member of 
Messrs. Parker and Company, and the name changed 
to "The Bermuda Times," the first number of which 

142 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

was issued on August 1, 1871. The firm of Parker 
and Company was dissolved on January 1, 1875, and 
a new firm, Messrs. Parker, conducted the paper until 
November 1, 1881, when the firm became Parker Bros. 
The only copy of this paper located by the writer is 
owned by this Society and is number 35, volume iv, 
dated April 3, 1875, Pembroke, which is the name of 
the parish which includes the city of Hamilton. The 
name of the paper was changed on some unknown 
date to ''The Times and Advocate. On June 10, 
1882, Mr. John J. Parker established the '"Home and 
People's Journal," which was consolidated with the 
" Times and Advocate" on April 1, 1883, under the 
name of " Bermuda Times and People's Journal." 
How long it continued has not been learned. No 
copy has been located. 

"The Mirror," a bi-weekly sheet of modest size was 
first published on December 26, 1863, by Mr. George 
A. Lee. It is said to have been a creditable production 
but to have had only a brief existence. 

On July, 1866, the " Bermuda Colonist" was pub- 
lished at St. George's by Mr. Charles Brady and was 
conducted by him until October, 1869, as a bi-weekly. 
It was then purchased by Messrs. S. S. Toddings and 
Bro., who enlarged it, converted it into a weekly and 
continued its publication until May, 1882, when Mr. 
S. S. Toddings became sole proprietor by purchasing 
the interest of his brother. The paper was removed 
to Hamilton in 1886 and in 1891 was converted into a 
semi-weekly, published every Wednesday and Satur- 
day. In 1909 it became a daily and in 1922 was 
consolidated with the "Royal Gazette" and continues 
under the title: "Royal Gazette and Colonist Daily." 

The "New Era" was first issued at Hamilton on 
Sept. 26, 1881 as a weekly, by Mr. A. L. Spedon, a 
native of Edinburgh, Scotland, but was discontinued 
in 1884 by reason of Mr. Spedon's death. 

1924.] Report of the Council 143 

The "Mid Ocean," a weekly, edited by Mr. S. S. 
Toddings, made its first appearance at Hamilton, on 
May 23, 1899, and is still being published. 

On June 28, 1899 "The Recorder" was first pub- 
lished by a Mr. Bushnell, but the writer has no informa- 
tion of it nor of how long it continued, Mr. Bushnell 
is now connected with the "Royal Gazette." 

In 1817, Charles Rollins Beach, the editor of the 
"Bermuda Gazette," published a small quarto journal 
of four pages, which perhaps should be classed as a 
magazine rather than as a newspaper, entitled "The 
Ladies Library." The Bermuda Library has one 
volume of this journal beginning with No. 5, Oct. 1, 
1817 and ending with No. 53, September 2, 1818. 
The volume has title page and index, and is probably 
all that was published. 

Of publications other than newsapapers produced 
by the Bermuda press in the first hundred years of its 
existence, the period which this report is intended to 
cover, the list is not a long one. In the minutes of the 
Proceedings of the House of Assembly, February 5, 
1784, it was resolved: "that as the Islands of Bermuda 
have now the advantage of a Printing Press established 
within them that the conductor thereof be directed to 
strike, on fit paper for the purpose, three hundred 
copies of the oaths appointed to be taken instead of the 
oaths of allegiance and supremacy and declaration for 
the use of the public." The writer has neither seen 
nor heard of any existing copy of this oath. If printed 
it must have been the first product of the Bermuda 
press aside from the newspaper, which antedates it by 
a few weeks only, and perhaps may equal in rarity the 
much sought for "Freeman's Oath" of New England. 
The first printed "Official Proclamation," signed by 
William Browne and countersigned by Henry Tucker, 
Jr., Secretary, calling an adjourned session of the House 
of Assembly for March 1, 1784, is mentioned in the 
article on the press in the 1893 Almanac but it is not 
stated whether it was published as a separate sheet or, 

144 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

as is most likely, was merely an advertisement in the 

"The Bermuda Almanac" was first advertised in 
1789. It was in sheet form and was published annually 
during the life of the "Bermuda Gazette." It was 
evidently continued in the same form, by the pub- 
lishers of the "Royal Gazette" as late as 1859, and, 
probably much longer, but no copy is now known in the 
islands, nor elsewhere, so far as the writer is informed. 
In the advertisement of this Almanac on January 29, 
1791, it is thus described: "A new and neat edition 
of the Bermuda Sheet Almanac for the year 1791. 
Printed on superior paper. This Almanack contains a 
list of the Governor, Council and Assembly; Officers of 
the Courts of Chancery, Admiralty, King's Bench and 
Common Pleas; Justices of the Peace; Officers of 
Government; Masters and Wardens of the Ports; the 
Royal Family; Duties on Imports; Lords of the 
Admirality; List of the Flag Officers of his Majesty's 
Fleet; a Table of Pilots' Fees; Table of the price of 
Gold current in Bermuda, &c. " 

A pocket almanac was first advertised for 1797, but 
no copy is known and apparently no other pocket or 
book almanac was published until 1845, when the 
present series was established by the proprietors of the 
"Royal Gazette," of which series the Bermuda 
Library has the volume for 1856 and a complete file 
from 1861. 

Other productions of the Bermuda press, advertised 
between 1784 and 1826, are: "An Act Passed last 
Session by the General Assembly of Bermuda." 
December 18, 1874, "Printed for J. Stockdale Price 
Is. 2d." This notice is followed by: "And in a few 
days will be published several other Acts of Assembly." 
Mr. Winslow M. Bell of Denver, Colorado, claims to 
have a volume of these Acts. 

"An Act for the Establishment and Regulation of 
the Militia." is advertised March 14, 1789. A copy is 
in the Bermuda Library. 

1924.] Report of the Council 145 

" Report of a Judgment in a Court of Admiralty of 
England " is noticed January 5, 1793. No copy known. 

"The Acts of the General Assembly" is advertised 
August 3, 1799. A copy is owned by Mr. Winslow M. 

"Description of the Eruption of the Souffrir Moun- 
tain at St. Vincent." Advertised June 30, 1812. No 
copy known. 

' ' The Rudiments of Music. " Advertised March 22, 
1817. No copy known. 

"The New Definition of Signals." Advertised 
March 22, 1817. No copy known. It is probable that 
several of these were broadsides. 

The titles of the foregoing list were learned from the 
file of the "Bermuda Gazette" in the Bermuda Library 
which ends in 1826. A thorough search of the files of 
the Bermuda newspapers since that date will doubtless 
reveal other publications, and perhaps inquiry at the 
Colonial Offices, London, or elsewhere in England, will 
yield titles now unknown. It is claimed that the 
Bermudas themselves have been thoroughly ransacked, 
but the results of the writer's search for newspapers last 
winter induce the belief that some of these now un- 
known publications may yet be found there, especially 
since several gentlemen claim to have seen one or more 
copies of the sheet almanac in the possession of now for- 
gotten owners. 

Waldo Lincoln, 
For the Council 

Check List of Bermuda Newspapers 
Since writing this report the Society has obtained by 
exchange with the Bermuda Library its duplicates of the 
"Royal Gazette," covering the years 1850 to 1882. 
The following is a list of the Bermuda newspapers in the 
Society's Library, for one hundred years after the 
establishment of a press in Bermuda, preceded by a 
brief statement of the files in the Bermuda Library for 
the same period. The arrangement is chronological. 

146 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

The Bermuda Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, St. George's, 


Weekly. Established, Jan. 17, 1784, by Joseph Stock- 

Bermuda Library has Jan. 17 -Dec. 25, 1784; July 25, 
1785; Jan. 7-Dec. 30, 1786; Jan. 10-Dec. 26, 1789; 
Jan. 1, 1791-Dec. 27, 1794; Jan. 2, 1796-Dec. 28, 1799;^. 
Mar. 5, 19, 1803; Jan. 14 -Dec. 15, 1804, scattering; Jan. 
2-Dec. 31, 1808; Jan. 13-Sept. 29, 1810; Jan. 4, 1812- 
Dec. 25, 1813; Jan. 4, 1817-Dec. 29, 1821; Oct. 5-Dec. 
14, 1822; Jan. 3-Aug. 21, 1824; Jan. 28-Dec. 9, 1826; 
Sept. 12, 1831. 

A. A. S. has Mar. 27, Apr. 17, May 1, 8, 22, June 5, 26, 
July 3-31, Aug. 21, Sept. 18-Dec. 25, 1784, (all mutilated) ; 
Jan. 1, 22, Feb. 5, 12, Mar. 26, 1785; June 17, Dec. 16, 
23, 1786; Apr. 21, May 26, June 16-July 7, Oct. 13, 
Dec. 29, Sup. July 7, 1787; Dec. 6-20, 1788; Jan, 3, 31, 
Feb. 14, 21, May 2, 9, June 13, July 25 -Aug. 22, Sept. 12- 

26, 1789; Jan. 14, Feb. 4-Mar. 18, Apr. 1, 29, May 6, 20, 
June 17-Aug. 26, Sept. 23, 30, Oct. 28-Nov. 11, 25, 
Dec. 2, 16, Sup. July 29, 1797; May 17, 1806; Oct. 15, 
Nov. 12, 1808; May 29- June 12, July 3, 17, 31, Aug. 21- 
Dec. 18, Sup. Dec. 18, 1819; Dec. 16, 1820; Jan. 6, Mar. 3- 
May 12, 26-June 9, 23- July 7, 21-Aug. 18, Sept.. 1, 15, 
Oct. 6, 13, 27, Nov. 3, 17, 1821; Jan. 5 -Mar. 16, Apr. 6- 

27, May 11, 25- June 15, Aug. 10, 17, 31, Sept. 7, 21- 
Nov. 16, 30-Dec. 14, 1822. 

The Ladies Library, Hamilton, 1817-1818? 

Weekly. Established Sept. 3, 1817 by Charles Rollins 

Bermuda Library has Oct. 1, 1817-Sept. 2, 1818, lacking 
9 numbers. 

The Bermudian, St. George's, 1819-1823. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 21, 1819 by Alexander 

Bermuda Library has Apr. 19, Sept. 13, 1820. 

A. A.S. has July 7, Oct. 13-Dec. 29, Sup. Nov. 27, 1819; 
Jan. 5, 12, Apr. 12-26, May 10, 17, June 14-Sept. 6, 

1924.] Report of the Council 147 

Sept. 20 -Oct. 25, Nov. 8 -Dec. 20, Sup. May 6, Aug. 9, 
Nov. 25, 1820; Jan. 24- June 27, 1821; Jan. 2- June 12, 
26, July 10-31, Aug. 28, Sept. 4, 18-Oct. 9, Nov. 13- 
Dec. 4, 18, 25, 1822. 

The Royal Gazette, Hamilton, 1828-1883+ 

Weekly. Established Jan. 8, 1828 by David Ross Lee. 

Bermuda Library has Jan. 11 -Dec. 20, 1830; Jan 24., 
1832 -Dec. 24, 1883. 

A. A. S. has Apr. 19, 1836-Oct. 9, 1849, scattering file; 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1850, complete; Jan. 6, 1852 -Dec. 29, 
1863 (Missing: Aug. 31, 1852; Jan. 8, Dec. 24, 1861; 
Jan. 28, May 6, June 17, Aug. 26, Dec. 2, 30, 1862); 
July 5, 26, Aug.' 9, Nov. 8, Supplement July 5, 1864; 
Jan. 3, 1865-Dec. 27, 1882 (Missing: Jan. 3, Dec. 2, 12, 
26, 1871; Apr. 11, June 6, Dec. 27, 1876; Jan. 7, Apr. 29, 
June 24, 1879). 

The Bermudian, Hamilton, 1833-1878. 

Weekly. Established 1833 by Mr. Jenkins. 
A. A. S. has July 16, 1842. 

The Mirror, Hamilton, 1863-1868? 

Weekly. Established Dec. 26, 1863 by George A. Lee. 
Bermuda Library has Jan. 13, 1864. 
A. A. S. has Oct. 28, 1868, fragment. 

The Bermuda Colonist, St. George's, 1866-1883+ 

Bi-Weekly until 1869, then weekly. Established July, 
1866 by Charles Brady. 
Bermuda Library has Jan. 5, 1876-Dec. 31, 1879. 
A. A. S. has Oct. 24, 1868, fragment; Aug. 20, 1873; 
Mar. 31, 1875. 

The Bermuda Times, Pembroke, 1871-1883+ 

Weekly. Established Aug. 1, 1871 by Parker (Samuel) 
A. A. S. has Apr. 3, 1875. 

The New Era or Home Journal, Hamilton, 1881-1884. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 26, 1881 by A. L. Spedon. 
Bermuda Library has Sept. 6, 1881 -Dec. 24, 1884, 
lacking 3 numbers. 

148 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 



Henry Fair DePuy, son of Aaron Remer and Esther 
(Farr) DePuy of Bath, N. Y., was born, April 12, 1859, 
at Bath, and died, October 14, 1924, at his summer 
camp at the Shawinigan Club, near Montreal, Canada. 
He entered Union College in 1880 and was graduated in 
1883, after a three years course, with the degrees of 
A.B. and C.E. He then was engaged in laying out a 
railroad in North Carolina, after which he went to 
Pittsburgh in the employ of the Westinghouse Company, 
but after two years accepted a position with the Bab- 
cock & Wilcox Company, with whom he remained until 
his retirement from business in 1906, being first in 
charge of the Philadelphia office and then, after two 
years, General Manager in the New York office. He 
married, first, in 1890, Miss Mary North Raymond of 
Cleveland, Ohio, who died in 1918, and second, 
Blanche Halleck, who survives him. After retiring 
from business he removed to Easton, Talbot County, 
Md., which he thereafter made his home. He was 
much interested in fishing and yachting, being a mem- 
ber of the Chesapeake Bay Yacht Club, and of the 
Laurentian and Shawinigan Clubs of Canada. 

Mr. DePuy was an enthusiastic collector of Ameri- 
cana and accumulated a valuable library, a large 
portion of which was sold in November 1919, soon 
after his removal from New York. He was an accurate 
and scholarly bibliographer and a keen student of 
early American printing. In 1917 he published a 
"Bibliography of the English Colonial Treaties with 
the Indians" and at the time of his death he was 

1924.] Obituaries 149 

engaged in compiling a bibliography of Bradford's New 
York imprints. He was a member of the New York 
Historical Society, the American Historical Association, 
and the New York Library Association, as well as 
several social clubs in New York. He was elected 
to this Society in April 1917. He contributed to the 
Proceedings, in April, 1920, a paper entitled "Some 
Early Account of the Establishment of Jesuit Missions 
in America"; and in April, 1921, an article on "Some 
Letters of Andrew Jackson. " 

The provisions of his will promise to make him the 
greatest benefactor of this Society, save Stephen 
Salisbury, Junior, since its foundation. Under clause 
7 of said will a trust is established, the income of which 
is payable to Dr. DePuy's sister during her life and 
"fromand after her death" the will provides "said trust 
shall cease and determine and thereupon said funds 
shall vest in and be paid to The American Antiquarian 
Society of Worcester, Mass., to be held by it absolutely. 
It is my wish, however, and I request, that said Society 
preserve the corpus of said fund and permit the income 
therefrom to be expended by its Librarian in the pur- 
chase of books and manuscripts relating to the history 
of America." While it is impossible as yet to deter- 
mine the value of this fund there is reason to believe that 
it will approximate one hundred and fifty thousand 

W. L. 


Frank Farnum Dresser died in Worcester, Septem- 
ber 9, 1924. He was born in Southbridge, Mass., 
October 10, 1872, the son of George Kelly and Maria 
Louisa (Farnum) Dresser. He prepared for college at 
the Southbridge High School, was graduated from 
Harvard in 1894 and after two years at the Harvard 
Law School received the master of arts degree in 1897. 

150 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

He was then admitted to the bar, and entered the law 
office of Hopkins, Bacon and Smith, which firm later 
became the well known Worcester firm of Smith, Gage 
and Dresser. Of a strongly legal mind, he progressed 
rapidly in his profession, specializing in law relating to 
business and industries. Because of his profound 
knowledge in this branch of the law, he was chosen" 
general counsel of the Associated Industries of 
Massachusetts. In later life he became much inter- 
ested in legislation regarding labor and industrial 
matters, and was a delegate from Worcester to the 
Constitutional Convention of 1917. He was the 
author of many articles on economic questions in 
periodicals and in 1902 published a book entitled "The 
Employers' Liability Act. " 

Mr. Dresser was prominently associated with the 
leading organizations of Worcester, being a trustee of 
the Worcester County Institution for Savings, Memo- 
rial Hospital and Worcester Art Museum. He was a 
member of many clubs in Worcester and Boston and 
was influential in all important civic movements. He 
was elected to the American Antiquarian Society in 
October 1909 and was of frequent assistance to the 
Society in administrative matters. He married August 
10, 1904 Josephine Rose Lincoln, daughter of Waldo 
Lincoln. He was survived by his wife and four 

C. S. B. 


Granville Stanley Hall was born at Ashfield, Mass., 
February 1, 1846, the son of Granville Bascom and 
Abigail (Beals) Hall, and died, April 24, 1924, at 
Worcester. He was ninth in descent from John Hall 
who came from England to Charlestown, Mass., in 
1630, and from Elder William Brewster of the May- 
flower, and through his mother was descended from 

1924.] Obituaries 


John Alden, also of the Mayflower. His early life was 
passed on his father's farm and, at the age of seventeen, 
he entered Williams College where he was graduated in 
1867, sufficiently high in his class to become a member 
of the Phi Beta Kappa. Intending to enter the 
ministry he attended Union Theological Seminary for a 
year at the end of which time, though not licensed or 
ordained, he preached for nine weeks at Coudersport, 
Penn. Finding that philosophy had a greater interest 
for him than theology, on the advice of Henry Ward 
Beecher and with the assistance of Henry W. Sage, he 
went to Germany where he remained three years at 
Berlin attending lectures on theology, psychology and 
allied subjects. Returning to America in 1871, he 
became for a year and a half a tutor in a private 
family in New York, after which he accepted a 
professorship in modern languages at Antioch College, 
where he remained until 1876, when he resigned, intend- 
ing to renew his studies in Germany, but delayed his 
departure for a year by becoming a lecturer on English 
at Harvard, where he received the degree of Ph.D. in 
1878. He then went to Germany where he passed 
three years in Leipzig and Berlin, studying psychology, 
physiology and education. While in Berlin he married 
in September 1879, his first wife, Miss Cornelia M. 
Fisher, a Boston lady whom he first knew while at 
Antioch College. On his return to the United States 
he delivered a course of lectures on education in Boston 
under the auspices of Harvard University, and was 
appointed lecturer on Contemporary German Philoso- 
phy at Cambridge. After delivering a course of 
lectures at Johns Hopkins University he was appointed 
in 1882 Professor of Psychology and Pedagogy at that 
institution, which position he held until called in May 
1888, to the presidency of Clark University. In the 
interval previous to the opening of the new university 
in 1889, Mr. Hall passed a year in Europe studying 
foreign educational institutions. 

152 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Clark University was established, with the approval 
of Jonas G. Clark, its founder, as a graduate school 
with five departments, mathematics, physics, chemis- 
try, biology and psychology, and with a forceof teachers 
then unsurpassed in the country in their respective 
fields, but with an uncertain income largely dependent 
upon annual contributions by its founder. It struggled 
under difficult circumstances for four years, when Mr. 
Clark, owing to an unfortunate disagreement between 
founder, president and faculty, withheld further finan- 
cial aid. Many of the faculty were induced by offers of 
higher salaries to resign and for the following eight 
years the University continued its existence under 
most adverse conditions, the courage and constancy 
of Mr. Hall alone saving it from absolute disaster. 
With the death of Mr. Clark in 1900, whose will gave 
to the University the bulk of his estate, which, though 
less than expected, was sufficient to save the institution 
from extinction, Mr. Hall, partially relieved from 
the strain under which he had been laboring so long, 
was able to devote himself more completely to his 
favorite studies, and under him the University took a 
high rank in its chosen fields. He was a persistent 
student and a prolific writer. Previous to assuming 
the presidency of Clark he published four books only, 
but after 1900 he brought out nine important works. 
In 1889 he founded the " American Journal of Psy- 
chology"; in 1893 "The Pedagogical Seminary"; in 
1915 "The Journal of Religious Psychology"; and in 
1917 "The Journal of Applied Psychology," of all of 
which he was editor and to all a constant contributor; 
besides furnishing many articles to other publications. 
In 1920 Mr. Hall resigned as President of the Univer- 
sity and thereafter devoted his whole time to writing 
and research. His first wife died in 1890 and he 
married Miss Florence Smith, who survives him as does 
a son by his first wife. 

He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
University of Michigan, 1888, from Williams, 1889, 

1924.] Obituaries 153 

and from Johns Hopkins, 1902. He was fellow of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences and member 
of the American Psychological Association, American 
Philosophical Society, National Academy of Science 
and Massachusetts Historical Society. He was elected 
to this Society in October, 1888, and was a member of 
the Council from 1891 to 1921 when he declined longer 
service. He contributed the following papers to the 
Society's Proceedings: in October, 1890, "Boy Life in a 
Massachusetts Country Town, Thirty Years Ago"; 
in April, 1894, " American College Text Books and 
Teaching in Logic"; in October, 1898, " Induction into 
Adolescency"; and in October, 1900, " Student Cus- 

W. L. 


Lawrence Park died at his home in Groton, Mass., 
September 28, 1924, after a long illness. He was sixth 
in descent from William Park, a native of Glasgow, 
Scotland, who emigrated to America in 1756. He was 
the only child of John Gray and Elizabeth Bigelow 
(Lawrence) Park and was born December 16, 1873 at 
Worcester, where his father was at that time Super- 
intendent of the State Hospital. He was educated in 
private schools in Worcester and entered Harvard 
College in 1892, where he remained four years but did 
not complete his course. After passing a year in 
study in the School of Drawing and Painting of the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, he became a draftsman 
in the office of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects, 
of Boston, where he remained until 1901, when he 
formed a partnership as architect with Robert R. 
Kendall, under the firm name of Park & Kendall. 
This partnership was dissolved in 1910, and thereafter 
he continued alone in the practice of his profession. 
But its business side did not interest him and after 

154 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

1914 he devoted his time almost wholly to the study of 
colonial art, especially to portraiture, in which he 
became an expert and, at the time of his death, a 
recognized authority. He also became interested in 
genealogy and prepared an account of his ancestor 
William Park and his descendants, which was pub- 
lished in 1909 in "The Parke Families of Massachu- 
setts." He also prepared a very accurate history of 
Major Thomas Savage and his descendants to the 
eighth generation, which was reprinted from the New 
England Historical and Genealogical Register in 1914. 
In the preparation of this work his attention was 
called to the Savage family portraits, many reproduc- 
tions of them being included in the reprint. He pre- 
pared a study of Joseph Badger, with a list of his works, 
for the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1917 and, 
in October, 1922, he contributed to the Proceedings of 
this Society, a valuable paper on Joseph Blackburn, 
with an exhaustive catalogue of his works. He made 
two excursions south to Virginia and South Carolina, 
in connection with a work sponsored by Miss Helen C. 
Frick, in a search for portraits by Gilbert Stuart and 
others, and had practically finished, at his death, 
a complete catalogue of Stuart's work, which is now in 
the hands of a New York publisher. He was a mem- 
ber of numerous historical societies, and became a 
member of this Society in October, 1916. He married 
November 16, 1905, Maria Davis Motley, who, with 
three of their four children, survives him. 

W. L. 


George Leander Shepley of Providence, R. I., son 
of John and Sarah Elizabeth (Huntress) Shepley, was 
born October 11, 1854, at Dover, N. H. and died, 
August 3, 1924, at his summer home at Warwick 
Neck, R. I. His father, a native of Manchester, 

1924.] Obituaries 155 

England, emigrated when young to Philadelphia and, 
after his marriage, lived at Dover until 1856, when he 
removed to Providence. George Shepley received his 
education in the public schools of that city and, at the 
age of eighteen, became an insurance broker in which 
he continued during his whole life. In 1879 he formed 
a partnership with James 0. Starkweather and the 
firm, Starkweather & Shepley, afterwards incor- 
porated, finally controlled one of the largest insurance 
businesses in the world, with offices in New York, 
Chicago and Boston, and correspondents in the princi- 
pal cities of America and Europe. Besides being 
president of that company he was president of the 
Rhode Island Insurance Company and the Shepley 
Land Company and a director in many of the important 
manufacturing and financial corporations of Rhode 
Island. In 1897 he served on the personal staff of 
Governor Dyer and, on February 18, 1892, he was 
elected by the legislature Lieutenant-Governor of 
Rhode Island, in place of Charles D. Kimball who be- 
came Governor by the death of Governor Gregory. 
He married, September 15, 1880, Carolyn Lisbeth 
Peck, who died in 1912, by whom he had two daughters, 
one of whom survives him. 

During the later years of his life, he became an 
enthusiastic collector of Rhode Island books, a subject 
in which he had always been interested. He gathered 
a library of Rhode Island prints, books, pamphlets, 
maps, manuscripts and relics that rivalled even the 
libraries of the Rhode Island Historical Society and 
the Rider Collection at Brown University. In 1921 he 
erected a building on Benefit Street for his treasures, 
which became one of the most interesting of Providence 
show-places. Because of his interest in this literature, 
he was granted the honorary degree of A. M. by Brown 
University in 1921. He was elected to this Society 
in April, 1920. 

W. L. 

156 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 


The Treasurer presents herewith his annual report of receipts 
and expenditures for the year ending Sept. 30, 1924, to which is 
appended a statement of the Society's investments and of the 
condition of the various funds. 

Oct. 1, 1924 the net assets were invested as follows: 

Library Building and land $266,517.09 

Public Funds 58,607.65 

Railroad and Street Railway Bonds 82,154.27 

Miscellaneous Bonds 148,802.50 

Railroad and Street Railway shares 24,193.90 

Bank shares 8,389.00 

Miscellaneous shares 24,357 . 65 

Mortgages 11,600.00 

Savings Bank Deposit 9,000.00 

Cash on deposit 493.63 

Which sum includes unexpended income 

amounting to $669.76 
Bills payable 15,000.00 15,669.76 ' 

Less Library Building and land 266,517.09 

Capital bearing interest $351,928.84 

The following securities were paid or sold during the year: 
$25,000 U. S. Government 4%'s, 1938 
2,000 Bethlehem Steel Co. 7's (called for payment) 
5 shares Cape & Vineyard Elec. Co. 
16 shares Old South Building Ass'n. pfd. 
The following securities were bought during 
the year: 
$7,000 Great Northern Power Co. 5's, 1935 
10 shares Haverhill Elec. Co. 
4 shares New England Tel. & Tel. Co. 
33 shares Worcester Gas Light Co., common 

1924.] Report of the Treasurer 157 

The Principal Account has been increased by receipt of $100.00 
for Life Memberships; $500.00 from Charles H. Taylor and $50.00 
from Albert C. Bates as Special Gifts; $251.00 by sale of duplicates; 
$75.49 from James Lyman Whitney Estate; and the following 
amounts totalling $24,400.00 were credited to the Building Fund: 

Leonard Wheeler $750.00 

Victor H. Paltsits 50.00 

William G. Mather 3,000.00 

T. HoveyGage 500.00 

Theodore T. Ellis 1,000.00 

Clarence W. Bowen 4,000.00 

Frank R. Batchelder 50.00 

George F. Fuller 1,000.00 

George I. Alden 200.00 

Charles L. Allen 200.00 

Forrest W. Taylor 1 ,000 . 00 

Harry W. Goddard 500 . 00 

Samuel V. Hoffman 500.00 

John W. Farwell 500.00 

James B. Wilbur 1,000.00 

Waldo Lincoln 1,000.00 

Grenville H. Norcross 1 ,000 . 00 

Charles H. Taylor 500.00 

Arthur Lord 100.00 

Francis R. Hart 1,000.00 

William V. Kellen 1 ,000 . 00 

Henry W. Cunningham 1 ,000 . 00 

Charles L. Nichols 1 ,000 . 00 

Francis H. Dewey 1 ,000 . 00 

Charles G. Washburn 1 ,000 . 00 

Alfred Johnson 50.00 

George A. Plimpton 500 . 00 

Samuel L. Munson 1,000.00 

Samuel B. Woodward, Treasurer. 

158 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 


Principal Oct. 1, 1923 (less unexpended income for 1923) S606, 184.81 

Library Building Fund (from Building Fund) . . 48,254.07 

Principal received since Oct. 1, 1923 

George L. Kittredge Life Membership $50.00 

Henry C. Kittredge Life Membership 50.00 

Income added to principal - 

Special Gifts Fund $23. 35 

Purchasing Fund .99 

James Lyman Whitney Fund 53.50 

Andrew McF. Davis Fund 418.31 

Building Fund 372. 62 


Gifts to Special Gifts Fund 550. 00 

Sales of Duplicates to Purchasing Fund 251.00 

James Lyman Whitney Estate 75 . 49 

Building Fund 40,400. 00 

Profit & Loss 

Bethlehem Steel Co. 7's (Bonds called for 

payment) 50 . 00 

U. S. Government 4^'s 1938 (profit by sale) 1,763.96 

Cape & Vineyard Electric Co. (profit by sale) 309. 19 

American Tel. & Tel. (sale of rights) 452.85 44,821.26 


Expended from Purchasing Fund $850.00 

Expended from Special Gifts Fund 644 . 50 

Expended from Building Fund 39,147.48 

Expended from Centennial Fund (Minwax Co.) 3,756 . 00 
Expended from Profit & Loss (Clason Architec- 
tural Metal Works) 5,350.59 

Expended from Profit & Loss (to Building Fund) 1 ,000 . 00 
Expended from Profit & Loss (loss on sale of 

Old South Bldg. Association stock) 65 . 64 50,814 .21 



Unexpended income 1923 $576 . 66 

Income from Investments 21,075.70 

Assessments 270 . 00 

Sales of Publications 183.18 22,105.54 



Report of the Treasurer 



Income carried to Principal $868.77 

Incidental Expense 572 . 44 

Salaries 8,791.99 

Light, Heat, Water and Telephone 2,042 . 12 

Office Expense 567.81 

Supplies 480.50 

Books 3,549.40 

Publishing 2,667.00 

Binding 1,023.65 

Care of Grounds 116.55 

Extra Service 755.55 

Bills Payable 


Real Estate $266,517 .09 

Mortgages 11,600.00 

Bonds 289,564.42 

Stocks 56,940.55 

Savings Bank Deposit 9,000.00 

Cash on Deposit 493.63 

Unexpended Balance Oct. 1, 1924 

Principal Oct. 1, 1924 





$633,445 .93 

Oct. 1, 1924 
Condition op the Fund Accounts 

Fund Title Principal Balance Income Expended Balance 

1923 1923 1923 

1-Alden $1,000.00 $57.50 $57.50 

2-Bookbinding 7,500.00 431.25 431.25 

3-George Chandler 500.00 28.75 28.75 

4-Collection and Research 17,000.00 977.50 967.81 $9.69 

5-1. and E. L. Davis 23,000.00 1,322.50 1,322.50 

6-John and Eliza Davis.. 4,900.00 281.75 281.75 

7-F. H. Dewey 4,800 . 00 276 . 00 276 . 00 

8-George E. Ellis 17,500.00 1,006.25 1,006.25 

9-Librarian's and General 35,000.00 2,012.50 1,868.72 143.78 

10-Haven 1,500.00 86.25 86.25 

12-Lif e Membership 4,450 .00 251 . 56 251 . 56 

13-Lincoln Legacy 7,000 . 00 402 . 50 402 . 50 

14-Publishing 32,001.91 1,840.06 1,840.06 

17-Salisbury 104,348 . 39 $576 . 66 6,000 .01 6,326 . 94 249 . 73 

160 American Antiquarian Society 

18-Tenney 5,000.00 $287.50 

19-B. F. Thomas 1,000.00 57.50 

22-Special Gifts 429.99 23.35 

23-F. W. Haven 2,000.00 115.00 

24-Purchasing 70.41 99 

25-Charles F. Washburn . . 5,000.00 287.50 

26-Centennial 32,950 . 58 1 ,948 . 02 

27-Eliza D. Dodge 3,000 .00 172 . 50 

28-Hunnewell 5,000 . 00 287 . 50 

29- James Lyman Whitney 1 ,046 . 75 53 . 50 

30-Samuel A. Green 5,000 . 00 287 . 50 

31-Andrew McF. Davis. . 7,693.51 418.31 

32-Nathaniel Paine 38,134.42 2,242.71 

33-Building 10,365.81 372.62 


















Statement of Investments 

Name Rate Maturity 

Public Funds: 

United States of America 4% Nov., 1942 

United States of America \\i Oct., 1952 

United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Ireland. . . .53^ Aug., 1929 

United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Ireland 5^ Feb., 1937 

City of Bergen 8 Nov., 1945 

City of Montreal 5 Nov., 1930 

City of Winnipeg 6 Oct., 1946 

Province of British Colum- 
bia 5 Jan., 1925 

Province of Ontario 5 l A Jan., 1937 

Toronto Harbor Com- 
missioners 4.y 2 Sept., 1953 

Dutch East Indies 6 Mar., 1962 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa 

Fe 4 May, 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa 

Fe 4 Oct., 

Boston Elevated 4 May, 

Boston Elevated 4^ Apr., 

Boston & Maine 3>6 Feb., 














1995 1,000 885.00 




1924.] Report of the Treasurer 161 

Chicago, Burlington & 

Quincy 4 July, 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois 5 May, 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois 6 Oct., 
Chicago, Indiana & 

Southern 4 Jan., 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 

Paul 4J^ June, 

Illinois Central 3J^ July, 

Iillinois Central 5 Dec, 

Lake Shore & Michigan 

Southern 4 May, 

New York Central 5 Oct., 

New York, New Haven, 

& Hartford 6 Jan., 

New York, New Haven, 

& Hartford 4 May, 

New York, New Haven, 

& Hartford „ . .3^ Jan., 

Northern Pacific 6 July, 

Old Colony 4 Jan., 

Pere Marquette 4 July, 

Pere Marquette 5 July, 

Southern Indiana 4 Feb., 

Wilkesbarre & Eastern . . 5 June, 

Worcester Consolidated . . 7 July, 

Miscellaneous Bonds: 

Adirondack Power & 

Light Corporation .. 6 Mar., 1950 6,000 5,175.00 

Alabama Power Co 5 June, 1951 5,000 4,475.00 

American Telephone & 

Telegraph Company . 4 July, 1929 13,000 12,440.00 

Appalachian Power Co. 5 June, 1941 6,000 5,460.00 

Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany 7 Oct., 1935 13,000 12,212 . 50 

Blackstone Valley Gas 

& Electric Company 5 Jan., 1939 1,000 800.00 

Cedars Rapids Mfg. & 

Pr. Co 5 Jan. 1953 5 ,000 4,800.00 

Congress Hotel Com- 
pany 6 Feb., 1933 5,000 5,000.00 










1956 12,000 


































\ 5,000.00 











162 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Consumers Power Com- 
pany 5 Jan., 1936 6,000 5,335.00 

Detroit Edison Com- 
pany 5 Jan., 1933 5,000 4,925.00 

Detroit Edison Com- 
pany 5 July, 1940 5,000 4,800.00 

Duquesne Light Com- 
pany 6 July, 1949 11,000 9,750.00 

Ellicott Square Com- 
pany 5 Mar., 1935 6,500 6,110.00 

Empire District Electric 

Company 8 Nov., 1949 4,000 3,930.00 

Fort Worth Power & 

Light Company 5 Aug., 1931 5,000 4,281.25 

Great Northern Power 

Company 5 Feb., 1935 7,000 6,720.00 

Montreal Light, Heat & 

Power Company. ...5 Apr., 1933 5,000 4,650.00 
Nebraska Power Com- 
pany 5 June, 1949 5,000 4,000.00 

Niagara Falls Power 

Company 6 Nov., 1950 4,000 3,500 . 00 

Northern States Power 

Company 5 Apr., 1941 5,000 4,300.00 

Pacific Telephone & 

Telegraph Company. 5 May, 1952 5,000 4,725.00 
Seattle Electric Com- 
pany 5 Aug., 1929 5,000 5,000.00 

Shawinigan Water & 

Power Company ...6 July, 1950 8,000 8,000.00 
Southern California 

Edison Company.... 5 Nov., 1939 1,000 920.00 

Southern California 

Edison Company.... 6 Feb., 1944 10,000 8,975.00 
Southern Power Com- 
pany 5 Mar., 1930 5,000 4,775.00 

Terre Haute Traction & 

Light Company 5 May, 1944 2,000 2,000.00 

United States Rubber 

Company 5 Jan., 1947 2,000 1,743.75 


.924.] Report of the Treasurer 163 

Par Book 

Stocks Value Value 

55 American Tel. & Tel. Co $5,500 85,345 . 00 

11 Atchison Topeka& Santa FeR.R.(Pref.) 1,100 687.00 

6 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. (Com.) 600 420.00 

3 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. (Pref.) 300 210.00 

9 Boston & Albany R. R 900 1,080.00 

50 Boston & Maine R. R. (Pref.) 5,000 5,000 . 00 

6 Chicago & Eastern 111. Ry. Co. (Com.). 600 66.90 

4 Chicago & Eastern 111. Ry. Co. (Pref.) 400 120.00 

7 Fall River Gas Works Co 700 1,097 . 88 

6 Fitchburg Bank & Trust Co 600 600 . 00 

8 Fitchburg Gas & Electric Light Co 400 490 . 65 

5 Great Northern Ry. Co. (Pref.) 500 320.00 

50 Haverhill Electric Co 1,250 1,550.00 

13 Insurance Co. of North America 130 377.00 

5 Lawrence Gas Co 500 488 . 04 

50 Massachusetts Gas Co. (Pref.) 5,000 3,785.00 

15 National Shawmut Bank 1,500 3,075.00 

10 New England Tel. & Tel. Co 1,000 990 . 50 

9 New London Northern Ry Co 900 810.00 

78 N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R 7,800 8,620.00 

30 Norton Co. (Pref.) 3,000 3,000.00 

35 Northern R. R 3,500 3,350.00 

15 Pennsylvania R. R. Co 750 510.00 

3 Pullman Co 300 309 .00 

30 Union Pacific R. R. (Com.) 3,000 3,000 . 00 

5 United States Envelope Co. (Pref.) 500 475 . 00 

16 Webster & Atlas Nat'l Bank 1,600 . 1,800 . 00 

31 Worcester Bank & Trust Co 3,100 2,914.00 

10 Worcester Electric Light Co 1,000 1,922 . 00 

39 Worcester Gas Light Co 4,225 3,826 . 38 

7 Worcester Gas Light Co. (Pref.) 700 701 . 20 


Mortgage Loans 

Burwick 2,100.00 

. L. Mellen 1,500.00 

P. Sexton, Trustee 8,000.00 


Real Estate 
ibrary Building with land $266,517.09 

The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian 
Dciety, beg leave to state that the books and accounts of the 
reasurer, for the year ending September 30, 1924, have been 

164 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

examined by Harry I. Spencer, Accountant, and his certificate that 
they are correct is herewith submitted. 

The Auditors further report that they have personally examined 
the securities held by the Treasurer and find the same to be as 
stated by him and the balance of cash on hand duly accounted for. 

(Signed) Benjamin Thomas Hill, 

_ , Homer Gage, Auditm*. 

October 1, 1924. 

Worcester, Mass., October 1, 1924 

I hereby certify that I have examined the books and accounts 

of the Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society, made up 

for the year ending September 30, 1924, and find same to be 


(Signed) Harry I. Spencer, 


Contributors of $100 and more to the Society's 
Invested Funds 

1832 Isaiah Thomas, Worcester (legacy) $23 152 

Nathaniel Maccarty, Worcester (legacy) '500 

1838 Edward D. Bangs, Worcester (legacy) 200 

1840 William McFarland, Worcester (legacy) 500 

1842 Christopher G. Champlin, Newport, (legacy) . 100 

1852 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 5 Q00 

1856 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester \ 5000 

1858 Nathan Appleton, Boston 'l00 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 200 

Edward Everett, Boston .' 100 

Goerge Folsom, Worcester 10o 

John Green, Worcester j00 

James Lenox, New York 250 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester 200 

Charles C. Little, Cambridge 100 

Pliny Merrick, Worcester 10o 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 3 545 

P. Dexter Tiffany, Worcester *200 

1867 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester '. g QOO 

1868 William Thomas, Boston " '['. ' 50 o 

Benjamin F. Thomas, Boston 100 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 500 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester (legacy) 940 

1869 Isaac Davis, Worcester IOO 

Usher D. Parsons, Providence 100 

1924.] Report of the Treasurer 165 

Nathaniel Thayer, Boston $500 

1870 Isaac Davis, Worcester 100 

Ebenezer Torrey, Fitchburg 100 

1871 Edward L. Davis, Worcester 100 

1872 Miss Nancy Lincoln, Shrewsbury 300 

John P. Bigelow, Boston (legacy) 1 Q00 

1874 Miss Nancy Lincoln, Shrewsbury (legacy) 200 

Ebenezer Alden, Randolph 100 

1875 Isaac Davis, Worcester 400 

1878 Isaac Davis, Worcester 400 

1879 Benjamin F. Thomas, Beverly (legacy) 1 000 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester 500 

1881 Joseph A. Tenney, Worcester (legacy) 5 000 

Ebenezer Alden, Randolph (legacy) 1 000 

1882 Samuel F. Haven, Worcester (legacy) 1 000 

1883 Robert C. Waterston, Boston 100 

1884 George Chandler, Worcester 500 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester (legacy) 10 000 

1885 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester (legacy) 10 000 

18S6 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester 5 000 

1887 Robert C. Waterston, Boston 100 

1889 Francis H. Dewey, Worcester (legacy) 2 000 

1S91 Edward L. Davis, Worcester 5000 

1895 George E. Ellis, Charlestown (legacy) 10000 

1899 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester . 5 000 

1900 John C. B. Davis, Washington IOOO 

Horace Davis, San Francisco 1 Q00 

Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge 1*000 

1905 Andrew H. Green, New York (legacy) 4840 

1907 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester (legacy) 60,000 

Charles E. French, Boston (legacy) 1 000 

1908 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester (legacy) 175,000 

1909 Mrs. Frances W. Haven, Worcester (legacy) 2000 

1910 Charles G. Washburn, Worcester 5000 

Mrs. Eliza D. Dodge, Worcester (legacy) 3,000 

James F. Hunnewell, Boston 5 OOO 

Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge 1000 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester 5 Q00 

Charles H. Davis, Worcester 2 000 

Austin P. Cristy, Worcester 'l00 

Henry W. Cunningham, Boston 1 000 

Henry A. Marsh, Worcester 'l00 

Simeon E. Baldwin, New Haven 100 

Eugene F. Bliss, Cincinnati 1 000 

A. George Bullock, Worcester 2 0C0 

William B. Weeden, Providence 500 

Charles L. Nichols, Worcester 2 500 

166 « American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Samuel B. Woodward, Worcester $1,000 

Samuel Utley, Worcester 100 

Waldo Lincoln, Worcester 1,000 

Samuel S. Green, Worcester 1,000 

James L. Whitney, Cambridge (legacy) 490 

1911 Austin S. Garver, Worcester 100 

Francis H. Dewey, Worcester 2,500 

Thomas Willing Balch, Philadelphia 100_ 

William Lawrence, Boston 100"" 

Charles P. Bowditch, Boston 150 

Samuel A. Green, Boston 100 

1912 James P. Baxter, Portland 100 

Franklin B. Dexter, New Haven 100 

Justin H. Smith, Boston 100 

Lincoln N. Kinnicutt, Worcester 200 

Samuel V. Hoffman, New York 5,000 

Clarence M. Burton, Detroit 100 

Henry H. Edes, Boston 250 

Mrs. Deloraine P. Corey, Maiden 500 

1913 Albert H. Whitin, Whitinsville 1,000 

Daniel Merriman, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

Mrs. Deloraine P. Corey, Maiden 500 

Miss Jane A. Taft, Worcester (legacy) 1,000 

Miss Katharine Allen, Worcester (legacy) 4,000 

1916 Grenville H. Norcross, Boston 200 

1917 Horace Davis, San Francisco (legacy) 5,000 

1919 Samuel A. Green, Boston (legacy) 5,000 

1920 Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge 6,000 

David H. Fanning, Worcester 5,000 

Clarence W. Bowen, New York 500 

Arthur P. Rugg, Worcester 200 

Samuel L. Munson, Albany 1,000 

1921 Henry W. Cunningham, Boston 250 

T. Hovey Gage, Worcester 500 

Samuel V. Hoffman, New York 1,000 

Grenville H. Norcross, Boston 500 

Samuel Utley, Worcester 100 

Homer Gage, Worcester 500 

William H. Taft, Washington 100 

Samuel B. Woodward, Worcester 100 

George A. Gaskill, Worcester 100 

Francis H. Dewey, Worcester 500 

James B. Wilbur, Manchester, Vt 500 

Leonard Wheeler, Worcester 250 

Charles P. Bowditch, Boston 100 

Charles G. Washburn, Worcester 500 

George A. Plimpton, New York 250 

1924.] Report of the Treasurer 167 

Clarence W. Bowen, New York $500 

Waldo Lincoln, Worcester 750 

Nathaniel Paine, Worcester (legacy) 38,123 

John W. Farwell, Boston 1,000 

1922 Samuel V. Hoffman, New York 500 

Samuel Utley, Worcester 300 

Homer Gage, Worcester 2,500 

Clarence S. Brigham, Worcester 200 

Henry H. Edes, Cambridge 250 

Thomas Willing Balch, Philadelphia 100 

Grenville H. Norcross, Boston 500 

I. N. Phelps Stokes, New York 100 

John W. Farwell, Boston 1,000 

Fred N. Robinson, Cambridge 100 

John Woodbury, Boston 250 

Henry W. Cunningham, Boston 750 

1923 Grenville H. Norcross, Boston 1,000 

John M. Merriam, Framingham 500 

Charles H. Taylor, Boston 250 

Clarence B. Moore, Philadelphia 100 

Albert Matthews, Boston 100 

James B. Wilbur, Manchester, Vt 5,000 

Clarence M. Burton, Detroit 100 

Charles Evans, Chicago 100 

Henry R. Wagner, Berkeley 100 

George A. Plimpton, New York 250 

Harold Murdock, Boston 100 

Charles L. Nichols, Worcester 500 

Arthur P. Rugg, Worcester 300 

Frank F. Dresser, Worcester 100 

Samuel L. Munson, Albany 1,000 

Shepherd Knapp, Worcester 100 

William T. Forbes, Worcester 103 

Albert Shaw, New York 100 

Samuel B. Woodward, Worcester 1,000 

Waldo Lincoln, Worcester 250 

Francis R. Hart, Boston 250 

A. George Bullock, Worcester 2,000 

Simeon E. Baldwin, New Haven 500 

Clarence S. Brigham, Worcester 300 

Alfred L. Aiken, Worcester 1,000 

Homer Gage, Worcester 2,000 

Francis H. Dewey, Worcester 2,000 

1924 Leonard Wheeler, Worcester 750 

William G. Mather, Cleveland 3,000 

T. Hovey Gage, Worcester 500 

Theodore T. Ellis, Worcester 1,000 

168 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Clarence W. Bowen, Woodstock $4,000 

George F. Fuller, Worcester 1,000 

George I. Alden, Worcester 200 

Charles L. Allen, Worcester 200 

Forrest W. Taylor, Worcester 1,000 

Harry W. Goddard, Worcester 500 

Charles H. Taylor, Boston 500 

Samuel V. Hoffman, New York 500 

John W. Farwell, Boston 500 

James B. Wilbur, Manchester, Vt 1,000 

Waldo Lincoln, Worcester 1,000 

Grenville H. Norcross, Boston 1,000 

Arthur Lord, Boston : 100 

William V. Kellen, Boston 1,000 

Henry W. Cunningham, Boston 1,000 

Charles L. Nichols, Worcester 1,000 

Francis H. Dewey, Worcester 1,000 

Charles G. Washburn, Worcester 1,000 

Francis R. Hart, Boston 1,000 

Samuel L. Munson, Albany 1,000 

George A. Plimpton, New York 500 

1924.] Report of the Librarian 169 


BY far the most important feature of the year has 
been the completion of the addition to the library 
stack. This work was finished early in June and 
during the summer the process of moving the books 
into the new building, with much consequent rearrange- 
ment of all the collections, has been begun. Three 
large sections of the library — the newspapers, the 
government documents and the periodicals — have 
already been shelved in the new stack, and other 
collections will be moved during the coming fall and 

The lack of shelf room for newspapers has been 
the most disturbing factor in the library for several 
years, and this collection was therefore the first to be 
rearranged. About 1200 bulky volumes, including 
fifty year files of such important papers as the New 
York Tribune, Albany Journal and Philadelphia 
Public Ledger, had been stored in the basement for the 
past four years, piled up like cordwood and quite in- 
accessible for study. Another 800 volumes, comprising 
the binding of the last half dozen years, had been 
similarly stored for want of shelving space. These 
two lots were cleared from the basement floor, and 
placed with the regular collection, which was then 
arranged, in alphabetical order by States, on the two 
upper floors of both stacks. At present the news- 
papers from Alabama to Maryland occupy the fourth 
floor of the new stack, those of Massachusetts the 
fourth floor of the old stack, those from Michigan to 
New York the fifth floor of the new stack, and those 
from Pennsylvania to Wisconsin, with the papers of 
Canada, West Indies, Mexico and South America, the 

170 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

fifth floor of the old stack. The total number of news- 
paper shelves in both stacks is 8,232, and the total 
linear length of these shelves amount to three and six- 
tenths miles. The present number of volumes in the 
newspaper collection, which includes bound volumes, 
unbound volumes and portfolios, is 12,350. 

The collection of American periodicals has been 
moved into the third floor of the new stack, where it 
fills nearly the entire capacity of that floor. This is 
one of the most important collections in the library, 
numbering 16,350volumes, bound and unbound. Most 
of the periodicals antedate 1880, but there are good 
files of the historical and literary magazines since that 
date. The primary strength of the collection, how- 
ever, is in the early period, that prior to 1820. For the 
period previous to 1800, its strength is shown in the 
comparative table given in William Beer's recent 
"Checklist of American Periodicals, 1741-1800," where 
this Library is credited with seventy out of the ninety- 
eight known periodicals of the eighteenth century. 
The collection has been much used by scholars during 
the past year, and especially by Professor William 
Graham, of Cleveland, whose work on English and 
American Literary Periodicals is now in course . of 
publication. More attention will be paid during the 
coming two or three years to filling in the gaps in the 
nineteenth century files. 

Another collection which has been moved during the 
summer is the file of U. S. Government documents, 
which now occupies the entire lower floor of the new 
stack, thus giving an opportunity for expansion which 
was much needed. 

During the next few weeks, the collections of 
psalmody, hymnology, institutional reports, and di- 
rectories will be rearranged on the third floor of the old 
stack; the Spanish-Americana and Civil War collec- 
tions will be moved to the second floor of the new 
stack; and the local history will then take all of the 
six alcoves around the rotunda reading-room. The 

1924.] Report of the Librarian 171 

moving of books takes time and strength, but the 
satisfaction of having at last a place to shelve our 
increasing collection, more than atones for all the labor. 
The present linear shelf length of the entire library is 
nearly eleven miles. 

The accessions to the Library during the past year 
expressed in tabular form, total as follows: 

Bound volumes 




Engravings, broadsides and 



Unbound newspapers 


The total number of bound volumes now in the 
Library is 152,226, and of pamphlets 234,832. 

There has been a gratifying continuance of gifts 
from members who always seem to have the Library in 
mind. Chief-Justice Rugg, President Lincoln, Mr. 
Charles G. Washburn, Mr. Charles H. Taylor, Mr. 
Henry W. Cunningham, Mr. Grenville H. Norcross, 
Rev. Herbert E. Lombard and Mr. Nathaniel T. 
Kidder are always sending us material of value intended 
to fill in and complete our files. Mr. James B. Wilbur, 
in addition to presenting us with occasional rare 
pamphlets, has kindly allowed us to select any titles 
which we needed from his Vermont duplicates. In this 
way we obtained eleven new titles, including the 1798 
Vermont Acts and Laws, and the 1804 Journal of the 
Vermont House. 

A large and valuable series of pamphlets has come to 
the Society by the will of Roger Foster of New York, 
who died February 22; 1924. These pamphlets were 
collected by his grandfather, Alfred Dwight Foster, 
and his great grandfather Dwight Foster, both of whom 
lived in Worcester County and were long members of the 
American Antiquarian Society. There were many rare 
pamphlets which we needed and probably could not 
otherwise have secured, among them the following: 

172 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Narrative of the Captivity of Mary Rowlandson, Boston, 1771. 

John Trumbull, Progress of Dullness, New Haven, 1773. 

Observations on the American Revolution, Providence, 1780. 

Joel Barlow, Prospect of Peace, a Poetical Composition, Hew Haven, 1788. 

John Jay, Address to the People of New York, New York, 1788. 

Fauchet, Eloge Civique de Benjamin Franklin, Paris, 1790. 

Thomas Evans, Address to People of Virginia, Richmond, 1798. 

There were many other titles of extreme rarity 
acquired during the year. From an English book- 
dealer's catalogue we obtained the 1734 broadside 
"Specimen by William Caslon, Letter-Founder, in 
Chiswell-Street, London," the second issue of the 
earliest English specimen sheet. Since we already pos- ' 
sessed the earliest English specimen in book form, that 
issued by William Caslon in 1763, this was an item that 
we had always desired. From a New York auction 
room was secured the first American work on architec- 
ture, Abraham Swan's "Collection of Designs in 
Architecture," Philadelphia, 1775. This book con- 
tained copper-plates engraved by John Norman and 
was dedicated to John Hancock and the members of 
the Continental Congress. It is so rare that although 
copies have recently been located in New York 
libraries, Hildeburn in his "Issues of the Press in 
Pennsylvania" was able to cite only a fragment of the 
first ten pages. 

Quite the rarest pamphlet given during the year, and 
the only perfect copy so far located, is "The History of 
the Fight of Captain John Lovell, which took place 
on the Eighth day of May, 1725, in Fryeburgh, Maine, " 
printed at Fryeburg by Elijah Russel, 1799, and 
donated to the Library by Mr. Charles H. Taylor. 
Both of the Boston 1725 editions of LovewelPs Fight 
are in the Society's library, but this Maine edition con- 
tains additional material and Russel's preface gives an 
interesting account of Fryeburg and of the establish- 
ment of a printing-press in that town. 

A tract long sought for by the Society and one which 
in spite of its Worcester interest strangely never came 
our way, is "General Gage's Instructions, of 22d 

1924.] Report of the Librarian 173 

February 1775, to Captain Brown and Ensign D'Bern- 
iere, to take a sketch of the roads, passes, heights, &c. 
from Boston to Worcester," printed at Boston by J. 
Gill, 1779. This interesting contemporaneous account 
of British operations previous to the blockade of Bos- 
ton came to the Society through exchange with the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, to whose kindness 
we are much indebted. 

Through exchange with the University of Chicago, 
the Library has obtained a large collection of material 
relating to Mexico, and the various countries of 
South America and Central America. It contains 
about 1400 volumes and 4400 pamphlets, mostly 
dating in the last forty years, and consisting of legis- 
lative documents, statistical annuals, and official 
governmental publications. Included also are about 
12,000 newspapers, chiefly the Diario Oficial or Gaceta 
Oficial of the different South American countries. 
These are nearly all of recent date, although there is a 
notable exception in a file of one thousand numbers of 
the Diario de Mexico from 1837 to 1844. Taken as a 
whole, the collection is one of great value and usefulness. 

A large number of desirable volumes of newspapers 
have been obtained, especially in the period of the early 
nineteenth century, where our collection by comparison 
is rather weak. Among the longer files noted are the 

Hallowell, American Advocate, 1810. 

Portland, Eastern Argus, 1809. 

Portland, Riverside Echo, 1870. 

Portland Transcript, 1840. 

Windsor, Vermont Journal, 1798-1809. 

Boston Investigator, 1841-1899. 

Boston, American Cabinet, 1851. 

Boston, Commonwealth, 1852. 

Boston, Ladies' Enterprise, 1855-1856. 

Concord Freeman, 1843-1846. 

Lowell, Star of Bethlehem, 1841, 1844-46. 

New London, Bee, 1798-1799. 

New Haven, Connecticut, Journal, 1814-1816. 

New York, Statesman, 1812. 

174 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

New York, Patron of Industry, 1820-1821. 
New York, Constellation, 1831-1833 . 
New York, Spirit op the Times, 1837-1838. 
New York, Traveler, 1859. 
Brooklyn, Long Island Star, 1818-1820. 
Ithaca, Democrat, 1874-1889. 
Kingston, Campaign Republican, 1852. 
Philadelphia, Atkinson's Post, 1839. 
Philadelphia, Dollar Newspaper, 1847-1856. 
Bethania, Palladium, 1832-1833. 
Lancaster, Free Press, 1821-1823. 
Columbia Spy, 1833-1834. 
Fredericktown Herald, 1802-1810. 
New Orleans, Weekly Picayune, 1841-1842. 
Denver Republican, 1896-1913. 
Bermuda Gazette, 1784-1789, 1797, 1819-1822. 
Bermuda, Bermudian, 1819-1822. 
Bermuda, Royal Gazette, 1836-59, 1862-69. 
Mexico, Diario de Mexico, 1837-1844. 

Of these files, the most notable are the early Ber- 
muda papers, received through the gift of Mr. Waldo 
Lincoln, and described in the Report of the Council. 
The Ithaca Democrat was presented by Professor 
Charles H. Hull of Cornell, several important files 
were given by Mr. Charles H. Taylor, and the remark- 
able file of the Boston Investigator was secured through 
the kindness of Mr. Charles E. Goodspeed, whose 
constant thoughtfulness of this Library is deeply 

The Charles H. Taylor Collection of American 
Printing and Journalism has grown largely during the 
year, through the donations of its founder and the 
watchfulness of one of the most able of the country's 
booksellers, Mr. P. K. Foley of Boston. Almost 
weekly large packages of material arrive, containing 
books and pamphlets on printing, journalism, adver- 
tising and paper-making, unusual issues of newspapers 
and periodicals, rare imprints and biographical ma- 
terial relating to editors and printers. All of this 
material is filed where it is ready for immediate use. 
That the collection is becoming known and valued is 

1924.] Report of the Librarian 175 

shown by the frequent letters of inquiry we receive 
concerning it and by the number of persons who come 
here expressly to consult it. Several times during the 
year it has proved of help to writers upon journalism, 
among others to Mr. Carl L. Cannon, of the New York 
Public Library, whose Bibliography of Journalism, 
issued in 1924, is a monumental work, representing a 
vast amount of labor, and a book which will be of 
great value to this Library. 

Mr. Taylor's donations have not been confined to 
journalistic material. He has presented two large 
collections of manuscripts — one the correspondence of 
Lee & Shepard of Boston, from 1862 to 1888, contain- 
ing thousands of letters from authors, bookbuyers and 
booksellers who had dealings with that well known firm 
of publishers; and the other a collection of papers 
relating to the Norwich & Worcester Railroad, 1832- 
1860, formed by John A. Rockwell, one of the early 
Presidents of the road. Also from Mr. Taylor came a 
remarkable set of the magazine, " The Lowell Offering," 
with its continuation "The New England Offering," 
uncut and with original covers. 

The collection of almanacs has received but few 
additions, except for a few New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania issues. We watch the sales carefully, but the 
collection is so nearly complete that it is seldom we find 
an almanac that we lack, and then more likely a 
scarce and early issue for which we are generally 
outbid. The price of almanacs, due to their value in 
showing statistical information, serving as examples of 
printing and possessing occasional literary merit, has 
much increased in recent years, and there are many 
buyers among libraries and collectors. 

In the collection of engravings and views a notable 
addition was a series of negatives and prints of Wor- 
cester County views, nearly one thousand in number, 
and taken about twenty-five years ago. We were 
enabled to obtain this collection through the generosity 
of a member of the Council, Mr. Washburn. 

176 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

To the bookplate collection the only accession worthy 
of note was the gift of 485 plates from Miss Clara E. 
Billings of Worcester. Our bookplates are somewhat 
like our almanacs, in that we lack few of those offered to 
us. In the Coutant Sale held recently in New York, 
we needed scarcely a dozen of all the early American 
plates there sold, and fortunately a few of these were 

The Library has been considerably used during 
the year for the study of American biography. At 
least two students of family history have each spent a 
fortnight in examining the collection of directories, 
resulting in the finding of many names not included in 
their records. Many queries have come to us from 
writers who were preparing Memorials, or gathering 
the materials for Biographies. A few years ago we 
picked at up auction a series of nineteen volumes of 
scrapbooks prepared by Alfred S. Roe, and in which 
were pasted several thousand obituary clippings dating 
from 1879 to 1908. This collection Mr. Roe had 
entitled "A Dictionary of Contemporary Biography." 
Its valuewas soapparent thatwe have made a complete 
alphabetical index, containing ten thousand names, 
thus making this biographical material of immediate 
use. Since the New York Times Index, begun in 
1913, lists all records of deaths of more than local 
importance, we now have a good index to American 
biographies for nearly the last half century. 

In connection with the present meeting, an exhibit 
of material relating to Benjamin Franklin has been 
arranged in the cases on the balcony floor. All of the 
printed and manuscript items in the exhibit come from 
the collections owned by this Library. The bibli- 
ography of Benjamin Franklin is so large, as is shown 
in Paul Leicester Ford's work on the subject and in 
William J. Campbell's "Franklin Imprints," that only 
a selection of the more important and the scarcer titles 
can be made. Of Franklin's own works, those separate 

1924.] Report of the Librarian 177 

items of which he is accredited as the author, the fol- 
lowing titles are exhibited: 

Poor Richard Almanacs, issues of 1734, 1748, 1758. 

Letter to a Friend in the Country, Phila., 1735 

Some Observations on the Proceedings against Mr. Hemphill, 2ed. Phila. 

Account of the New Invented Pennsylvania Fire-places, Phila., 1744 
Proposals relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania, Phila., 1749 
Pocket Almanac for 1753, Phila. 

Some Account of the Pennsylvania Hospital, Phila., 1754 
New Experiments on Electricty, London, 1754-1760 
Observations concerning the Increase of Mankind, Boston, 1755 
Some Account of the Success of Inoculation, London, 1759 
Historical Review of the Constitution of Pennsylvania, 1759 
Interest of Great Britian considered, Boston, 1760 
Of the Stilling of Waves by means of Oil, London, 1774 
Experiments on Electricity, London, 1774 
Remarks upon Navigation from Newfoundland, Boston, 1790 
Way to Wealth, Worcester, 1790 

The following Franklin imprints, all printed at 
Philadelphia, are shown: 

Three Letters from G. Whitefield, 1740 

Continuation of Mr. Whitefield's Journal, 1740 

Extract of a Letter from Carthagena, 1741 

General Magazine, nos. 1-6, 1741 

Protestation presented to the Synod, 1741 

The Querists, part III, 1741 

Remarks upon a Protestation, by G. Tennent, 1741 

Sermon upon Justification, by G. Tennent, 1741 

Kurzer Catechismus, 1742 

Soul Saving Gospel Truths, by Increase Mather, 1743 

The Examiner, by Philalethes, 1743 

Cicero's Cato Major, 1744 

The Shorter Catechism, 1745 

Treatise on defensive War, by W. Currie, 1748 

Letter from Mr. Whitefield to a Reverend Divine, 1748 

Collection of works of T. Chalkley, 1749 

Paper Money of Delaware and Pennsylvania 

Of works relating to the life of Franklin, there are: 

Eloge Civique de Benjamin Franklin, by Fauchet, Paris, 1790 
Eulogium on Franklin, by W. Smith, Phila., 1792 
Works of Franklin, 2 vols., London, 1793 

178 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Works of Franklin, New York, 1794 

Life of Franklin, written by himself, Salem, 1796 

Life of Franklin, by M. L. Weems, Baltimore, 1815 

The following titles are of a miscellaneous nature: 

History of the Quakers, by W. Sewel, Phila., 1728 
Answer to Mr. Franklin's Remarks, by W. Smith, Phila., 1764 
Examination of Franklin on Repeal of Stamp Act, Boston, 1766 
Dignity of Man. Discourse by N. Emmons (Franklin Library) Provi- 
dence, 1787 
Catalogue of Books in Franklin Library 
Early Bookplates of Franklin Library. 

Examples of Franklin's newspapers, the "New 
England Courant" and the "Pennsylvania Gazette," 
are shown. The Library has excellent files of the 
"American Weekly Mercury" and the "Pennsylvania 
Gazette," and in the latter file are several broadsides 
and poetical addresses of great rarity. There are the 
"New Year Verses" of January 1, 1739, 1741, 1743, 
1748, 1749, and 1752, and such broadsides as "Letter 
to B. G. from one of the Members of Assembly of 
Province of New Jersey," by W. J. 1739; "Philadel- 
phia, May 7, 1741. Extract of a Letter from one of 
the Officers, who went from the Place, Dated, before 
Carthagena April 3, 1741"; and a "Message to. the 
Governor from the Assembly" 1742. The first two of 
these titles seem to be hitherto unrecorded. 

There are several presentation or association books 
connected with Franklin in the Library. The "Cato 
Major," considered the finest production of Franklin's 
press, is apresentation copy to Thomas Clap, President 
of Yale, with the inscription "Thomas Clap. Dono D. 
Benj. Franklin, 1746," in Clap's handwriting. An 
anonymous tract "Some Thoughts on Education, with 
a Poem to the House of Representatives" New York 
1752, has the inscription "The Gift of Benj. Franklin, 
Esq. to J. Winthrop"; also Franklin's own "Account 
of the new invented Pennsylvania Fire-places," 
Philadelphia, 1744, with the inscription "The gift of 
Mr. B. Franklin to J. W. " In the latter instance the 

1924.] Report of the Librarian 179 

name is cut off by binding, but the recipient of the book 
was John Winthrop, Librarian of Harvard College 
and a friend of Franklin. 

Our copy of the " Antigua Gazette," of April 12, 
1755, printed in the West Indies by Benjamin Mecom, 
Franklin's nephew, bears the name " Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Esq.," being evidently the copy sent by the 
publisher to his uncle. 

Here are also two of Franklin's tracts, "Of the 
Stilling of Waves by means of Oil," and "Experiments 
and Observations on Electricity," both London 1774, 
which were presented to the Library by Josiah Flagg, 
who was Franklin's grand-nephew and was employed 
by him as clerk in 1786. 

Among the autograph letters exhibited are the 
following: letter from Franklin to his friend Alexander 
G. Frobisher, June 6, 1753, describing in detail his 
views upon religion and earthly awards; letter from 
Franklin to Sir William Johnson, August 11, 1755, 
referring to financial support for Johnson's campaign 
and to the need of a Union of the Colonies; letter from 
Franklin to Hon. Thomas Cushing, dated at London, 
April 2, 1774, relating to his representing Massachu- 
setts at the English Parliament, and the attitude of 
England toward the colonies; and a long letter of 
thirteen folio pages, February 26, 1778, from John 
Holt, editor of the New York Journal, to William 
Goddard, editor of the Maryland Journal, discussing 
the character of Benjamin Franklin, and the possibility 
of preventing him having too great influence in 
American affairs. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Clarence S. Brigham, 



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184 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

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186 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

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188 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 



TT7"HEN Benjamin Franklin entered the hall of the 
» * French Academy, the members rose as a mark of 
their high appreciation. Indeed no one in France was 
accorded a more gracious recognition than the Quaker 
philosopher and statesman from the British colonies 
then in revolt. Turgot's oft quoted line " Eripuit 
fulmen coelo sceptrumque tyrannis," sounding like a line 
from Virgil, was considered eminently appropriate. 
Yet the philosopher did not tear the lightning from 
high heaven; nor as a statesman did he tear scepters 
from the heads of the King of England, the King of 
France and the King of Prussia; for all of these wore 
their crowns many years after Franklin left Europe. 
Balzac's characterization of Franklin that "he in- 
vented the lightning rod, the hoax, and the republic" 
is partly appropriate and partly inaccurate, for canards 
and republics antedate any Philadelphia printer. 
True the man who originated and circulated the Edict 
of the King of Prussia; also a fictitious supplement to 
the Boston Chronicle telling of 945 scalps of men, 
women and children taken by the Indians; this man 
was something of a genius in inventive imagination, 
even if the pleasant practice of fooling the people was 
in vogue before his time. 

As early as November 7, 1749, or about three years 
after he had first seen a Leyden jar, Franklin reached 
the conclusion that lightning was a manifestation of 
electricity. He was then forty-three years old. In 
Letter V of his Experiments, he gives at length his 

1924.] Franklin's Kite Experiment 189 

conclusions. In sections 9, 10 and 11, he confuses 
phosphorescence with electricity while advancing 
views as to the electrical origin of clouds. In para- 
graph 33 of the same letter, Franklin advances the 
concussion theory of rain and may be regarded as the 
first of a long line of would-be rainmakers, who seek to 
connect explosive waves with precipitation. I men- 
tion this matter here because he unquestionably had 
noticed the rain gushes after near lightning flashes. 
He says, 

"The concussion or jerk given to the air, contributes also to 
shake down the water not only from those clouds, but from 
others near them. Hence the sudden fall of rain immediately 
after flashes of lightning. " 

In paragraph 40, he also explains the aurora as 
"electrical fire." Furthermore in Franklin's Addi- 
tional Papers to Peter Collinson, dated Philadelphia, 
July 29, 1750, he says (p. 64, 5th Edition, London, 


"Now if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the 
same, as I have endeavored to show at large, in a former paper, 
this pasteboard tube and these scales may represent electrified 

Estimating what an electrical cloud of 10,000 acres 
would do he is led to the conception of a lightning rod. 

"I say, if these things are so, may not the knowledge of this 
power of points be of use to mankind, in preserving houses, 
churches, ships, etc. from the stroke of lightning, by directing 
us to fix on the highest part of those edifices upright rods of 
iron, made sharp as a needle and gilt to prevent rusting .... 
Would not these pointed rods probably draw the electrical fire 
silently out of a cloud before it came nigh enough to strike and 
thereby secure us from that most sudden and terrible mischief?' 

This precedes the letter about the kite, two years. 

In a letter to C. C. Esq. (Cadwallader Colder) at 
New York, 1751, Franklin says, 

"The greatest known effects of common lightning may I 
think without much difficulty be exceeded in this way [he 
means by increasing the number of Ley den jars] which a few 
years since could not have been believed and even now may 

190 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

seem to many a little extravagant to suppose. So we are got 
beyond the skill of Rabelais's devils of two years old, who he 
humorously says had only learnt to thunder and lighten a 
little round the head of a cabbage. " 

On May 20, 1752, the Abbe Mazeas wrote to 
Franklin an account of certain experiments made at 
St. Germain and Marly to test the conjectures of Mr. 
Franklin upon the analogy of thunder and electricity. 

This confirmation of his views probably did not 
reach Franklin until the end of June, 1752. These were 
the first experiments which actually demonstrated 
that thunder clouds acted as electrified bodies. The 
tests do not seem, however, to have been carried out 
during severe thunderstorms. The storms of 10th 
May 2:20 p. m. and 18th May between 2 and 3 p. m., 
appear to have been feeble showers. The matter 
seems to have rested there. In England, although the 
necessary apparatus was installed, the weather was un- 
commonly cool and damp; and at London during the 
whole summer there was but one thunderstorm, and 
then the rain wet the apparatus and no sparks could be 
obtained. But a Mr. Canton at Spital-square about 
5 p. m. July 21, 1752, got some feeble sparks, four or 
five per minute; but they soon ceased. A Dr. Bevis 
at St. Johns Gate, observed nearly the same phenomena 
as Mr. Canton. 

And now we come to Franklin's first definite pro- 
nouncement of the kite experiment. It is letter XI in 
the Observations, from Benjamin Franklin, Esq., of 
Philadelphia to Peter Collinson, Esq. F. R. S., London. 
The date is October 19, 1752, but given in the Phil. 
Trans. 1672, p. 565, as Philadelphia, October 1, 1752. 
Professor A. Lawrence Rotch has shown (" Science, " 
September 21, 1906, and Proc. Am. Antiquarian 
Soc, Vol. 18 pp. 118-123) that a lightning rod was 
erected on Franklin's house, in September 1752; and 
that Franklin had prepared material for Poor Richard's 
Almanac for 1753, probably not later than October 

1924.] Franklin's Kite Experiment 191 

The letter XI referring to the kite is as follows: 
A copy of the letter obtained by Professor Rotch 
differs in several important points and these differences 
are in brackets. 

"As frequent mention is made in (the) public papers from 
Europe of the success of the Philadelphia experiment for 
drawing the electric fire from clouds by means of pointed rods of 
iron erected on high buildings &c. it may be agreeable to the 
curious to be informed that the same experiment has succeeded 
in Philadelphia though made in a different and more easy 
manner which is (any one may try) as follows : 

Make a small cross of two light strips of cedar, the arms so 
long as to reach to the four corners of a large thin silk hand- 
kerchief when extended ; tie the corners of the handkerchief to 
the extremities of the cross, so you have the body of a kite; 
which being properly accomodated with a tail, loop and string, 
will rise in the air like those made of paper; but this being of 
silk is fitter to bear the wet and wind of a thunder-gust with- 
out tearing. To the top of the upright stick of the cross is to be 
fixed a very sharp pointed wire rising a foot or more above the 
wood. To the end of the twine, next the hand, is to be tied a 
silk ribbon (riband) and where the silk and twine join, a key 
may be fastened. This kite is to be raised when a thunder- 
gust appears to be coming on (which is very frequent in this 
country) and the person who holds the string must stand within 
a door or window or under some cover so that the silk ribbon 
(riband) may not be wet; and care must be taken that the twine 
does not touch the frame of the door or window. As soon as 
any of the thunder clouds come over the kite, the pointed 
wire will draw the electric fire from them and the kite with all 
the twine will be electrified, and the loose filaments of the twine 
will stand out every way and be attracted by an approaching 
finger. (And 1 ) when the rain has wet the kite and twine so 
that it can conduct the electric fire freely you will find it stream 
out plentifully from the key on the approach to your knuckle. 
At this key the phial may be charged; and from electric fire 
thus obtained spirits may be kindled and all the other electric 
experiments be performed which are usually done by the help 
of a rubbed glass globe or tube, and thereby the sameness of the 
electric matter with that of lightning completely demonstrated. 
(I was pleased to hear of the success of my experiments in 
France and that they begin to erect points upon their buildings. 
We had before placed them upon our academy and state- 
house spires). 

'Not in Professor Rotch's Copy. 

192 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

In nearly all the biographies the letter appears in the 
abridged form. The closing paragraph so generally 
omitted is important, for while it throws no light on 
the actual date of the kite experiment, it does claim a 
priority in the erection of lightning rods. 

Now the impression is general that the kite was 
flown in June 1752. 2 Most biographers say that 
experiments were made by Franklin on June 6, 1752. 
Priestly, who followed closely Franklin's experiments, 
is probably the chief authority for placing the kite 
flights in June or early summer of 1752. But I do not 
find a definite date in Priestly's " History of Electri- 
city." In the "Life of Franklin" by Dr. Stuber, we 
are told of the experiment but without date other than 
"summer of 1752." Mr. William S. Mason of 
Evanston, 111., has been kind enough to quote for me 
from "The Complete Works of Benjamin Franklin" 
in 3 volumes, London 1806, that portion given by 
Dr. Stuber; but as will be seen the account is in general 
terms; and what is rather surprising, explanatory and 
apologetic. While Franklin was waiting for the 
erection of a spire it occurred to him that he might 
have more ready access to the region of the clouds by 
means of a common kite. 

Then follows a description evidently based on letter 
XI given above. 

"With this apparatus on the appearance of a thunder gust 
approaching, he went out into the commons accompanied by 
his son, to whom alone, he communicated his intentions, well 
knowing the ridicule which too generally for the interest of 
science, awaits unsuccessful experiments in philosophy. He 
placed himself under a shade to avoid the rain — his kite was 
raised — a thunder cloud passed over it, no sign of electricity 
appeared. He almost despaired of success, when suddenly he 
observed the loose fibres of his string to move toward an erect 
position. He now presented his knuckle to the key and re- 
ceived a strong spark. How exquisite must his sensations have 
been at this moment. On this experiment depended the fate of 
his theory, etc." 

The " Britannica, " for example gives this date. 

1924.] Franklin's Kite Experiment 193 

Franklin himself would have been the first to 
criticise the above. Why should one go to the com- 
mon if he desired to fly a kite where none could see 
and comment; and why should one who had made an 
estimate of what we may call the killing power of 
lightning, wish to expose his own son to probable death 
or at any rate intense shock. And again, "he placed 
himself under a shade" — if this means that Franklin 
stood under a tree to escape rain, it contraverts Frank- 
lin's own previously published warning that it was very 
dangerous to stand under trees during a thunder storm. 
Dr. Stuber knew Franklin intimately and it is said got 
the story of the kite from him. Concerning this I 
append an interesting letter from Mr. George Simp- 
son Eddy of New York City. 

Now as we have seen, Franklin clearly had in mind 
the identification of lighting and electricity as early as 
November 1749. He reasoned from the general 
similarity, from the noise, from the melting of metal, 
and even entertained the idea that with a sufficient 
number of Leyden jars in circuit, he could produce a 
spark rivalling the lightning flash. 3 

Dr. I. Minis Hays writes (See Appendix) that he has 
always been under the impression the kite experiments 
were made in June 1752; but so far as he knows, there 
is no definite information on this point. The Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society has a complete file of the 
Pennsylvania Gazette and Mr. C. S. Brigham has been 
good enough to have search made for some reference to 
the experiment (See Appendix). There is none in the 
summer of 1752, and not until the issue of October 19, 
1752, is there a news item, worded exactly as Frank- 
lin's letter to Collinson of same date. It seems to the 
writer quite improbable that a man so astute as 
Franklin and so keenly aware of the importance of this 

«I may say that there is now (1924) at Pittsfield, Mass., a laboratory building, in which 
imitation lightning is produced. I refer to the General Electric Company and Mr. F. W. 
Peek's experiments. A generator giving a voltage of two million volts charges a con- 
denser. The current is of the order of ten thousand amperes. 

194 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

particular experiment, would have failed to publish a 
note, however, brief, and preliminary, in the Gazette. 
What is perhaps still more significant, E. Kinnersley, 
who was the chief expositor of the newly-discovered 
electric fire, and who was in close correspondence with 
Franklin (Franklin borrowed his "brimstone globe" 
March 2, 1752, and used it in making experiments in 
the spring of 1752) gave several public lectures, in 
which there is no mention of the kite experiment. In 
the Pennsylvania Gazette of September 14, 1752, there 
is an account of Kinnersley's lecture at the State House. 
And again in the issue of September 21, September 28, 
and October 19. It would also seem that, once as- 
sured of the results, Franklin would have wasted no 
time in communicating with Peter Collinson to have 
the paper laid before the Royal Society. It is signifi- 
cant that the letter to Collinson and the same letter in 
the Gazette, bear the dates October 1 and October 19. 
Now for the experiment itself, or rather the des- 
cription. What internal evidence is there as to the 
authenticity of it? 

First: We may say without being challenged, the 
kite was not flown during a severe thunderstorm, or 
even during a moderate thunderstorm. There would 
have been no Franklin, Senior or Junior, left to 
describe what took place. It is an extremely haz- 
ardous, one may Say, foolhardy thing to do. He who 
flies a kite in a thunderstorm may survive; but he will 
always remember certain occurrences. There are 
numerous cases of boys being killed. Even where 
kites are flown professionally, with every precaution, 
fatalities occur. It happens that the writer has 
several times tried to repeat the kite experiment. 
The results which Franklin describes are not those 
occurring during a thunderstorm; but do agree with 
results which one may get with a kite flown to a 
moderate elevation, on almost any day, even in clear 

1924.] Franklin's Kite Experiment 195 

Second: It is equally certain that the kite was not 
flown on a clear day, for here would have been a 
capital discovery, namely that electricity could be 
drawn (to use the popular term) from the sky on a 
clear day. Franklin would have made much of that," 
for it is the more important though less dramatic 

Third: The kite experiment apparently was not 
repeated. Franklin's conception, or perhaps the inter- 
pretation put upon the experiment and generally 
accepted, was that a cloud was a reservoir of electricity 
and the kite string a conductor. On the contrary, it 
appears to have been purely induction, not conduction. 
Had the kite string been wet enough to act as a con- 
ductor, the fibres would not have stood out. 

It may have been frictional electricity; and through- 
out this period, Franklin always speaks of gusts; and 
certain electrical manifestations occur only with these 
gusts. Again Franklin conceived experiments, de- 
scribed them and tried them out later, as in his ex- 
periment in 1753 when he found clouds to be negatively 
electrified; and then later found they were sometimes 
positively electrified. He did not, however, in these 
subsequent experiments make use of a kite. He used 
the insulated lightning rod. It is a curious thing that 
he makes no mention of a kite after October 1752. In 
September 1752, he erected an iron rod on his house; 
and found many contradictory phenomena during 
thunderstorms, but in his letter to Peter Collinson, 
dated September 1753, he does not refer to the kite 
among all these. His pointed rod was out of order in 
the winter of 1752; so that it was not until April 1753 
that he got results. He does specifically mention on 
June 6 a gust that continued from 5 to 7 p. m. But 
note this is June 6, 1753 and possibly this date has 
been wrongly thought to be the date of the kite flight. 

196 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

The conclusions are then 

1: Franklin himself does not give a definite date 
when a kite was flown. 

2: It seems doubtful that the kite was flown in 
June or early summer 1752. 

3: If flown, the date was probably not far in ad- 
vance of the end of September 1753. 

4: The whole tenor of the letter of October 1 (19) 
1752, indicates not so much an experiment actually 
performed as one projected and the results anticipated. 
For actually the phenomena are quite different. Frank- 
lin does not say in the concluding paragraph that he 
actually charged a phial, etc. Only that it may be 


From Joseph Priestley, "The history and present 
state of electricity. " 3d ed. London, 1775, vol. I, 
p. 216-217. 

The Doctor, after having published his method of verifying 
his hypothesis concerning the sameness of electricity with the 
matter lightning, was waiting for the erection of a spire in 
Philadelphia to carry his views into execution; not imagining 
that a pointed rod of a moderate height, could answer the 
purpose; when it occurred to him, that, by means of a common 
kite, he could have a readier and better access to the regions of 
thunder than by any spire whatever. Preparing, therefore, a 
large silk handkerchief, and two cross sticks, of a proper length, 
on which to extend it, he took the opportunity of the first 
approaching thunderstorm to take a walk into a field, in which 
there was a shed convenient for his purpose. But dreading the 
ridicule which too commonly attends unsuccessful attempts in 
science, he communicated his intended experiment to nobody 
but his son, who assisted him in raising the kite. 

The kite being raised, a considerable time elapsed before 
there was any appearance of its being electrified. One very 
promising cloud had passed over it without any effect; when, at 

1924.] Franklin's Kite Experiment 197 

length, just as he was beginning to despair of his contrivance, 
he observed some lose threads of the hempen string to stand 
erect, and to avoid one another, just as if they had been sus- 
pended on a common conductor. Struck with this promising 
appearance, he immediately presented his knuckle to the key, 
and (let the reader judge of the exquisite pleasure he must have 
felt at that moment) the discovery was complete. He per- 
ceived a very evident electric spark. Others succeeded, even 
before the string was wet, so as to put the matter past all 
dispute, and when the rain had wetted the string, he collected 
electric fire very copiously. This happened in June 1752, a 
month after the electricians in France had verified the same 
theory, but before he had heard of anything that they had done. 

In the Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State 
of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanic 
Arts for April, 1906, there is an article by Dr. Edwin J. 
Houston, "Franklin as a Man of Science and an 
Inventor," which contains a discussion of the electrical 

From the Complete Works of Benjamin Franklin. 
In three volumes. (Life by Dr. Stuber. London, 
1806, vol. 1, ff. 108. 

It was not until the summer of 1752, that he was enabled to 
complete his grand and unparalleled discovery by experiment. 
The plan which he had originally proposed, was, to erect on 
some high tower, or other elevated place, a sentry-box, from 
which should rise a pointed iron rod, insulated by being fixed 
in a cake of resin. Electrified clouds passing over this, would, 
he conceived, impart to it a portion of their electricity, which 
would be rendered evident to the senses by sparks being 
emitted, when a key, the kunckle, or other conductor was 
presented to it. Philadelphia, at this time afforded no 
opportunity of trying an experiment of this kind. While 
Franklin was waiting for the erection of a spire, it occurred to 
him that he might have more ready access to the region of 
clouds by means of a common kite. He prepared one by 
fastening two cross sticks to a silk handkerchief, which would 
not suffer so much from the rain as paper. To the upright 
stick was affixed an iron point. The, string was, as usual, of 

198 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

hemp, except the lower end which was silk. Where the 
hempen string terminated, a key was fastened. With this 
apparatus, on the appearance of a thunder-gust approaching, 
he went out into the commons, accompanied by his son, to 
whom alone he communicated his intentions, well knowing the 
ridicule which, too generally for the interest of science, awaits 
unsuccessful experiments in philosophy. He placed himself 
under a shade, to avoid the rain — his kite was raised — a 
thunder-cloud, passed over it — no sign of electricity appeared. 
He almost despaired of success, when, suddenly, he observed 
the loose fibres of his string to move towards an erect position. 
He now presented his knuckle to the key, and received a strong 
spark. How exquisite must his sensations have been at this 
moment. On this experiment depended the fate of his theory. 
If he succeeded, his name would rank high among those who 
had improved science; if he failed, he must inevitably be 
subjected to the derision of mankind, or, what is worse, their 
pity, as a well-meaning man, but a weak, silly projector. The 
anxiety with which he looked for the result of his experiment, 
may be easily conceived. Doubts and despair had begun to 
prevail, when the fact was ascertained in so clear a manner that 
even the most incredulous could no longer withold their assent. 
Repeated sparks were drawn from the key, a phial was charged, 
a shock given, and all the experiments made which are usually 
performed with electricity. 

From Benjamin Franklin, "New Experiments and 
Observations on Electricity made at Philadelphia in 
America." 2d ed., London: Printed and sold by D. 
Henry, and R. Cave, 1754, p. 108. 

Letter XL From Benjamin Franklin, Esq., at Philadelphia. 

As you tell me our friend Cave is about to add some later 
experiments to my pamphlet, with the Errata, I send a copy of 
a letter from Dr. Colden which may help to fill a few pages; 
also my kite experiment in the Pennsylvania Gazette: to which 
I have nothing new to add, except the following experiment 
towards discovering more of the qualities of the electric fluid. 

1924.] Franklin's Kite Experiment 199 


Benjamin Franklin, New Experiments and Observations on 

Electricity . . . 3d ed., London, 1760. 
Benjamin Franklin, Experiments and Observations on Elec- 
tricity . . . London, 1759. (Letter to Franklin from 

Mr. Kinnersley, March 12, 1761) p. 387. 
Ueber Luftelekricitat, 1746-1753. No. 11 of Neudriucke von 

Schriften und Karten liber meteorologie und erdmagnetis- 

mus, ed. by Dr. G. Hellmann. 
Benjamin Wilson, Further Observations upon Lightning . . 

London, 1774. 
Giuseppe Toaldo, Dell' Uso de Conduttori Metallici . . 

Vencie, 1774. 
Delia maniera di preservare gli edificj dal fulmine . . . Venice 

l'Abbe" Nollet, Lettres sur l'Electricite' ... 3 vols. Paris 

1774. Vol. 1, p. 148 
l'Abbe Nollet, Essai sur l'Electricite des Corps . . . Paris 

The Pictorial Life of Benjamin Franklin, Printer . . . Dill and 

Collins, Philadelphia, 1923. "Franklin making his kite 

experiment. " Picture. 
Richard Anderson, The Lightning Rod. London, 1882. 
Royal Society of London— Transactions. Vol. 47. 
Abbott Lawrence Rotch, Did Benjamin Franklin fly his 

electrical kite before he invented the lightning rod? 

American Antiquarian Society Proceedings, vol. 18, pp. 

118-123, Worcester, 1906. 
The Gentleman's Magazine, 1756, p. 378n., Vol. 26 

Letter from William S. Mason, Evanston, III. 

December 22, 1923. 
Alexander McAdie, Director, 
Blue Hill Observatory, 
Readville, Massachusetts. 
Dear Sir: 

Your inquiry relative to Dr. Franklin's kite experiments has 
given us an interesting problem to locate the Doctor's own 
description of his experiments with the kite. 

200 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

The general opinion seems to hold that these experiments 
were made in June, 1752; and in a note of Dr. Franklin's to 
Collinson he says "I send a copy of a letter from Dr. Colden 
which may help to fill a few pages; also my kite experiments 
in the Pennsylvania Gazette." We have no numbers of the 
year 1752 of the Pennsylvania Gazette here in our library, and 
our Miss Lapham visited the Wisconsin State Historical 
Society library expecting to find a complete file. However, we 
were disappointed in this as their file was only about one-half 
complete for the year 1752. I believe the Antiquarian Society 
has a complete file. 

It may be interesting to read Franklin's Autobiography 
beginning at page 183 et seq., Everyman's Edition. This 
relates entertainingly although only in general, of his electrical 

In a letter to Cadwallader Colden, Dr. Franklin speaks of 
experiments made on June 6, 1752. Dr. Colden to Benjamin 
Franklin on October 29, 1752 in a postscript says, "This having 
lain by me some days for an opportunity to send it I have in 
that time seen in the News papers the Account of the Electrical 
Kite. I hope a more perfect & particular account will be 
published in a manner to preserve it better & give it more credit 
than it can obtain from a common News paper, etc. " 

It may be of interest to you to read some of Dr. Franklin's 
letters to E. Kinnersley and the replies thereto during the 
years 1752 to 1754. No mention is made in the bibliography 
of Dr. Edwin J. Houston's work on "Franklin as A Man of 
Science and An Inventor." This is a rather technical and 
very thorough piece of work. We have an extra copy and 
shall be glad to send it on if you would care for it. 

Were not some experiments made at the Blue Hill Observa- 
tory in 1891 or 1892 relating to atmospheric disturbances? I 
recollect reading something to that effect only recently. 

I am enclosing some brief excerpts from Priestley and Dr. 
Stuber's work on Franklin. Stuber seems to have copied 
largely from Priestley. You will also find a brief bibliography 
on works relating to Dr. Franklin and electricity. 

To sum up briefly, I believe Dr. Franklin made the experi- 
ment in the spring of 1752, and that his own description of it 

1924.] Franklin's Kite Experiment 201 

may be found in the Pennsylvania Gazette and probably in the 
proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 

Yours very truly, 

Wm. Mason 

Letter from George Simpson Eddy, New York City 

December 15, 1923. 
Prof. Alexander McAdie, Director, 
Harvard University, 
Blue Hill Observatory, 
Readville, Mass. 
My Dear Professor McAdie: 

Since writing you last I have examined Parton's Life of 
Franklin. In Vol. I of that work you will find considerable 
information about Franklin's electrical experiments. On page 
295 Parton says, with regard to the kite flying experiment, 
"We owe our knowledge of what occurred on that memorable 
afternoon, to two persons who heard Franklin tell the story, 
namely, Dr. Stuber of Philadelphia and the English Dr. 
Priestley." As I told you in my last letter, I do not possess 
Dr. Priestley's History of Electricity, but I have an edition of 
the Life and Essays of Dr. Franklin published in the Republic 
of Letters, a journal which was published in New York in the 
year 1834. This Life begins in No. 2 of that journal, page 171. 
On page 180 begins the continuation of Franklin's Life written 
by Stuber, who is described as "one of the Doctor's intimate 
friends." On page 181 is to be found Stuber's description of 
the kite flying experiment. He does not give the exact date, 
simply stating that it took place in the summer of 1752. 
Stuber's description seems to imply that rain fell during the 
period of the experiment but is not explicit upon that point. 
Possibly Dr. Priestley's account of the experiment maybe fuller. 

Stuber's life of Franklin was first printed in the Columbian 
Magazine published at Philadelphia 1790-1791 (see Smyth, 
Vol. I, page 25). A part of Stuber's Biography which fitted 
on to the Autobiography was first printed in the Works of 
Franklin edited by Benjamin Vaughan and published at 
London in 1793, and "this continuation by Stuber has been 

202 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

that used in most of the popular editions of the autobiography " 
(see P. L. Ford's Bibliography of Benjamin Franklin, page 181). 
Parton, Vol. 1, page 289, says (referring to the spring of 1752), 
"nearly three years have rolled away since he had suggested 
in his private diary a mode of ascertaining whether lightning 
and electricity were really the same." I do not know what 
Parton meant by " private diary. " I think that he must have 
been referring to the paper written by Franklin in 1749 entitled 
"Opinions and Conjectures, concerning the Properties and 
Effects of the Electrical Matter, arising from Experiments and 
Observations, made at Philadelphia, 1749. " 
With my kindest regards, I am, 

Very sincerely yours, 

Geo. Simpson Eddy 

P. S. In Spark's edition of the Works of Franklin, V. 173, 
you will find that part of Stuber's continuation relating to the 
electrical experiments. On p. 179 of same Volume, Sparks says, 
"Dr. Priestley in his History of Electricity, published in the 
year 1767, gives a full account of Franklin's experiments and 

Letter from I. Minis Hays, Philadelphia 

December 14th, 1923. 
Mr. Alexander McAdie, Director, 
Blue Hill Observatory, 
Readville, Massachusetts. 
Dear Mr. McAdie 

I am in receipt of yours of the 12th ipst. and I am sorry that 
I cannot give you the definite information you desire. I have 
always been under the impression that Franklin's kite experi- 
ments were made in the month of June, 1752, and tradition is 
that he flew it on a vacant lot about 10th and Chestnut Streets, 
but then again, so far as I know, there is no definite information 
on this point. 

Regretting that I can give you nothing more satisfactory, I 

Very sincerely yours, 

I. Minis Hays 

1924.] Franklin's Kite Experiment 203 

Letter from Clarence S. Brigham, 
Worcester, Mass. 

December 11, 1923 
Mr. Alexander G. McAdie, 
Readville, Mass. 
Dear Mr. McAdie: 

We have a full file of Franklin's paper, "The Pennsylvania 
Gazette," and there is no reference in the summer and fall of 
1752 to the kite-flying incident except in the issue of Oct. 19, 
1752, where there is a news item with reference to the recent 
experiment in Philadelphia. This is exactly alike in wording 
to Franklin's letter to Collinson, printed in his "Experiments. " 
I suppose that the files of the Philadelphia newspapers have 
been gone over dozens of times for references to Franklin's 
experiments, but nothing has been found regarding them. 

You probably know that under date of Sept. 14, 1752 
(Pennsylvania Gazette), there is an elaborate description of 
Ebenezer Kinnersley's experiments on the "newly discovered 
electrical fire, " which he performed at the State House several 
times in the fall of 1752. There are references to this also in the 
issue of Sept. 21, Sept. 28 and Oct. 19, but none of them refer 
to Franklin, nor do any of them mention the experiment of kite- 

It would seem as if that in some of the Philadelphia manu- 
script diaries of the 18th century, preserved in Philadelphia, 
there might be references to the kite-flying, and perhaps also in 
some of the printed correspondence of the period, but so many 
people are interested in this problem that one would think that 
such citations would have been brought to light. 

You probably have seen the pamphlet by Kinnersley entitled 
"A Course of experiments in electricity," Philadelphia 1764, * 
a copy of which is in the Library Company of Philadelphia. 

Yours very truly, 

Clarence S. Brigham, 

204 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Letter from William Duane, Boston, Mass. 

Dr. Alexander McAdie, 
Harvard University, 
Readville, Mass. 
My Dear McAdie: 

In reply to your letter in regard to Franklin's experiment 
with the kite, I do not know the exact date. As the men whom 
you mention know a great deal more about history than I do, I 
probably could make no valuable suggestions. 

From my twenty years experience with the Philadelphia 
climate, it seems to me unlikely that a thunder storm would 
occur about October 19th. Would not a summer date be more 
probable on this account? You know much more about 
weather than I do. 

I have an autograph letter of Franklin's in which he states 
some of his ideas about storms. Perhaps you would like to 
see it some time. 

Yours sincerely, 

William Duane 


Mr. George Simpson Eddy has been kind enough to trace the 
history of the newspaper account of which Cadwallader Colder 
spoke in his letter to Franklin of October 29, 1752. He writes: 

"I have discovered one such account in the New York 
Gazette review in the Weekly Post Boy, October 23, 1752. 
This account was copied word for word from that in the 
Pennsylvania Gazette, October 19, 1752, altho the latter 
journal is given no credit. " 

"The New York Historical Society has the following issues of 
the New York Mercury (published by Hugh Gaine) but in 
none of these have I found any mention of the kite experiment— 
Aug. 31; Oct. 2; Nov. 6, 13, 20, 27; Dec. 4, 11, 18, 25; all 1752. 
I have examined the Pennsylvania Gazette from May 7 to 
Dec. 26, 1752, and have found no reference to the famous 
experiment except the account in the issue of Oct. 19. Of the 

1924.] Franklin's Kite Experiment 205 

issues of the Post Boy, the N. Y. Historical Society has all save 
those of Sept. 7 and 10, I have looked through all the others 
numbers from June 1 to Dec. 25, 1752, without results; except 
that I found some interesting ''ads" of Kinnersley's lectures in 
New York, and, in the issue of Oct. 2, 1752, a long account of 
the experiment by Dalibard, Le Monnier, and De Lor, copied 
from the Gentleman's Magazine of June, 1752. " 

Mr. Eddy comments further on Dr. Stuber, particularly 
concerning the age of Dr. Stuber. This will be the subject of 
later investigation. 

Dr. Fred E. Brasch, Washington, D. C, has kindly sent a 
copy of an article by Professor John Winthrop in the Boston 
Chronicle, Monday, July 11, 1768. This is in defense of the 
erection of lightning rods. The kite experiment is not men- 
tioned, but detailed description of the damage done to Hollis 
Hall in the severe storm of July 2, is given. 

A letter has been received from Mrs. James Southard Ellis of 
Philadelphia with a long extract from the Universal Asylum and 
Columbian Magazine for June, 1790. In this extract is an 
account of Franklin's letter to M. Duborg on the Art of Swim- 
ming in which Franklin states that when he was a boy he 
amused himself one day by flying a paper kite : 

" I found that lying on my back and holding the stick in my 
hand I was drawn along the surface of the water in a very 
agreeable manner. * * * I have never since that time 
practiced this singular mode of swimming tho I think it not 
impossible to cross in this manner from Dover to Calais. The 
Packet boat however is still preferable. 

206 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 



IT IS probable that Franklin acquired the larger part 
of his library after 1757. 

On Nov. 3, 1772, he wrote to his son William, from 
London, saying: "I am almost settled in my new 
apartment; but removing and sorting my papers, and 
placing my books and things has been a troublesome 
job. I am amaz'd to see how books have grown upon 
me since my return to England. I brought none with 
me, and have now a roomful; many collected in Ger- 
many, Holland and France; and consisting chiefly of such 
as contain knowledge that may hereafter be useful to 
America." (Italics by G. S. E.) 

On May 30, 1787, in a letter to his sister, Mrs. 
Mecom, he described his library as being a room 16 feet 
wide by 303^ feet long, with four windows and- one 
door, and lined with books to the ceiling. 

On July 13, 1787, Manasseh Cutler was in Philadel- 
phia, and called upon the Doctor; in his Diary he gives 
an interesting account of his visit. Among other things 
he says: "After it was dark, we went into the house, 
and the Doctor invited me into his library, which is 
likewise his study. It is a very large chamber, and 
high studded. The walls were covered with book- 
shelves filled with books; besides there are four large 
alcoves, extending two-thirds of the length of the 
chamber, filled in the same manner. I presume this 
is the largest, and by far the best, private library in 

In his Will, dated July 17, 1788, Franklin provided: 
"With regard to my books, those I had in France and 

1924.] The Franklin Library 207 

those I left in Philadelphia, being now assembled to- 
gether here, and a catalogue made of them, it is my 
intention to dispose of the same as follows: My 
'History of the Academy of Sciences,' in 60 or 70 
volumes quarto, I give to the Philosophical Society of 
Philadelphia, of which I have the honour to be 
President. My collection in folio of 'Les Arts et les 
Metiers,' I give to the American Philosophical 
Society, established in New England, of which I am a 
member. My quarto edition of the same 'Arts et 
Metiers,' I give to the Library Company of Philadelphia. 
Such and so many of my books as I shall mark on the 
said catalogue with the name of my grandson, William 
Bache, I do hereby give to him; and such as shall be 
marked with the name of Jonathan Williams, I hereby 
give to my cousin of that name. The residue and 
remainder of all my books, manuscripts, and papers, I 
do give to my grandson, William Temple Franklin." 
(Italics by G. S. E.) 

By a codicil, dated June 23, 1789, he added the 
following bequest of books: "I give to William 
Hewson, who is my godson, my new quarto Bible, 
Oxford edition, to be for his family Bible, and also the 
botanic description of the plants in the Emperor's 
garden at Vienna, in-folio, with coloured cuts. And to 
Thomas Hewson I give a set of Spectators, Tatlers and 
Guardians, handsomely bound. " 

It should be noted that Franklin did not say in his 
will that he had already marked the names of the vari- 
ous legatees of books upon the catalogue; he merely 
said "such and so many of my books as I shall mark 
on the said catalogue with the name of" etc. 

The only papers connected with Franklin's estate, 
which are now to be found in the office of the Register 
of Wills, in Philadelphia, are the Will itself, and the 
Inventory and Appraisement; the latter is dated 
April 26th. 1790, and is signed by David Rittenhouse, 
Robert Aitken and John Patton. The Inventory of 
the library is short : being as follows : 

208 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

"Average Estimate of the Library. 
351 Folios at 2s £35- 2- 

150 Topographical Pamphlets at 2d. 1- 5- 
767 Quartos at Is. 2d. 44-14-10 

1548 Octavos " lOd. 69- 6- 

1260 Duodecimos " 6d. 31-10- 

200 do Stitched " 3d. 2-10- 

No. Vols. 4276 184-7-10" 

I have not been able to find any trace of the cata- 
logue which Franklin mentioned in his Will. 

The books bequeathed to the American Philosophi- 
cal Society of Philadelphia, to the Library Company, 
and to the Academy of Arts and Sciences, are still in 
the possession of those societies. I have not dis- 
covered what became of the books specifically given to 
the two Hewsons. It is possible that the Doctor never 
carried out his intention of marking the catalogue with 
the names of the legatees. 

It has always been assumed that the greater part 
of the Doctor's library came into the possession of 
Temple Franklin, as legatee. Temple went to Eng- 
land in the fall of 1790, and, so far as I can learn, he 
never returned to this country. He died in Paris, in 
1823, hopelessly insolvent. 

Paul Leicester Ford, in the Introduction to his 
"Franklin Bibliography," says that Temple carried 
the Doctor's own writings and a part of the library, to 
England; that the books were hypothecated there and 
later brought back to America, only to be scattered; 
and that the books and manuscripts not taken to 
England were left with a friend in Philadelphia. Ford 
also said that the fragments of the library, after divi- 
sion and theft, came into the possession of the His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania. As a matter of fact, 
that Society has only 121 volumes of pamphlets from 
Franklin's library, regarding which I shall speak later 

1924.] The Franklin Library 209 

In the "Historical Magazine," for April 1866, (X, 
123), is a note, as follows: 

"DR. FRANKLIN'S LIBRARY. On the fly-leaf 
of an English book, printed in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, which has lately come into my possession, 
is the following account of the manner in which Dr. 
Franklin's library was dispersed: 

'"Dr. Franklin bequeathed his library to his grand- 
son, W. Temple Franklin, who took the books to 
London. There they were pledged for the repayment 
of money borrowed by Temple Franklin to extricate 
his friend Robert Morris, Jr. from arrest. The 
money not having been repaid, a great part of the 
books were sent to Philadelphia to N. G. Dufief to be 
sold. N. G. Dufief opened a store for the purpose in 
South Fourth near Walnut St. and there I bought this 
and other books.'" The foregoing note is signed 
"D," the signature being, apparently, that of the 
contributor to the Historical Magazine, and not that 
of the writer of the memorandum in the book. 

I may say that it is difficult for me to believe that 
Temple Franklin took any large part of his grand- 
father's library to England. 

In the Collection of Franklin Papers in the Library 
of Congress, is a letter from George Fox of Philadelphia 
to Temple Franklin, dated June 2, 1797, relating to the 
efforts of Fox to collect for Temple the amount due 
upon the bond of one Cantwell Jones, originally pay- 
able to Robert Morris, Jr. and by the latter assigned 
to Temple Franklin. In this letter Fox says: "this I 
have reason to believe has been done, from the last 
conversation I have had with Milligan, as well as from 
Mr. Robert Morris Jun r . calling upon me since 
breakfast this morning, and stating his having received 
a very pressing letter from Jones respecting his bond, 
which they both unite in believing discharged, as 
Morris says he remitted you certain drafts or notes, 
with particular direction that their proceeds should be 
applied to the discharge of that particular bond, but 

210 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

which you appear, in the Acct. Current inclosed to 
Morris, to have passed to his credit on account of your 
grandfather' s library sold him, which he contends ought 
not to have been done, as you offered a credit upon the 
last installment due from him until it should be per- 
fectly convenient for him to discharge it." (Italics 

Diligent search has failed to turn up any further 
information regarding the purchase of Dr. Franklin's 
library by Robert Morris, Jr. 

In the "Aurora General Advertiser, "of Philadelphia, 
issue of Oct. 14, 1801, appeared the following advertise- 


N. G. Dufief, Bookseller 
Voltaire's Head, No. 68 South Fourth Street 

Has the honorof informing the Lovers of Literature, that he has 
just added to his numerous collection of books in various 
languages, a considerable part of the select and valuable 
Library of the celebrated Philosopher and Statesman, the late 
Dr. Benjamin Franklin. " 

The "Aurora" of Oct. 26, 1801 contained an 
editorial, in part as follows: 

"A fragment of the library of Dr. Franklin has, by some 
means not yet explained, been lately on sale in this city; a great 
portion of it has been scattered over different parts of the 
continent; some part, however, has been preserved by a branch 
of the family, from whom we have obtained the perusal of 
several volumes, containing the Doctor's annotations in his 
own handwriting, on various political tracts which he had 

I think it likely that William Duane was the writer 
of the editorial just quoted. 

The Library of Congress possesses several letters 
passing between Dufief and Thomas Jefferson, regard- 
ing the library of Franklin. I shall quote from some 
of these, because of their interest. On October 22, 1801, 
Dufief wrote to Jefferson: "J'ai ajoute" depuis peu 
a ma Collection la portion de la Bibliotheque du Dr. 

1924.] The Franklin Library 211 

B. Franklin, leguee par lui a son petit-fils Temple 
Franklin. Sans l'enthousiasme de nos Concitoyens a 
faire l'acquisition de ses livres, j'aurois accompli mon 
dessein de vous en envoyer le catalogue manuscript; 
mais en ayant une fois annonce la vente dans les 
papiers publics, il ne m'a pas et6 possible de me refuser 
a l'empressement general a se les procurer. II s'est 
trouve parmi ces livres la fameuse lettre de Trasibule a 
Leucippe en Manuscript, peut-Hre plus correcte & 
plus complete que les Editions imprimees, ce dont je 
n'ai pu m'assurer, n'en ayant aucune pour en faire la 
comparaison. J'ai pense que vous me feriez l'honneur 
de l'accepter; cela m'a enhardi a mettre cet ouvrage 
parmis vos livres. Les livres suivants sont les princi- 
paux ouvrages qui me restent de cette Bibliotheque; 

The Parliamentary history in 24 V. 8" neatly b d in calf 30 dollars 

Lords' Protests from 1242-1767. 2 V. do 2 " 

ti. t ' . e ,. dufing the Amer. war do 1 " 

1 he Journal of the House of Commons 15 V. folio (not complete) 40 " 

Debates of do 22 V. 8° 18 " 

(t On Nov. 1, 1801, Jefferson wrote to Dufief— 
"Among the books mentioned in the letter of Oct. 22 
with which you favored me, is one only which I would 
wish to acquire: it is the Parliamentary history 
24 vols. .8vo. price 30 D. Should it not be disposed of 
before you receive this, I will thank you to send it 
accept my thanks for the lettres de Trasybule a 
Leucippe, and my best wishes for your health and 
happiness." Dufief sent the Parliamentary History 
to Jefferson. 

(t On Nov. 9, 1802, Dufief wrote to Jefferson- 
Mr. Duane m'a temoigne quelque d^sir d'acheter 
environ 2000 volumes qui me restent de la Biblio- 
theque du Dr. Franklin; il se trouve parmi ces livres 
plusieurs manuscripts, & quelques ouvrages apostilhis 
de la propre main du Dr. Si ce Monsieur ne faisait 
pas cette acquisition que je lui faciliterai en les 
evaluant au plus bas prix possible, & que vous desiriez 
parcounr le Nouveau Catalogue que je viens de dresser, 
je vous l'enverrai des que vous me l'ordonnerez. " 

212 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

On Jan. 31, 1803, Dufief wrote to Jefferson, saying — 
" Je vous envoie le catalogue des livres qui me restent 
de la Bibliotheque du Dr. Franklin. Lorsque vous 
l'aurez parcouru, je vous prie de le faire remettre au 
Bibliothecaire du Congres, a qui je propose, dans la 
croyance qu'il pourrait etre autorise a la faire, l'achat 
de la Collection en tout, ou en partie. On m'a sug- 
gere cette id6e a laquelle j'aurais sans doute pens£, si 
je m'6tais rappele que le Congres avait destine une 
certaine somme pour Pacquisition d'une bibliotheque. 
Quel plus digne usage de cet argent, Monsieur, que de 
l'employer a racheter les livres d'un des Fondateurs 
de la Republique Ame>icaine & d'un grand homme! 
Ce n'est point un esprit de speculation qui me fait tenir 
ce langage, car outre que ces livres conviennent a une 
bibliotheque nationale, etant en grande partie sur la 
politique, la legislation & les affaires d'Amerique, je les 
laisserais a un prix si raisonnable qu'on ne pourrait 
nullement m'accuser d'une chose pareille. Si je ne 
reussissais pas dans une negociation dont je desire 
ardemment le succes, il me resterait une ressource 
pour m'en defaire, ce serait de les vendre a Pencan, 
votre choix fait de ceux qui pourraient vous convenir. 
Je suis pleinement convaincu que l'enthousiasme de nos 
concitoyens & le nom de Franklin ne rendissent cette 
maniere d'en disposer avantageuse pour moi; cepen- 
dant pour vous parler avec franchise, je me sens une 
grande repugnance a le faire; elle ne pourrait ceder 
qu'a une necessite imperieuse, & a l'embarras ou me 
jettent ces livres dans le petit local tres reserre qui 
j'habite. Non, Monsieur, quoique Libraire, je ne 
vendrais jamais publiquement que malgre moi, les 
livres de Gallilee, de Newton & de Franklin. 

" J'ai cru vous faire plaisir & vous donner une preuve 
non equivoque de ma profonde estime en joignant au 
catalogue deux petits ouvrages sur la Revolution 
americaine, rendu inestimables par les notes posthumes 
de votre illustre cooperateur dans le grand & glorieux 
oeuvre de l'ind6pendance. Lisez-les, communiquez- 

1924.] The Franklin Library 213 

les, si vous le desirez, a vos amis, & ensuite renvoyez- 
moi le volume qui les contient, par la meme voie dont 
je me sers pour vous le faire parvenir. " 

Writing to Jefferson on Feb. 1, 1803, Dufief said — 
" Monsieur le Lieutenant Colonel Williams qui 
connait parfaitement tous les livres du Dr. Franklin 
(de l'amitie & de la confiance duquel il jouissait pen- 
dant sa vie) s'est offert de constater, en cas d'acquisi- 
tion de la part du Committee, que tous ceux qui 
seraient envoye a, Washington faisaient partie de sa 
Bibliotheque. " 

On Feb. 4, 1803, Jefferson wrote to Senator Baldwin 
the following letter — "Mr. Dufief a bookseller of 
Philadelphia who possesses Dr. Franklin's library, has 
inclosed me the catalogue, with a desire that I would 
put it into the hands of the Committee charged 
with governing a library for Congress, with an offer 
of the whole or any part of it at what he says shall be 
moderate prices. My dealings with him give me con- 
fidence that his prices would be moderate. Without 
presuming on the answer of the committee to this 
proposition, I have ventured to mark with a pencil a 
few particular books which I imagine are worthy of their 
acquisition if they are not already in the library. A 
return of the catalogue is asked when you have made of 
it the use which you may desire. " 

Jefferson wrote to Dufief on Feb. 4, 1803, saying — 
"I received from you some days ago the three volumes 
of les Moralistes Anciennes, and last night your letter 
of Jan. 31 with Doct r . Franklin's catalogue which I 
have this morning sent to the chairman of the library- 
committee of Congress. I observe in it the following 

" Athenai Deipnosophistorium F e fol 
Philostratus works from the Greek fol 
Durham's Physico and Astrotheology 8 vo 
which I will ask the favor of you to send me with those 
you are about forwarding me. To this I should cer- 
tainly add the volume inclosed in your letter, contain- 

214 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

ing two small pamphlets with copious marginal notes 
by Dr. F., but that from the binding, and the desire 
expressed to have it returned, I conclude you wish to 
preserve it for yourself as a relick of a saint. " 

To the letter last above quoted Dufief replied on the 
14th. of February, saying — "Vous verrez par le 
Certificat ci-joint que je n'ai pu recevoir q'aujourd'hui 
la lettre dont vous m'avez honore le 4. Je vous envoie 
cette piece, d'abord, pour me justifier du soupcon de 
manquer d'exactitude a votre 6gard, vous qui donnez 
dans la place eminente que vous occupez, un exemple si 
glorieux, & en meme terns si rare, d'une regularity a 
laquelle rien n'echappe; & ensuite pour que si vous le 
jugiez a propos, Ton put faire des recherches dans le 
Bureau de la poste de Washington, au sujet d'une 
negligence qui pourrait etre quelquefois fatale au 
service public . . . Aussitot la lecture de votre 
lettre, j'ai fait mettre a part les trois ouvrages de votre 
choix. Je vous les adresserai a, la premiere occasion 
favorable, avec la philosophic d'Epicure en Latin, 
par Gassendi. J'augmenterai cet envoi d'un petit 
Helvetius, en 10 vols., qui me serait parvenu de 
New York depuis un mois, si la Navigation de notre 
riviere n'eut 6te intercepted par les Glaces. J'ai cru 
sentir en lisant votre lettre que vous seriez charme de 
posseder les seules Reliques litteraires qui nous restent 
probablement de Pimmortel Franklin, Saint bien plus 
grand qu'aucun de ceux du Calendrier du peuple le 
plus devot, puisqu'il a contribue par ses miracles a 
fonder une Nation ou Dieu est adore* suivant la 
Conscience, & ou ses interpretes ne sont que ce qu'ils 
devraient etre partout de simples ministres de la 
Religion; veuillez done les accepter malgre le desir 
religieux de les garder qu'elles m'avaient inspire^ & 
pour que vous ayez un reliquaire complet, j'y joindrai 
un ouvrage en 3 vols., intitule Miscellanies of America, 
ou se trouvent dans le l er Tome plusieurs notes mar- 
ginales au crayon & a la plume, que je crois etre du 
meme grand homme. C'est une offrande que je vous 

1924.] The Franklin Library 215 

fais & qui vous est du puisque vous etes l'ami & Tun 
des collaborateurs de l'illustre mort. Aucun Grec ne 
fut surpris de voir Philoctete posseder les armes 

On Mar. 1, 1803, Jefferson wrote to Dufief as fol- 
lows — "I communicated your manuscript catalogue to 
the committee of Congress charged with the purchase 
of books, and they have returned it to me with informa- 
tion that they had already exhausted their funds, and 
that therefore it was unnecessary for them to take the 
subject into consideration. It is now reinclosed to you 
with the assurances of my esteem & respect. " (Italics 
by G. S. E.) 

There is a letter of May 5, 1803, from Jefferson to 
Dufief, in which he says — "I find that I omitted in 
due time to make you my acknowledgments for the 
precious reliques of Doct r . Franklin, which you were 
so obliging as to spare from your particular collection. 
Not only the intrinsic value of whatever came from 
him, but my particular affection for him, extend the 
measure of my obligation to you for this kindness." 

So much for the correspondence between Dufief and 
Jefferson. As is well known, Congress, in 1815, pur- 
chased Jefferson's library. Before I had discovered 
the Jefferson-Dufief letters, I had written to the 
Library of Congress, asking whether it possessed any 
books from Franklin's library, and had been told that, 
so far as was then known, that Library had no such 
books. Upon the discovery of the Dufief-Jefferson 
correspondence, I enlisted the interest of Mr. John C. 
Fitzpatrick, Assistant Chief of the Division of Manu- 
scripts in the Congressional Library; Mr. Fitzpatrick, 
assisted by Messrs. Ashley and Martel of the Library 
staff, has discovered that the Library still has the fol- 
lowing volumes which Jefferson acquired from the 
Franklin library through Dufief: Athenaei dipnosphis- 
tarum, Venice, 1556; Parliamentary History 1106- 
1660, 24 vols.; the manuscript Trasybule a Leucippe; 
and the volumes of pamphlets which I am about to 

216 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

describe. The other books which Jefferson acquired 
from Dufief have not been found, and the supposition 
is that they were destroyed in the fire of 1851 which 
burned about 4000 of the Jefferson books. 

As to the volumes of pamphlets — with his letter of 
Jan. 31, 1803, Dufief sent to Jefferson "deux petits 
ouvrages sur la Revolution americaine, rendus in- 
estimable par les notes posthumes" of Franklin; these, 
he said, were bound in one volume. As will be re- 
membered, Jefferson expressed a desire to acquire these 
precious relics, and Dufief thereupon presented them 
to him. As Dufief did not give the titles of the 
pamphlets, it at first seemed impossible to identify 
them; but upon examining the 1815 printed catalogue 
of the Library of Congress (which is said to contain 
only the books bought from Jefferson), I found listed 
therein the following item— " Reflections Moral and 
Political on Great Britain and her Colonies, with 
manuscript notes by Dr. Franklin, 1770, octavo." 
Suspecting that this was the volume referred to by 
Dufief, I sent the title to Mr. Fitzpatrick, who soon 
discovered it. Two pamphlets are bound together in 
an old English binding of red morocco, gold tooled; 
the waste sheets of the binding bear the watermark 
date of 1800; the pamphlets are numbered "No. 5" 
and "No. 6", which, to my mind indicates that they 
were once bound up with other pamphlets in a volume 
of the collection of pamphlets that Franklin had, 
of which collection 148 volumes were acquired from 
William Duane by The Philadelphia Athenaeum, 
Duane having doubtless bought them at the Dufief 
sale. These two pamphlets are of the greatest interest 
to scholars, because of Dr. Franklin's marginal annota- 
tions. The first, which is entitled "Reflections Moral 
and Political on Great Britain and her Colonies," 
London: Printed for T. Becket and Co. MDCCLXX," 
(by Matthew Wheelock), is a pamphlet paginated (6), 
66; and is an octavo. Thirty-four pages of this are 
copiously annotated in ink in Franklin's hand. The 

1924.] The Franklin Library 217 

annotations are of extraordinary value and interest. 
A few of them are as follows: 

(1) "This author supposes the Colonists want a 
new Parliament in order to have the Duties taken off. 
He is mistaken. They did petition; they were not 
heard, and they will petition no more. They have 
taken their measures. Keep up your Duties, if you 
please; they will not pay them, because they will not 
use the commodities. And because they think you 
use them ill in laying such Duties, they will manu- 
facture for themselves. They now find they will gain 
& save infinitely more by your continuing the Duties, 
than they should by your repealing them. " 

(2) "British Empire, a very vague expression. 
All these writers (almost all) confound themselves & 
readers with the idea that the British Empire is but one 
State; not considering or knowing that it consists of 
many States under one Sovereign. As of Great 
Britain (formerly two, England & Scotland, Ireland, 
Guernsey & Jersey) every Colony, Hanover, Zell, 

(3) " It is great impudence or folly in a man to sup- 
pose that because he is an Englishman, every American 
owes him allegiance. If every Englishman is not a 
sovereign over every American, neither can he com- 
municate such sovereignty to another by chusing him 
Parliament man." 

The second pamphlet in this precious volume is 
entitled "Thoughts on the Origin and Nature of Gov- 
ernment. Occasioned by the late Disputes between 
Great Britain and her American Colonies." Written 
in the Year 1766. London: Printed for T. Becket 
and P. A. de Hondt, MDCCLXIX.", (by Allan 
Ramsay). This is a pamphlet of 64 pages, 41 of which 
bear annotations in ink in Franklin's hand. The 
following is one of Franklin's marginal notes therein: 

"When an American says he has a right to all the 
privileges of a British subject, he does not call himself a 

218 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

British subject, he is an American subject of the King; 
the Charters say they shall be entitled to all the 
privileges of Englishmen as if they had been born within 
the Realm. But they were and are without the Realm, 
therefore not British subjects; & tho' within the King's 
Dominions, because they voluntarily agreed to be his 
subjects when they took his Charters, and have 
created those Dominions for him, yet they are not 
within the dominion of Parliament which has no 
authority but within the Realm. " 

It will be remembered that, with the little volume 
containing the pamphlets above mentioned, Dufief 
sent to Jefferson "to complete the reliquary," a work 
in three volumes entitled "Miscellanies of America." 
This title was obviously a binder's title. At first these 
volumes could not be found in the Library of Congress, 
and I despaired of locating them. But one day I 
found, in the library of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, the manuscript catalogue of Jefferson's 
library, in that sage's own hand. Running through 
that interesting volume I found entered therein, 
"Miscellanies on America, 3 vols. 8° viz. Further 
Examination of American Measures, 1776," and eight 
other titles. This information was immediately for- 
warded to Mr. Fitzpatrick, with the result that the 
three volumes were discovered in the Library of Con- 
gress. They had been rebound after coming to that 
Library, and are now to be found in volumes 7, 8 and 
9 of Colonial Pamphlets. The contents of the volumes 
are as follows: 

Volume 7 

(1) A Further Examination of our Present American 
Measures and of the Reasons and the Principles on which they 
are founded. By the Author of Considerations on the Meas- 
ures carrying on with respect to the British Colonies in North 
America. . . . Bath . . .MDCCLXXVI. (By Matthew 
Robinson) ; not annotated. 

(2) A Series of Answers to certain Popular Objections 
against separating from the Rebellious Colonies, and dis- 
carding them entirely; being the Concluding Tract of the Dean 

1924.] The Franklin Library 219 

of Glocester, on the subject of American Affairs. Glocester 
. . . MDCCLXXVI. (By Josiah Tucker); This has an- 
notations by Dr. Franklin on 13 pages. 

(3) Considerations on the Mode and Terms of a Treaty of 
Peace with America. London . . . MDCCLXXVIII. 30 p. 
Has annotation by Franklin on page 27. 

Volume 8 

(1) Peace the Best Policy or Reflections upon the Appear- 
ance of a Foreign War, the Present State of Affairs at Home 
and the Commission for Granting Pardons in America. In a 
Letter to a Friend by Matt. Robinson M. London: . . . 
MDCCLXXVII; in this pamphlet pages 99 and 100 have been 
removed and manuscript copies thereof, in Franklin's auto- 
graph, inserted. 

(2) The Memorial of Common-Sense upon the Present 
Crisis between Great Britain and America . . .London . . . 
MDCCLXXVIII. No annotations. 

(3) An Humble Address and Ernest Appeal to those re- 
spectable personnages in Great-Britain and Ireland, who by 
their great and permanent interest in landed property . . . 
are the ablest to judge, and the fittest to decide, whether a 
connection with, or a separation from the Continental Colonies 
of America, be most for the National Advantage . . . By 
Josiah Tucker D.D. Glocester, MDCCLXXV. No annota- 

(4) Thoughts on the Present State of Affairs with America, 
and the Means of Conciliation. By William Pulteney, 4th ed. 
London, MDCCLXXVIII. No annotations. 

(5) A Prospect of the Consequence of the Present Conduct 
of Great Britain towards America. London. 1776. No 

Volume 9 

(1) A Memorial most humbly addressed to the Sovereigns 
of Europe on the Present State of Affairs between the Old and 
New World. London; 1780, (By Thomas Pownall) No 

(2) A Translation of the Memorial to the Sovereigns of 
Europe upon the Present State of Affairs between the Old and 
the New World, into Common Sense and intelligible English. 
London; MDCCLXXXI. (Thomas Pownall) No annota- 

(3) Anticipation, containing the substance of His Majestys' 
Speech to both H . . . s of P . . 1 . . . t, on the Opening of 

220 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

the approaching Session . . . 5th ed. corrected. London; 
1778. No annotations. 

(4) A Letter to the Earl of Chatham concerning his Speech 
and Motion in the House of Lords, on the memorable 30th of 
May : with some Observations on the Speeches of ... to which 
are subjoined Reflections on His Majesty's most gracious 
Speech from the Throne, and an Index to Peace with America. 
London; MDCCLXXVII. No annotations. 

(5) The Annals of Administration. Containing the genuine 
history of Georgiana the Queen-Mother, and Prince Coloninus 
her Son. A biographical fragment. Written about the Year 
1575. Inscribed by the Proprietor of the authentic papers, to 
Edmund Burke, Esq. London, MDCCLXXV. No annota- 

All three of these volumes contain on the first fly 
leaf preceding the title page, a list of the pamphlets 
in the volume, in the handwriting of Dr. Franklin. 

I desire to place on record my appreciation of the 
assistance given me by Mr. Fitzpatrick in bringing to 
light these precious volumes, and in helping me to 
identify them as having belonged first to Franklin, and 
then to Jefferson. 

Evidently William Duane did not buy the remnant 
of the library, for we find in the " Aurora" of Feb. 23, 
1803, and thereafter until Mar. 4th, the following 

"Dr. Franklin's Library. 

"Will be sold by public auction at Shannon & Poalk's auction 
store, on Saturday, the 12th. of March next, at 6 o'clock in the 
evening, unless previously disposed of by private sale, a great 
part of the library of the celebrated Dr. Benjamin Franklin. 
"Persons desirous to purchase, or to become acquainted with 
such books as may be contained in so rare and valuable a 
collection as that of the above mentioned immortal statesman 
and philosopher, are invited to call on N. G. Dufief, No. 6, 
South Fourth-street — where also the amateurs of French 
literature may be gratuitously supplied with catalogues of a 
large and late importation of new French publications. " 

From March 5th. to 12th, inclusive, the " Aurora" 
contained the following advertisement under the head- 
ing of "Auctions" 

1924.] The Franklin Library 221 

"Positively will be sold, 
by Shannon & Poalk 

"On Saturday, the 12th. inst. at half past six o'clock in the 
evening, Dr. Benjamin Franklin's Library. This collection, 
besides a variety of excellent and scarce works in English, 
French, Italian, German, Greek, Latin, &c, contains several 
manuscripts, all of which will be sold without reserve. It may 
with propriety be observed that there never yet was sold at 
public sale, the library of a man so illustrious, both in the annals 
of America and in those of the Arts and Sciences, which he so 
much aggrandized. The proprietor of these books being in- 
formed that several gentlemen intend to purchase some of them, 
merely as the relics of a great man, and one of the Founders of 
the happy Government under which we prosper, pledges him- 
self to them and to the public, that to his knowledge, not a 
single volume will be sold among them which has not been 
really once the book of Benjamin Franklin. Every informa- 
tion concerning the above library will with pleasure be given 
by the proprietor at No. 6 South Fourth street. Catalogues 
may be obtained the day before the sale at the bookstores of 
Messrs. Carey, S. Bradford, Duane, P. Byrne and Conrad. 

N.G. Dufief." 

During the time that the books were in the hands of 
Dufief, the American Philosophical Society made 
several purchases. In October 1801 it bought to the 
amount of $199.12, whereupon the committee was 
authorized to buy not to exceed $20. more. All these 
were bought over the counter. On Mar. 18, 1803, just 
six days after the auction, there was entered on the 
Minutes of the Society this memorandum: "Books 
purchased by Mr. Vaughan at the Franklin Library 
sale, taken by the Society at their prices. " Vaughan 
was the Librarian of the Society; the books which he 
sold to the Society cost $89.15. Altogether, the 
Society bought at the Dufief sale, 295 volumes; as it 
received from Franklin, as a bequest, 91 volumes of the 
History of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris, it is 
the happy possessor of 386 volumes from the Doctor's 
library. My thanks are due to Dr. I. Minis Hays, the 
learned librarian of the Society for granting me free 
access to the records and library of the Society, and 
for his constant interest. 

222 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania now has 121 
volumes of pamphlets which were once a part of 
Franklin's library; these were formerly the property of 
the Philadelphia Athenaeum which is said to have 
acquired them from William Duane. It is my belief 
that Duane got them at the Dufief sale. There are 
over 800 pamphlets in this collection, many of them of 
great interest, particularly the political ones. On the 
fly leaf of each volume is a Table of Contents, some- 
times in the writing of Dr. Franklin, but more often in 
a hand that strongly resembles that of Temple Frank- 
lin. In 1846 the Athenaeum reported this collection as 
consisting of 148 volumes; unfortunately only 121 of 
these are now in the possession of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, the remainder having disappeared 
many years ago, before the collection was turned over 
to that Society. It is a pleasure to know that these 
very valuable pamphlets are now in safe hands. 

The Library Company of Philadelphia has several 
books from Dr. Franklin's library, the titles of which 
Mr. Bunford Samuel has kindly given me. The 
Boston Public Library has a number of Franklin's 
books, and Mr. Otto Fleischner, late Assistant 
Librarian of that institution, has furnished me with 
the titles thereof and has with great kindness shown 
me the books themselves. The New York Public 
Library has five precious little volumes of pamphlets 
on the Stamp Act, full of marginal annotations by 
Dr. Franklin; these were acquired at the Brinley sale. 

I make no reference here to books which Franklin 
presented to colleges, libraries and friends in his life- 
time. This paper relates only to the books which he had 
when he died. I have not discovered any evidence that 
he had given away many of his books before his death. 

The fact that the Doctor had no bookplate has 
militated against tracing his books; so has the fact 
that he seems to have written his name in but few of 
them. If he had put his name in each volume, we 
should find his books turning up all the time. 

1924.] The Franklin Library 223 

The character of Franklin's books was such that one 
would naturally suppose that the colleges then in 
existence would have bought freely at the Dufief sale, 
but no such purchases appear to have been made. I 
have made inquiries of the librarians of the various 
colleges and have been told, in each case, that the 
accession records do not disclose any of Franklin's 
books. I believe, nevertheless, that some of the 
Doctor's books have found their way into the libraries 
of several colleges; they may have been bought by 
alumni orotherfriendsand presented to the institutions, 
without their source being recorded. 

As the result of several years of research, I have 
ascertained the titles of 1350 of the volumes that were 
in Franklin's library; as the inventory discloses that 
he had 4276 volumes at the time of his death, much 
remains to be discovered. Persistent inquiries in 
many directions have failed to turn up any examples 
of Dufief's catalogue or catalogues, either manuscript 
or printed, and, as I have already said, Franklin's own 
catalogue which he mentioned in his Will, cannot be 
found. One may properly ask how I discovered the 
titles of 1350 of the volumes; the answer is, that I have 
examined all of the Doctor's published correspondence; 
the papers in the Franklin collections of the American 
Philosophical Society and of the Library of Congress; 
many unpublished letters in private collections; a long 
line of auction sales catalogues; the various historical 
magazines and the Proceedings of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, and of the Colonial Society of 
Massachusetts; and other sources of information. 
Mr. Ernest SpofTord, Assistant Librarian of the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, has, with his 
customary courtesy, permitted me to examine and 
catalogue the collection of pamphlets which I have 
described above. 

The books which I have found to have been in 
Franklin's library consist chiefly of scientific works, 
travels, histories, dictionaries and encyclopaedias, the 

224 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

transactions of learned societies, some classics, and a 
great number of pamphlets on various subjects. The 
Doctor was a friend of Baskerville, the famous English 
printer, and bought many of the books printed by him. 
He also had examples of the printing of Ibarra, the 
celebrated printer of Madrid, among them the splendid 
Spanish version of Sallust which was presented to him 
by the translator, Don Gabriel de Bourbon; he also had 
the famous Spanish edition of Don Quixote printed by 
Ibarra. The Doctor was much interested in the 
logographic process of printing, and corresponded with 
John Walter, the founder of the London Times who, 
for some years ran the Logographic Press. He bought 
many of the books which Walter printed at that press. 
It may not be amiss to give a partial list of the 
pamphlets in the collection now owned by the Histori- 
cal Society of Pennsylvania, which have to do with 
America. I select the following: 

Memoirs of the Principal Transactions of the Last War 
between the English and French in North America, from the 
Commencement of it in 1744, to the Conclusion of the Treaty at 
Aix la Chapelle: containing in particular an Account of the 
Importance of Nova Scotia or Acadie and the Island of Cape 
Breton to both Nations. London, MDCCLVII. (In Vol. 

Two Papers on the Subject of Taxing the British Colonies in 
America. The first entitled, "Some Remarks on the most 
rational and effectual Means that can be used in the present 
conjuncture for the future Security and Preservation of the 
Trade of Great Britain by protecting and advancing her Settle- 
ments on the North Continent of America," the other, "A 
Proposal for establishing by Act of Parliament the Duties upon 
Stampt Paper and Parchment in all the British American 
Colonies." London, 1767. (Af. 307) 

A Letter to G . . G . . Stiff in Opinions, always in the 
wrong. London, MDCCLXVII. (A long note in Franklin's 
hand has been cut off by the binder. Af . 307.) 

The Case of Great Britain and America, addressed to the 
King and both Houses of Parliament. London, MDCCLXIX. 
(Has some notes in Franklin's hand. Af . 307) 

Thoughts on Trade in General, Our West-Indian in Particu- 
lar, Our Continental Colonies, Canada, Guadaloupe, and the 

1924.] The Franklin Library 225 

Preliminary Articles of Peace. Addressed to the Community. 
London, MDCCLXIII. (Af. 309) 

Remarks on Lord Sheffield's Observations on the Commerce 
of the American States; by an American. London, MDCCL 
XXXIV. (Af.311) 

Reflections upon the Present State of England, and the 
Independence of America. By Thomas Day. Third edition, 
London, 1783. (Af.311) 

LTnd£pendance des Anglo-Amencains D6montree Utile a 
la Grande Bretagne. Lettres extrait du Journal d'Agriculture, 
Avril& Mai 1782. (Af. 312) 

American Independence the Interest and Glory of Great 
Britain ; or Arguments to prove that not only in Taxation, but 
in Trade, Manufactures, and Government, the Colonies are 
entitled to an entire Independency on the British Legislature; 
and that it can only be by a formal Declaration of these Rights, 
and forming thereupon a friendly League with them, that the 
true and lasting Welfare of both Countries can be promoted. 
In a Series of Letters to the Legislature. To which arc added 
copious Notes, containing Reflections on the Boston and 
Quebec Acts; and a full Justification of the People of Boston, 
for destroying the British-taxed Tea; submitted to the Judg- 
ment, not of those who have none but borrowed Party opinions, 
but of the Candid and Honest . . . London, MDCCLXXIV. 

The Pamphlet Entitled "Taxation No Tyranny," Candidly 
Considered, and its Arguments and Pernicious Doctrines 
Exposed and Refuted. London, n. d. (Af. 316) 

A Letter to Dr. Samuel Johnson; together with some 
Observations on a Pamphlet lately published by Dr. Shebbeare. 
London, MDCCLXXV. (Af.316) 

A Complaint to the . . . of . . . against a Pamphlet 
Intitled, A Speech intended to have been spoken on the Bill for 
altering the Charters of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay. 
London, MDCCLXXV. (Af.316) 

A Letter to a Member of Parliament on the Present Unhappy 
Disputes between Great-Britain and her Colonies, wherein the 
Supremacy of the Former is asserted and proved; and the 
Necessity of compelling the Latter to pay due Obedience to the 
Sovereign State, is enforced, upon Principles of Sound Policy, 
Reason and Justice. London, MDCCLXXIV. (Af. 316) 

The Thoughts of a Traveller upon our American Disputes. 
London, MDCCLXXIV. (Af.316) 

Considerations on the Sovereignty, Independence, Trade 
and Fisheries of New Ireland (formerly known by the name of 
Nova Scotia) and the adjacent Islands; submitted to the 
European Powers that may be engaged in settling the Terms 

226 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

of Peace among the Nations at War. Published by order of the 
Sovereign, Free and Independent Commonwealth of New 
Ireland. (Title page does not give either date or place of 
publication. The catalogue of the New York Historical 
Society attributes the pamphlet to Col. A. McNutt, and says 
that it was printed at Philadelphia in 1780.) (Af . 323.) 

The Constitution and Frame of Government of the Free and 
Independent State and Commonwealth of New Ireland, as 
prepared by the special direction of the People, for the con- 
sideration of their Convention, when met. Composed by 
those who are invested with proper authority for that purpose. 
Printed by R. Aitken for the Free and Independent State of 
New Ireland, n. d., [Philadelphia, 1780] (Af. 323) 

Expose des Droits des Colonies Britanniques, pour justifier 
le projet de leur Independance. Amsterdam, MDCCLXXVI 

Justification de la Resistance des Colonies Ame>icaines aux 
Oppressions du Gouvernement Britannique, dans une Lettre 
ecrite de la Hollande a M . . ., Londres, Leide, MDCCLXXVI 

An Account of a late Conference on the Occurrences in 
America. In a letter to a Friend. London, MDCCLXVI 
(Af . 337 bis) 

A Letter to a Great M . . . r, on the Prospect of a Peace; 
wherein the Demolition of the Fortifications of Louisbourg, is 
shewn to be absurd; the Importance of Canada fully refuted; 
the proper Barrier pointed out in North America; and the 
Reasonableness and Necessity of retaining the French 
Sugar Islands . . By an Unprejudiced Observer. London 
MDCCLXI. (Af. 362) 

The Importance of the Colonies to Great Britain. With 
some Hints towards making Improvements to their mutual 
Advantage; and upon Trade in general. By John Rutherford 
of North Carolina, Esq. London, MDCCLXI. (Af. 362) 

Good Humour; or a Way with the Colonies . . . London 
MDCCLXVI. (This has many marginal annotations in 
Franklin's hand. Af. 367) 

A Miscellaneous Essay Concerning the Courses pursued 
by Great Britain in the Affairs of her Colonies; with some 
Observations on the Great Importance of our Settlements in 
America, and the Trade thereof. London, MDCCLV 
(Af. 367) 

The French Encroachments Exposed; or, Britain's Original 
Right to all that Part of the American Continent claimed by 
France fully asserted ... In two Letters from a Merchant 
retired from business, to his Friend in London, 1756. (Af. 367) 

1924.1 Franklin and Galloway 227 


Some Unpublished Letters 
by william smith mason 


ENJAMIN FRANKLIN'S official connection with 
the Pennsylvania Assembly began January 29, 
1730 when he and his business partner, Hugh Meredith, 
were appointed to print the minutes. 1 Although the 
partnership with Meredith was soon dissolved Franklin 
continued to be the public printer of the province until 
1764. He was made Clerk of the Assembly in 1736, 
and on August 13, 1751 became a member from 
Philadelphia, continuing in office until 1764. It was 
in recognition of his services and ability that this body 
appointed him colonial agent to Great Britain, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1757. During his absence from America 
1757 to 1762 he was annually elected to the Assembly 
from Philadelphia, and on his return he again became a 
member succeeding the aged Isaac Norris as Speaker 
from May 26 until September 22, 1764. 2 On October 
1 and 2 of this year the proprietary party which he 
had always bitterly opposed prevented his re-election 
to the House by securing a small majority for their 
own candidate. The popular party,however, was in the 
majority when the Assembly met, and on October 26, 
1764 Franklin was again appointed colonial agent to 
Great Britain. 3 Eleven years later, 1775, he was 
again elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly, but owing 
to the pressure of activity in the affairs of the nation 

'Votes and Proceedings of the House of Representatives of the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania, Vol. Ill, p. 103. (Philadelphia, B. Franklin and D. Hall, 1754). 
'Ibid., Vol. V, pp. 347, 348. (Philadelphia, Henry Miller, 1775). 
Ubid , p. 383. 

228 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

and on account of his age, on February 26, 1776 he 
asked to be excused from attending. 4 On the day 
following, his resignation was accepted. The forty- 
six years from 1730 until 1776, during which Franklin 
was associated with the Pennsylvania Assembly, was a 
period of intense conflict between the popular and the 
proprietary parties. Franklin was allied with the- 
former in this struggle and the story of his part in it, 
especially during the early years of this period, has 
never been adequately told. 

There were many able men in Pennsylvania who 
opposed the proprietary government, but the ablest in 
the period from 1756 to 1776 were unquestionably 
Benjamin Franklin and Joseph Galloway. When 
Galloway was elected to the Assembly, October 1, 1756, 
he was only twenty-five years of age, 5 yet in spite of his 
youth was one of the leaders of the Pennsylvania bar 
and one of the wealthiest men of the province. At this 
time Franklin was the recognized leader of the popular 
party and a member of the two most important com- 
mittees of the House, the Committee of Correspond- 
ence, and the Committee on Grievances. The French 
and Indian War had begun disastrously for the British 
who were making strenuous efforts to organize military 
forces to check the French and their Indian allies on 
the frontiers. Each colony was expected to bear its 
proportionate share of the burden in this war, but 
owing to the peculiar condition of affairs in Pennsyl- 
vania this province was unusuallyremiss in this respect. 
In the first place, the Proprietors impeded military 
preparations by refusing to allow their agent, Lieu- 
tenant Governor Morris, to assent to any bill to tax 
their lands in the same proportion as citizens' lands. 
The latter were naturally unwilling to pay more than 
their just share of the taxes. Then, too, the largest, 
the most influential and the richest part of Pennsyl- 

<Votes and Proceedings, Vol. VI, p. 675. (Philadelphia, Henry Miller, 1776). 
'The authorities differ as to the date of Galloway's birth. Some give the year 1730, 
others 1731. The latter date is the one given in the "Examination" edited by Balch. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 229 

vania's population were Quakers, who under the prov- 
ince charter, and also on account of religious scruples, 
claimed exemption from military service. Members of 
this sect not only refused to fight, but also opposed the 
execution of military measures. In June 1756 six 
Quakers in the Assembly resigned rather than support 
proposed military measures to which they and their 
constituents objected. 6 The Quakers were also un- 
willing that their indentured servants should be 
enlisted primarily because this touched their pockets. 
The Indians on the Pennsylvania frontier, particularly 
the Delawares and the Shawanese, claimed that the 
Proprietors had fraudulently obtained their lands, were 
demanding satisfaction and in the event it was 
refused, threatened definitely to go over to the French. 
These were indeed troublous times in Pennsylvania 

During the fall of 1756 and the first two months of 
1757 Franklin and Galloway were members of various 
committees and began an acquaintance which con- 
tinued for twenty years. November 23, 1756 they 
were ordered by the House to prepare a message to the 
Governor desiring him to lay before it the Proprietary 
instructions in regard to matters of legislation, and also 
a copy of the minutes of the conference which had been 
held with the Indians at Easton. 7 On December 23, 
1756 the Assembly met as a committee of the whole 
and "Resolved, That for raising the Sum of One 
Hundred Thousand Pounds, granted to his Majesty 
for the Defence of this Province, a Tax be laid and 
levied on all Estates, real and personal, and Taxables 
within the same, sufficient to raise the said Sum in one 
Year. " 8 On the following day Franklin and Galloway 
were appointed on a Committee of Nine to draft a bill 
in accordance with this resolution. January 22, 1757 

•Votes and Proceedings, Vol. IV, pp. 564, 566. 
'Ibid., p. 646. 
*Ibid. pp. 068-669. 

230 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

a bill embodying the provisions of this resolution 
passed the third reading and Mr. Leech and Mr. 
Galloway were ordered to carry it to the Governor. 9 
January 28, Franklin and Galloway were ordered by 
the House to wait on the Governor to desire him to 
affix the Great Seal to an exemplification of the supply 
bill and a copy of the reasons which he proposed to send 
to the Crown for not passing the same. 10 On the same 
day the Assembly resolved to send a commissioner or 
commissioners to Great Britain to solicit a removal of 
grievances occasioned by the Proprietary instructions. 
The temper of the Assembly and its determination to 
secure the passage of this bill is well exemplified in its 
remonstrance to the Governor after his refusal to give 
his assent. "That though the Governor may be under 
Obligations to the Proprietaries, we conceive he is under 
greater to the Crown, and to the People he is appointed 
to govern; to promote the Service of the former, pre- 
serve the Rights of the latter, and to protect them from 
their cruel Enemies. 

" We do therefore, in the Name of our most gracious 
Sovereign, and in Behalf of the distressed People we 
represent, unanimously DEMAND it of the Governor, 
as our Right, that he give his Assent to the Bill we now 
present him, for granting to his Majesty One Hundred 
Thousand Pounds for the Defence of this Province 
(and, as it is a Money Bill without Alteration or 
Amendment, any Instructions whatsoever from the 
Proprietaries notwithstanding) as he will answer to the 
Crown for all the Consequences of his Refusal at his 
Peril." 11 

This strong and threatening language, however, had 
no effect on Governor Denny who refused to depart 
from his instructions. Realizing that he would not 
yield, the Assembly on February 3, 1757 appointed 

»Wm. Denny succeeded Wm. Hunter Morris as Governor, August 19, 1756. 
'"Votes and Proceedings, Vol. IV, p. 080. 

"The Assembly's remonstrance to the Governor, Jan. 26, 1757, Votes and Proceedings 
Vol. IV p. 080. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 231 

Franklin as its agent in Great Britain. 12 March 1, 
Galloway was one of the Committee of Eight ap- 
pointed to prepare Franklin's instructions, 13 and on 
April l,he was added to the Committees of Correspond- 
ence and Aggrievances to fill the place of Franklin. 
These committees were the busiest and the most 
important ones of the Assembly and Galloway's 
appointment to them indicates that the members re- 
garded him as a fit successor to Benjamin Franklin. 
He did in fact actually become at once the recognized 
leader of the anti-proprietary party after Franklin's 
departure for England. With the exception of the 
year 1764, 14 he continued to be a member of the 
Assembly, up to the time of the Revolution and was 
Speaker of this body from October 14, 1766, 15 to 
September 29, 1774. 

Benjamin Franklin and Joseph Galloway were 
friends during this time and each labored untiringly to 
effect reforms in the colonial administration of 
Pennsylvania. Their printed correspondence covers 
the period from 1767 to 1775 but includes no letters 
before 1767. The years from 1757 to 1767, covered by 
their unpublished correspondence in our possession 
were exciting times in Pennsylvania history, and it is 
on the events which transpired during this decade that 
this correspondence sheds many interesting side-lights. 
When Franklin was sent to France in 1776 he left with 
Galloway a trunk which contained all of his correspond- 
ence while he was in England. These letters were 
lost after Galloway deserted to the British side in 
1777. 16 Franklin's writings indicate that he was 
never able to recover all of them. Writing to his 
son-in-law, Richard Bache, Passy, September 13, 1781 

K Isaac Norris was also named but on account of old age and ill health refused to serve. 
"Votes and Proceedings, Vol. IV, p. 700. 

"October 1 and 2, 1764 both Franklin and Galloway were defeated in elections for the 
Assembly through the efforts of the Proprietary party. 

"See Votes and Proceedings, Vol. V, p. 498; Vol. VI, p. 543. 

"Included among these lost letters were many to correspondents other than Galloway. 

232 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

he expresses his concern for their recovery: "Among 
my Papers in the Trunk, which I unhappily left in the 
Care of Mr. Galloway, were eight or ten quire or 2-quire 
Books, of rough Drafts of my Letters, containing all 
my Correspondence, when in England, for near twenty 
years. I shall be very sorry, if they too are lost. 
Do not you think it possible, by going up into that 
Country, and enquiring a little among the Neighbours, 
you might possibly hear of, and recover some of 
them. ... As he was a Friend of my Son's, to 
whom in my Will I had left all my Books and Papers, 
I made him one of my Executors, and put the Trunk of 
Papers into his Hands, imagining them safer in his 
House 17 (which was out of the way of any probable 
March of the enemies' Troops) than in my own. It 
was very unlucky. " 18 

Again writing to his son, William, Passy, August 
16, 1784 Franklin indicates that he had not yet 
recovered his correspondence and gives us more in- 
formation regarding the contents of the lost trunk. He 
says, "On my leaving America, I deposited with that 
Friend for you, a Chest of Papers, among which was a 
Manuscript of nine or ten Volumes, relating to Manu- 
factures, Agriculture, Commerce, Finance, etc., which 
cost me in England about 70 Guineas; eight Quire 
Books, containing the Rough Drafts of all my Letters 
while I liv'd in London. These are missing. I hope 
you have got them, if not they are lost. ,;i9 

Four years later he wrote to Mrs. Elizabeth Part- 
ridge, Philadelphia, November 25, 1788: "By one of 
the Accidents which War occasions, all my Books con- 
taining Copies of my letters were lost. There were 
Eight Volumes of them, and I have been able to recover 
only two. Those are of later Date than the TranS- 

^At "Trevose," Galloway's estate in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. 

»8The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, ed. by Smyth (New York, 1905-1907), Vol. VIII, 
pp. 304-305. 

"Ibid., Vol. IX, p. 253. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 233 

action you 20 mention and therefore can contain 
nothing relating to it. " 21 From this letter, the last in 
which he mentions his lost correspondence it would 
appear that Franklin never recovered the letters bear- 
ing dates prior to 1756. The first letter to Galloway 
in Smyth is that of June 13, 1767. The first in our 
collection bears the date April 11, 1757 and was 
written at New York while Franklin was waiting for a 
conference with Lord Loudoun. About June 3, 1757 he 
sailed from New York and arrived in England July 26, 
1757. 22 The first letter to Galloway from London in 
our possession is that of February 17, 1758. The 
correspondence continues to February 6, 1772 contain- 
ing also letters after 1767 not in Smyth's edition of 
Franklin's Writings. Among the letters recently 
come to light are. a number not only to Galloway but 
to other correspondents which are especially important 
in giving a better understanding of the problems of 
Pennsylvania colonial history from 1757 to 1760. 
The contents of some of the more important of these 
will be given in this paper. 

From the constitutional viewpoint of American 
colonial history the Smith-Moore Affair is significant 
because the King and Privy Council by the decision in 
the case definitely forbade a colonial assembly to 
exercise certain powers and privileges of the House of 
Commons. It also well illustrates the bitterness of the 
struggle and the conflict of the claims of the colonial 
and the proprietary parties, and to what lengths each 
side went to achieve a victory over the other. More 

20 The "Transaction" here referred to was the transfer of the Boston post-office to Mrs. 
John Franklin after the death of her husband, Benjamin Franklin's brother, January 175(5. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Partridge (nge Hubbard) was the daughter of Mrs. John Franklin by a 
former marriage. 

"Franklin, op. cit. Vol. IX, p. 684. This letter is in reply to a letter of Mrs. Partridge, 
Boston, Nov. 12, 1788. See Calendar of the Franklin Papers in the Library of the 
American Philosophical Society, Vol. Ill, p. 382. She requests Franklin to send her a 
copy of a letter which he wrote when he transferred the post-office to her mother. Frank- 
lin thinks perhaps she has reference to another letter, probably the one to Miss E.Hubbard, 
Philadelphia, February 23, 1756, Smyth, Vol. Ill, pp. 329, 330. 

^Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 419, Letter to Mrs. Deborah Franklin. 

234 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

than anything else it clearly illustrates the inability of 
the British government to appreciate and to cope with 
the colonial situation. June 20, 1756, an extract of a 
letter signed W. Smith which appeared in the London 
Evening Advertiser No. 334 from Saturday, April 17, 
to Tuesday, April 20, 1756 was laid before the Housed 
After spending some time in considering this letter a 
resolution was passed, "That the said Extract of a 
Letter contains divers wicked Calumnies against 
Numbers of sober and valuable Inhabitants of this 
Province, and likewise most infamous, libellous, false 
and scandalous Assertions against the two Branches of 
the Legislature of this Province. " It was suggested at 
this time that the author was probably Reverend 
William Smith, Provost of the College in Philadelphia, 
inasmuch as the letter which appeared in the London 
newspaper indicated that it was written at Philadelphia, 
February 23, 1756. The Pennsylvania House ordered 
the Speaker to issue an order to the Sergeant-at-Arms 
to bring Smith before the bar of the House at five in the 
afternoon the same day, to answer certain questions. 

"L Whether he had wrote any Letter, dated on or about 
the Twenty-third of February, 1756, or at any other Time, of 
which, from the Tenor thereof, the Paper now read to him 
could be an Extract? 

Answ. ' Tis not to be supposed that I can be prepared to answer 
this House, whether I have wrote any Letter, on or about the 23d of 
February, 1756, or at any other Time, of which, from the Tenor 
thereof, the Paper referred to could be an Extract; as the Question, 
in my Opinion, supposes that I can remember the Tenor of all the 
Letters I have wrote. 

2 Q. Whether, to the best of his Memory, he did, or did 
not, write any such Letter, on or about the Date specified in 
the first Question, or at any other Time? 

Answ. I do not conceive that I ought to charge my Memory 
with any Thing of that Nature; nor do I conceive that I am obliged 
in Law to make any other Answer than what I have already done. 

And the House not thinking it necessary to ask the said 
bmith any more Questions at this Time, he was ordered to 

»Votes and Proceedings, Vol. IV, p. 577. This Extract was probably sent to the 
Assembly from England by Pennsylvania's colonial agents, Robert Charles and Richard 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 235 

withdraw. But he having before he went desired that he 
might have a Copy of the Questions which the Speaker had 
asked him, and his Answers thereto, also a Copy of the Order 
to the Sergeant at Arms for bringing him to the Bar of the 
House, the Clerk was directed to make out the said Copies, 
and deliver them to him accordingly. 

The House taking into Consideration the Answers given by 
the said William Smith, to the Questions put to him by the 
Speaker, unanimously 

Resolved That the said Answers are trifling and evasive, and 
plainly indicate him to be the Author of the "Extract of a 
Letter from a Correspondent at Philadelphia, dated February 
23, 1756," which was published in the Evening Advertiser, 
No. 334." 24 

Being busy with other matters of greater import- 
ance at this time the Assembly ordered Smith dis- 
missed. His challenge to the members to the effect 
that they had no right in law to bring him before them 
in a matter of this nature, however, was not forgotten. 

On November 24, 1756, the Assembly received three 
petitions against the offensive and oppressive proceed- 
ings of a certain William Moore, Esq., a Justice of the 
Peace and President of the Common Pleas Court of 
Chester County. 25 Moore was an appointee of the 
Proprietors, and the numerous petitions against his 
extortionate and illegal practices at length roused the 
Assembly to investigate the charges against him. On 
April 1, 1757, Joseph Galloway was appointed to take 
Franklin's place on the Committee of Grievances. 26 
He at once began to investigate the charges contained 
in numerous petitions against Moore which had hither- 
to been read and tabled. On the same day that 
Galloway received his appointment to the aforemen- 
tioned committee the House resolved to hold an in- 
vestigation and ordered the Clerk to inform Moore of its 
resolution to inquire into the justice of the complaints 
against him at its next session. The Clerk was also 
ordered to inform the latter that he might obtain 

"Votes and Proceedings, Vol. IV, p. 578. 
"Ibid., p. 648. 
2 «lbid., p. 706. 

236 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

copies of the petitions upon payment of the cost of 
transcribing them. 

On August 17, 1757, a number of petitioners having 
received notice from the Clerk appeared before the 
Assembly. The hearing on this occasion, however, 
was deferred until August 21, Moore also being given 
notice of the postponement. A hearing was not held 
on the 21st but on the 25th when Moore did not appear 
as he had been directed. 27 Since he was known to be 
in Philadelphia the Clerk was ordered to give him and 
the petitioners notice to appear before the House at 
four in the afternoon the same day. When Moore 
appeared according to the order he presented a mem- 
orial which was read. He contended as Smith had 
previously done that the Assembly had no jurisdiction 
over him. He was unprepared to defend himself at 
this time although he had been given ample notice, but 
the House postponed the further hearing of his case 
until September 1. 

William Smith after his appearance before the 
Assembly, June 20, 1756, again incurred the dis- 
pleasure of the members by intermeddling in the 
disputed election in Northampton County. 28 Mr. 
Vernon, one of the Assembly mentioned, having 
received a letter from Smith relative to this election 
was ordered to deliver this to the Speaker, December 
9, 1756. On March 3, 1757 Nathaniel Vernon placed 
in the Speaker's hands the letter he had received from 
Smith. The letter was in the latter's handwriting 
but this name was torn off. 29 On September 1, when 
the extended hearing was to be held Moore was pur- 
posely absent. 30 After further hearings the Assembly, 
September 28, sent an address to the Governor re- 
questing that Moore be removed from his public 

"Votes and Proceedings, Vol. IV, p. 735. 

"Mr. Jones and Mr. Plumsted were the rival claimants; the latter being inclined to 
serve the Assembly's interests was allowed the seat. 
"Votes and Proceedings, Vol. IV, p. 700. 
"Ibid., p. 738. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 237 

offices. This address was printed in the Pennsylvania 
Gazette, published by David Hall, Benjamin Franklin's 
business partner. Governor Denny in reply to this 
address refused to remove him until he examined 
evidence as to his guilt and the copies of the petitions 
against him. 31 These papers were ordered tran- 
scribed September 30. In answer to the Assembly's 
address Moore presented one of his own to Denny, 
October 19, 1757, which was also printed in the 
Pennsylvania Gazette. David Hall had received per- 
mission from the Speaker and several members of the 
Assembly to do so. Moore's address was also printed 
in William Bradford's Pennsylvania Journal and 
Smith secured for Moore its translation and insertion 
in the German newspaper "Philadelphische Zeitung 
von allerhand Auswartig-und einheimischen merk- 
wiirdigen Sachen, " printed by Anthony Armbruster. 

The subsequent Assembly whose personnel was 
practically the same as the retired body considered that 
this address contained, "many injurious charges and 
slanderous aspersions against the conduct of the late 
Assembly, and highly derogatory of, and destructive 
to, the Rights of this, and the Privileges of Assembly 
. . ." The Speaker was ordered to issue a warrant to 
the Sergeant-at-Arms to bring Moore to the House and 
also William Smith, who was suspected of being con- 
cerned in the writing of this. Thomas Bond, Dr. 
Phineas Bond, Michael Lovell, Robert Levers, David 
Hall and William Bradford were called to the Assembly 
and were separately examined. 

The House was convinced after these examinations 
that William Smith had aided Moore in the preparation 
of the latter's address to the Governor. Governor 
Denny had appointed January 9, 1758, as the day for 
the hearing of Moore's case in the Council Chamber at 
the State House. Moore was unable to be present 
having been arrested and placed in the custody of the 

"Votes and Proceedings, Vol. IV, pp. 749, 750. 

238 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Sergeant-at-Arms. On January 6, the Assembly, 
however, claimed that it had no notice of Denny's 
proposed hearing of the case and requested the 
Governor to hold a hearing on articles of impeachment, 
but this the Governor claimed he had no authority in 
the charter to do. Moore was examined in regard to 
his authorship of the address on January 11. He 
admitted that he was the author and that his friends 
to whom he had shown it had made suggestions which 
had perhaps influenced him to make certain alterations, 
but maintained that the address was in the main his 
own production. His refusal to answer to petitions 
against him of January 10 and his bold statement that 
"The House had no Cognizance in such Matters," 32 
aroused the anger of the members. He was im- 
mediately found "guilty of an high Contempt to the 
Authority of this House" and "committed to the 
common Gaol of the County of Philadelphia." The 
sheriff was futhermore ordered not to obey a writ of 
Habeas Corpus or any other writ or to discharge him 
on any pretence whatsoever. 33 

On January 13, Reverend William Smith was 
brought before the House. He was informed by the 
Speaker that he was charged with being a promoter 
and abettor of the writing and publishing of a libel. 
He desired a copy of the charge, counsel and time to 
prepare his defence. These requests were granted and 
January 17 was the day appointed for his trial. He 
desired Mr. Chew, the Attorney-General, as his counsel, 
but the House thought that since Mr. Chew was the 
King's attorney that Smith ought not to be per- 
mitted "to depend singly on the Attorney-General" 
but ought to get other counsel. Mr. Ross finally 
appeared as Smith's counsel at the trial. An endeavor 
was made to secure evidence to show that the manu- 
script of Moore's address contained Smith's hand- 

"Votes and Proceedings, Vol. IV, p. 768. 

"This order was never formally issued to the sheriff. Franklin to Thomas Leach 
London, May 13, 1758, Mason Library No. 216. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 239 

writing. At length, January 24, after considering all 
the evidence and the testimony of numerous witnesses 
the House " Resolved, by a great Majority, That the 
said William Smith is guilty of promoting and publish- 
ing the libellous Paper, entituled, The Address of 
William Moore to Governor Denny." 34 On the following 
day the Speaker signed and delivered to the sheriff an 
order of the House to take Smith into custody. The 
Sergeant-at-Arms was also ordered to deliver "an 
additional Charge to the Sheriff respecting the Writ of 
Habeas Corpus, if the same should come to his Hands, 
as before given him in the Case of William Moore." 35 
Smith's counsel desired the privilege to appeal his case 
to the King and Council but the Assembly denied this 
request. Smith, however, in a letter to the Speaker, 
January 30, 1758, notified the House of his determina- 
tion to lay his case before the King. 36 

After his arrest by the Sergeant-at-Arms, January 
6, 1758, Smith was kept in confinement until the 25th 
and then placed in the Philadelphia gaol, where he 
remained until about April 11, being then liberated by 
order of the Supreme Court. On September 27, the 
Assembly again ordered that he be apprehended and 
he was again placed in confinement, but in some way 
secured his release, for the new Assembly, November 18 
again ordered his arrest. 37 Moore was acquitted in a 
hearing before the Provincial Council, August 26, 1758, 
and although the Assembly ordered him to be arrested 
on September 27, and again November 18, he does not 
seem to have been apprehended. 

After the warrant for his arrest was issued in 
November, Smith decided to appeal his case to the 
King. He arrived in London, January 1, 1759, and 
immediately got in touch with the Bishop of London 

"Votes and Proceedines. Vol. IV, p. 777. 

"Ibid., p. 782. This charge to the sheriff was never delivered by the Sergoant-at-Arms. 

See Mason Library, No. 216. 

"Ibid. p. 784. 

"Ibid., Vol. V, p. 5. 

240 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

and other churchmen, 38 and also with the chief pro- 
prietor, Thomas Penn. Smith submitted his appeal 
to the Crown in April, 1758 and his case was immedi- 
ately referred to the Attorney and Solicitor-General. 
Franklin's letter to Galloway, April 7, 1759, 39 indicates 
how closely he was observing every move of Smith 
and his plans to thwart him in his appeal to the 
Attorney and Solicitor-General for a report on this 
case. "Smith (now we talk of Libellers) is here, 
dancing Attendance on the Att* and Soil*. Gen 1 , 
to obtain a Report. They are very unwilling to 
make one, but perhaps may at length be teas'd into 
it by Paris, 40 who is a most malicious and inveterate 
Enemy to our Province. I have reason to believe, 
however, that if they censure any Thing in the 
Conduct of the Assembly, it will be Modes and not 
Essentials: But of this I cannot yet be certain; and am 
determin'd to renew the Contest in a Hearing before 
the Council, if the Report appears likely to prejudice 
our Privileges. This may perhaps keep Smith longer 
on Expence to his Supporters with you than they will 
care to bear, tho' 'tis said they have subscrib'd largely: 
He represents himself as a Clergyman persecuted by 
Quakers, for the Services done the Church in opposing 
and exposing those sectaries, and in that Light a 
Bishop recommended him to Oxford for a Degree of 
Doctor of Divinity, which it seems he has obtain'd; 
and if he can get a Benefice here, as possibly he may, 
it is not unlikely he will desert poor Philad a . and by 
removing his Candlestick leave the Academy in the 

The Moore-Smith affair caused much interest in 
Great Britain. Moore's Memorial and Address were 
published there to create an unfavorable public 
opinion of the Assembly in Pennsylvania. Franklin 

!8 On the recommendations of the Archbishop of Canterbury and five other bishops, 
Smith was awarded the degree of Doctor of Divinity by Oxford, March 27, 1759. 
"Mason Library No. 226. 
"Paris was the legal adviser of the Penns. 


1924.] Franklin and Galloway 241 

in a letter to Galloway, London, February 17, 1758, 41 
says, "As the extraordinary Lower County Speech & 
Address has been published here, where never appeared 
before any Proceedings of that Government, it is plain- 
ly done by the Proprietary Tools to continue the 
Prejudices against the Province." Moore was an 
appointee of the Proprietors 42 and had a brother in the 
House of Commons, facts which explain his bold tone 
towards the Assembly. He felt himself secure against 
this body due to these connections. Smith also was 
much in the same position only he had the additional 
support of the Church of England. Both denied the 
right of the Assembly to try and imprison them for 
libel and this body plainly asserted that it had this 
right. The ablest exponent of the Assembly's rights 
was the brilliant young lawyer, Joseph Galloway, who 
vigorously prosecuted the case against Smith. 

Soon after Franklin arrived in England July, 1757, 
he endeavored to treat with the Proprietors with 
reference to the removal of the many grievances com- 
plained of by the citizens of Pennsylvania. What 
progress he made and the attitude of the Proprietors 
in these matters is told by him in a letter to Isaac 
Norris, dated London, January 19, 1759, 43 "When I 
first began to treat with the Proprietors, they desired 
I would put down in Writing the principal Points of 
Complaint which were to be the Subjects of Con- 
ference between us, that they might previously con- 
sider them. I accordingly deliver'd them the Paper 
herewith enclos'd, called Heads of Complaint, in which 
I confin'd myself to those that related chiefly to his 
Majesty's Service and the Defense of the Province, 
as being of more immediate Importance, and omitted 
the Appointment of Judges during Pleasure, and some 

"Mason Library No. 207. 

"The chief proprietor, Thomas Penn who owned about three-fourths of the proprietary 
lands joined the Church of England in 1758. The other proprietors, Richard and John 
Penn ceased to be strict Quakers. 

"Mason Library No. 229. 

242 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

other things, as Points that might afterwards come into 
Discussion, if we could by any means get over the 

"This Paper was deliver'd in August 1757: They re- 
ceiv'd it with Pretensions to great Candour and real 
Intention of seriouslyconsidering it and giving a speedy 
Answer. We had several subsequent Conferences on 
those Heads . . . The Result was, that they said 
there were some Points in which the Royal Prerogative 
was concern'd, and it was therefore necessary, for the 
greater Safety in Proceeding, to have the Opinion of 
the Attorney and Solicitor General. This they would 
endeavour to obtain as soon as possible, having al- 
ready stated a Case and laid it before those Gentlemen 
for their Consideration. 

"The Reason given for declining any farther Treaty 
with me, to wit, 'That I had acknowledged a Want of 
Power to conclude proper Measures, ' is of a Piece with 
the rest: The Truth is, I did refuse to take upon me 
to settle a Money Bill with the Proprietors, as having 
no Power to do an Act of that kind that should be 
obligatory on the Assembly, for that they neither had 
given nor could give me such a Power, it being no less 
than giving me a Power of making Laws for -the 
Province; a Power which, tho' the Assembly are trusted 
with by the People, they cannot delegate to another. 
But I never acknowledged any want of Power to treat 
and confer with them, and to endeavour accommodat- 
ing the Differences with them agreeable to my Instruc- 
tions. They say they have now wrote to the Assembly, 
and it is given out, that their Proposals to the House 
are so fair, that it is not doubted they will be agreed to. 
I wish you may find them so. In the meantime, tho' 
I am advis'd to make no Application to Parliament till 
I hear farther from the House, yet I shall immediately 
permit the Publishing a Work that has been long in 
hand, containing a true History of our Affairs & 
Disputes; 44 from which I have reason to hope a good 

"The "Work" here referred to id "An Historical Review of the Constitution of Pennsyl- 
vania" (London, 1759). 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 243 

Effect, if those Disputes must at length come under 
the Consideration of the Legislature. 

"Seven or eight Months after the Heads of Com- 
plaint were delivered to the Proprietors, M r Paris 
came to me with a Message from them, purporting 
'that it was M r Charles's 45 Fault they had not yet 
obtain'd the Attorney & Solicitor's Opinion, he, M r 
Charles restraining the Attorney by means of a retain- 
ing Fee, formerly given him, which M r Charles would 
not take back again tho' desired so to do by the 
Attorney, and until that was done, the Attorney did 
not think himself at Liberty to consider M r Penns 
Case.' Speaking to M r Charles of this, he told me, 
that on hearing of my coming over, before my Arrival, 
he had retain'd the Attorney General in Behalf of the 
Province, and he did not think it consistent with his 
Duty to the Province to withdraw that Retainer. In 
which I thought him right. The Proprietors might 
either have got their Advice elsewhere; or, which would 
have been the fairest Way, have agreed with me on a 
joint State of the Case, to be laid before those Gentle- 
men in Behalf of all Parties concern'd: But they 
would never so much as let me see the Case they had 

"Upon the whole, the House will see, that if they 
purpose to continue Treating with the Proprietors, it 
will be necessary to recall me and appoint another 
Person or Persons for that Service, who are likely to be 
more acceptable or more pliant than I am, or, as the 
Proprietors express it, Persons of Candour. Whether 
my Conduct towards them, or theirs towards me, had 
exhibited most or least of that Quality, I must submit 
to my Judges. But if the House, grown at length 
sensible of the Danger, to the Liberties of the People, 
necessarily arising from such growing Power and 
Property in one Family with such Principles, shall 
think it expedient to have the Government and Pro- 

"Robert Charles was one of Pennsylvania's colonial agents. 

244 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

perty in different Hands, and for that purpose shall 
desire that the Crown would take the Province into 
its immediate Care, I believe that Point might with- 
out much Difficulty be carried, and • our Privileges 
preferred; and in that I think I could still do Service." 

With the Assembly's permission Franklin theji 
began to take steps to get the Crown to take over 
Pennsylvania as a Royal Province. 46 This greatly en- 
raged the Proprietors who lost no opportunity which 
might present itself to place the Assembly and the citi- 
zens of Pennsylvania in an unfavorable light before the 
British Government. Smith's case gave them this 
opportunity and they immediately came to his support 
as is shown by their causing Moore's " Memorial" and 
"Address" to be published. 

The hearing on Smith's petition before the Attorney 
and Solicitor-General occurred on the evening of April 
17, 1758. Paris, who was employed as the legal ad- 
viser of the Penns, was Solicitor for the petitioners. 
Mr. Wilbraham and Mr. Forrester acted as his counsel. 
These lawyers tried to make it appear that Smith had 
incurred the displeasure of Quakers by promoting 
measures for defence in Pennsylvania. Franklin 
writes, 47 "Much of their Pleading was Invective 
against the Assembly as Quakers, the Rest to show that 
they had' erected themselves into a Court of Justice, 
without any Authority so to do, and that they ap'd the 
House of Commons tho' they had not the Powers of 
that House; that by presuming to order the Sheriff to 
disobey the King's Writ, they were guilty of a high 
and most flagitious Attempt against the Royal 
Authority, &c. and ending with praying that the King 
might be advis'd to issue his Mandatefor the Discharge 
of the Prisoner. They took up the whole Evening with 
their Harangues; so that DaySe'nnight 48 was appointed 
for the Hearing of our Council in Reply. " 

"Franklin to Galloway, London, Feb. 17, 1758. Mason Library No. 207. 
"Franklin to Thomas Leach, London, May 13, 1758. Mason Library No. 216. 
"The same evening one week thereafter. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 245 

On the evening of April 24 Solicitor Joshua Sharpe 
assisted by counsels Parrot and De Grey presented the 
Assembly's side of the case. They argued that the 
House by implication possessed the right in the Penn- 
sylvania Charter to try and to commit for breach of 
privilege; that these powers were inherent in any 
legislative body and that they always had been 
exercised by Assemblies in America. 49 Paris, solicitor 
for the petitioner, maintained that an Act anno 4 
Queen Anne 50 upon which the Assembly based its 
claims to the powers in question had never been 
presented to the Crown and that therefore they never 
existed. Franklin later discovered that this act had 
been regularly passed in Pennsylvania and had never 
been disapproved by the Board of Trade. In a letter 
to Norris he writes, 61 "While we were attending in one 
of the Chambers belonging to the Board of Trade, & 
were allow'd to search in the Press, containing the 
Plantation Acts, for the New England Indian Trade 
Laws to show their Lordships, my Son cast his Eye 
on the manuscript Volumes of old Pennsylvania Laws 
formerly transmitted home for Approbation, and 
found in the Vol. mark'd Pensylv a Laws from 1701 to 
1709, the Law of the 4^ h of [sic :] Queen Anne, to ascertain 
the Number of Members of Assembly & regulate Elec- 
tions, properly certify'd by the then Governor, 52 & 
Secretary Logan 53 . . . — I saw them — " 

The appeal of Smith's case to England caused the 
agencies of the British government to take a definite 
stand in their attitude towards the colonies. Franklin 
in a letter to Isaac Norris, March 19, 1759 54 quotes 
Lord Granville, the President of the Privy Council 
as saying to him that, " 'The Council is over all 

"Franklin supplied the counsel with cases to substantiate this claim. 
"See "The Charters of the Province of Penailvania and City of Philadelphia," (Phila., 
printed by B. Franklin, 1742, p. 72.) 

"Franklin to Isaac Norris, London, June 9, 1759. Mason Library No. 223. 

"Governor Evuns. 

"James Logan, the Governor's Secretary. 

"Mason Library No. 225. 

246 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

the Colonies; your last Resort is to the Council to 
decide your Differences, and you must be sensible it is 
for your Good, for otherwise you often could not obtain 
Justice. The King in Council is the Legislator of the 
Colonies; and when his Majesty's Instructions come 
there, they are the Law of the Land; they are, said 
his L— p, repeating it, the Law of the Land, and as such. 
ought to be obeyed.' The whole of this Conversation 
was curious, of which, if I live to have the Pleasure of 
seeing you again, I will show you the Minutes; they 
are too long for a Letter. L— d Hardwicke, is next at 
the Council Board; than whom no one is suppos'd to 
be for carrying the Prerogative higher in all Respects 
even on this side the Water; all his Actions they say, 
on all Occasions, have shown this; and he makes little 
less Scruple than the President in declaring his Opin- 
ions of this kind. These two govern at that Board, 
so that one may easily conjecture what Reception a 
Petition concerning Privileges from the Colonies may 
meet with from those who are known to think that even 
the People of England have too many. — As to the 
Board of Trade, you know who presides and governs 
all there, 55 and if his Sentiments were no otherways 
to be known, the fruitless Experiment he has try'd at 
the Nation's Cost, of a military Government for a 
Colony, sufficiently shows what he thinks would be 
best for us. The Speaker of the House, indeed, is 
look'd on as a stanch Friend to Liberty; and so is the 
Sec ry M r . Pitt; the Att y Gen 1 , is likewise inclined to 
that Side in all Questions, tho' the Nature of his Office 
requires him to be something of a Prerogative Man; but 
M r Yorke the Soll r . Gen 1 , who is L. H— 's Son is wholly 
and strongly tinctur'd with high Notions of the Pre- 
rogative, imbib'd from his Father, and may be said to 
be dy'din grain. 56 

"From this Sketch of Leading Characters, you will 
judge, that if the Proprietor does not agree with us, our 

"Lord Halifax was President of the Board of Trade. 

"Charles Yorke (1722-1770), the Solicitor-General was Lord Hardwicke's second son. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 247 

best Chance in an Application is directly to Parliament; 
and yet that at this Time is something hazardous, for 
tho' there are many Members in both Houses who are 
Friends to Liberty and of noble Spirits, yet a good 
deal of Prejudice still prevails against the Colonies, 
the Courtiers think us not sufficiently obedient . . . ." 
The attitude of the Privy Council towards the Parlia- 
ment and the position of the Attorney and Solicitor 
General is shown in the following paragraph of the same 
letter: "Smith is here, and by the Help of Paris 
worries the Att y and Soil*. Gen 1 , for a Report on his 
Case, who did not intend to make any. The Att y . is 
greatly perplex'd, angry with the Council for referring 
the Affair to them and with Smith for urging a Report; 
He has open'd his Mind to a Friend of mine on this 
Head; says, 'the Council he knows are for Clipping 
the Wings of Assemblies in their Claims of all the 
Privileges of a House of Commons; the House of Com- 
mons are thought to claim too many, some very unfit 
and unreasonable, and not for the common Good; but 
the Council have let the Colonies go on so long in this 
Way that it will now be difficult to restrain them; and 
the Council would now make the Att y and Soll r . the 
first Instruments of so odious a Measure; that they 
(the Council) should have carried it into Parliament, 
but they are afraid the Parliament would establish 
more Liberty in the Colonies than is proper or neces- 
sary, and therefore do not care the Parliament should 
meddle at all with the Government of the Colonies; 
they rather chuse to carry every Thing there by the 
Weight of Prerogative; which by Degrees may bring 
Things to a proper Situation. Most Att y . Gen' 3 , (he 
said) would immediately do what they knew would be 
pleasing to the Council; but he could not: He must 
however make some kind of Report.' This is the 
Substance of his Discourse to my Friend, who com- 
municated it to me with Leave to mention it to you and 
the Committee, as it contains some Hints that are of 
Importance, but it is to go no farther. —It is some 

248 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Comfort that the Council are doubtful of the Parlia- 
ment. The West India Interest in the House, in any 
general Attack on the Colonies would doubtless be of 
use to us, and perhaps that may be a little appre- 
hended, and it may be thought not proper to dis- 
oblige those Members as they make a considerable 
Body. But at the same Time it is known here, that if 
the Ministry make a Point of carrying any thing in 
Parliament, they can carry it. On the whole, it is 
conjectur'd the Attorney and Soll r . General's Report, 
will be of a special kind; some Censure perhaps pass'd 
on Modes and Expressions in your Proceedings; but 
the general Authority of an Assembly not impeach'd. 
This, however, is only Conjecture. " 

The exponents of the King's prerogative in the 
Ministry were also extremely afraid to incur the 
opposition of Parliament as can be seen from Frank- 
lin's letter to Thomas Leach May 13, 1758 57 in which 
mention is made of the interest taken in Smith's case 
by Mr. Moore, 58 a member of Parliament. "I have 
mention'd M r . Moore's Influence as a Member of 
Parliament for that is a Circumstance that gives great 
Weight here in all Applications to the Crown. Almost 
every Thing is granted to Members of Parliament,, the 
Ministry being extreamly unwilling to disoblige them 
lest they should join in some opposition . . . ." 

With these forces of the British government against 
the Assembly Smith could not fail to secure a favorable 
decision. The Attorney and Solicitor-General in their 
report to the Lords of the Committee of Council for 
Plantation Affairs admitted that Moore's address to 
Governor Denny was a libel against the assembly in 
session when the address was published but not against 
the subsequent Assembly which prosecuted Moore and 
Smith. Hence the latter body had no jurisdiction in 
the case because the libel was not against it. The 

"Mason Library No. 216. 

"This Moore was a brother of William Moore who was associated with Smith in the 
Smith-Moore affair. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 249 

Lords of the Committee of Council for Plantation 
Affairs accepted the Attorney and Solicitor-Generals' 
opinion in their report to the Privy Council which 
freed Smith June 26, 1759. The decision 09 was as fol- 
lows: "The Lords of his Majesty's most honourable 
Privy Council, this day took the said Report into 
consideration, and were pleased to approve thereof, 
and do hereby, in his majesty's name, declare His high 
displeasure at the unwarrantable behaviour of the 
House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, in assuming 
to themselves powers which do not belong to them, and 
invading both his majesty's Royal Prerogative, and the 
Liberties of the Subject; and their Lordships do, there- 
fore, hereby order that the Governor, or Commander- 
in-Chief, for the time being, of the said Province of 
Pennsylvania, do forthwith signify the same to the 
said Assembly accordingly, and take the utmost care, 
and use all the means in his power to support the Laws 
and His Majesty's Prerogative against all usurpations 
and encroachments whatsoever, by the Assembly of 
that Province, at all times and upon all occasions; and 
that the Governor or Commander-in-Chief, for the 
time being, do likewise take care that, it all cases, 
His Majesty's Writs do issue freely according to 
Law, and do protect all Officers of Justice, and others, 
in the due execution of them, and that no person or 
persons, whatsoever, do presume to disobey the same; 
and that, with regard to the petitioner, their Lordships 
are hereby further pleased to direct that he do seek 
redress (as he shall be advised) in the proper Courts of 
Justice, in the Province of Pennsylvania, whereof the 
Governor, or Commander-in-Chief, of the said Province 
of Pennsylvania, for the time being, and all others 
whom it may concern, are to take notice, and govern 
themselves accordingly. " 

In compliance with the Privy Council's decision 
Governor James Hamilton, February 13, 1760 sent the 

"Life and Correspondence of the Rev. William Smith, D. D. (Phila., 1880), Vol. I, 
p. 208. 

250 America?! Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

following message 60 to the Assembly: "Gentlemen, 
Having been served by the Reverend Mr. William 
Smith, Doctor of Divinity, with an Order made by his 
Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council, on the 
Twenty-sixth of June last, upon the Petition and 
Appeal of the said William Smith to his Majesty, com- 
plaining of certain Hardships and Oppressions alleged 
to have been suffered by him from the Assembly of this 
Province for the Year 1758; I herewith lay before you 
both the said original Order, and the Petition of the 
said Doctor Smith to me thereupon. 

"And as I am therein commanded, in the King's 
Name, forthwith to signify to you, his Majesty's high 
Displeasure at the unwarrantable Behaviour of the said 
Assembly, in assuming to themselves Powers which did 
not belong to them, and invading both his Majesty's 
Royal Prerogative, and the Liberties of the People; I do, 
in Obedience to the said Order, hereby signify the same 
to you accordingly. 

James Hamilton. " 

Smith thus won his freedom in a long and hard 
fought struggle with the Assembly. 

Another source of difficulty between the Proprietors 
and the inhabitants of Pennsylvania was the question 
of the ownership of certain Indian lands. When the 
French and Indian War began the Delawares, Shawanese 
and other tribes, who claimed lands on the Susque- 
hanna and whose claims were denied by the Proprietors, 
joined the French. Conferences held with these tribes 
in 1756 produced no satisfactoryresults, but the inhabi- 
tants, particularly the Quakers, hoped the conferences to 
be held in the summer of 1757 would result in an agree- 
ment with the savages. The Quakers had formed a 
"Friendly Association" for the purpose of furthering 
negotiations and securing peace by giving the Indians 
gifts. They desired to allow the Indians to settle per- 
manently on the lands they claimed along the Susque- 

t0 VoteB and Proceedings, Vol. V, p. 96. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 251 

hanna around Wyoming in order that they might 
provide a defence barrier against the French and their 
Indian Allies. The Proprietors, however, claimed that 
these lands had been bought by them and secured by 
previous treaties with the Indians. 61 

Governor Denny objected to the ''Friendly Associa- 
tion" giving the Indians presents and forbade members 
of the Association being present at the conferences to 
be held with Tedyuscung, the Delaware Chief, at 
Easton during the summer of 1757. 62 Tedyuscung, 
however, forced the Governor to yield to the Associa- 
tion's request that members of the Association be 
allowed to attend, by refusing to treat unless they were 
present. The Assembly, contrary to the Governor's 
wishes, also secured for Tedyuscung a clerk in the person 
of Charles Thomson. 63 The Indians desired that the 
title deeds to the lands in dispute be produced and 
examined but the Governor refused this request of the 
Assembly in behalf of the Indians. 

The Minutes of the Treaty held with Tedyuscung 
as taken by the Governor's clerk differed materially 
with the minutes taken by Charles Thomson, the 
former document giving the Indians less favorable 
terms than the latter. 64 The Assembly therefore, 
September 29, 1757, authorized their committee of 
correspondence to send Thomson's minutes of the 
Easton Treaty together with all deeds and necessary 
papers to the colonial agents in Great Britain that they 
might lay them before the King for his determination. 65 

Franklin at once submitted the Indians' complaints 
to the ministry 66 . In a letter to Galloway, 67 London, 

"See W. R. Shepherd, History of the Proprietary Government in Pennsylvania (New 
York, 1896), Chapter VI. 

•Conferences were held with Tedyuscung who represented ten other Indian tribes 
besides the Delawarcs at Easton July 25 to August 7, 1757. 

M Galloway probably conceived the idea of Tedyuscung having his own clerk. 

"Votes and Proceedings, Vol. IV, pp. 760, 761. 

"Ibid. p. 749. 

"Franklin to Galloway, London, Feb. 17, 1758. Mason Library No. 207. 

•'Mason Library No. 217. 

252 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

September 16, 1758, he writes, "M r Thomson has, as 
you desired, sent me constantly Copies of the Treaties 
with Tedyuscung. They are very Satisfactory, and 
must be of great Use when the important Affair of 
doing those People Justice comes under Consideration 
here. Sundry Circumstances have prevented it for 
some time, but it will now speedily be brought on." 
Writing to Galloway again April 7, 1759 68 Franklin 
indicates what steps he had taken before the matter 
was brought before the Board of Trade at an official 
hearing : ' ' The Enquiry into the Causes of the Aliena- 
tion of the Shawanese and Delaware Indians, has 
been some time publish'd, 69 and is more read than I 
expected. It will, I think have a good Effect. The 
Proprietary Interest must lessen as they are more 
known. My Petition in Behalf of the Indians is 
refer'd by the Council to the Board of Trade, where I 
shall prosecute it and endeavour to obtain a Report as 
soon as possible. M r . Tho s . Penn, had artfully waited 
on Lord Granville and Lord Halifax, and left with each 
a Copy of the last Easton Treaty, 70 with a Note re- 
questing his Lordship would turn to & read the 5 th 
Paragraph of the last Page, where he would find how 
highly satisfy'd the Indians were with Onas; 71 so that 
when I spoke with them on the Petition, Lord Granville 
told me he understood all Matters were settled be- 
tween the Proprietor and the Indians to their Satisfac- 
tion, and ordered the Treaty to be brought him, and 
read the Note and the Paragraph mention'd, to me. 
On which I explain'd that Matter to him, and set him 
right, by showing him, that what was there mention'd 
related only to the Purchase at Albany, and that the 
Delawares still understood their Complaint to be before 

"Mason Library No. 226. 

•'This Pamphlet was written by Charles Thomson and printed in London, 1759. 

"The Treaty here referred to was the one concluded with the Indians at Easton, October 
7 to 26, 1758. 

"See paragraph five, p. 31 of Minutes of Conferences held at Easton in October 1758. 
(Philadelphia, printed and sold by B. Franklin and D. Hall, 1758). The Pennsylvania 
Indians called Thomas Penn "Onas." 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 253 

the King, being told that it was so by the Governor in 
another Part of the Treaty, which I pointed out. My 
Lord then saw the Mistake he had been led into, and 
said it ought to be immediately settled; and accordingly 
the next Council Day it was referr'd as above. Lord 
Halifax seem'd to be under the same Mistake till I 
show'd him those Passages of the Treaty, where the 
Governor says, the Proprietors had press'd a Decision, 
but that the King was busy being engag'd in a great 
War, &c. at which his Lordship smil'd. — I am 
inclin'd to think, from what the Secretary told me, 
that they purpose to appoint Commissioners in Ameri- 
ca to make Enquiry; but I shall urge an immediate 
Determination here; as the Question seems to be chiefly 
this, Whether certain Lands are convey'd by certain 
Deeds; those Deeds being to be laid before their Lord- 
ships by the Proprietor; particularly whether the Walk- 
ing Purchase was duly run out according to the Direction 
of the Deed (supposing that Deed a good one) on which 
it was founded? — This I shall think may be decided 
here on the Face of the Deeds and Maps; and I do not 
well see what farther Lights Commissioners can 

On May 15, 1759 occurred the hearing on the 
Indian petition which the Assembly had forwarded to 
Franklin. 72 Mr. Paris, the Proprietors' counsel objected 
to Franklin's motion that the Proprietors show their 
deed to the Board of Trade because he said that his 
enemies simply wished to see these "to pick holes" in 
them. To this Lord Halifax replied that he believed 
that Franklin did not care to see the deeds, but only 
that the Board of Trade might examine them. Frank- 
lin now sprang a surprise on the Proprietors: "No, 
my Lord, said I, I have Copies of them, here they are, " 
and he straightway handed these to Lord Halifax who 
upon examination found them satisfactory. The 
Board of Trade then advised the King to refer the 

"Franklin to Isaac Norris, London, June 9, 1759. Mason Library No. 223. 

254 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

whole matter to Sir William Johnson, the Superinten- 
dent of Indian Affairs in America. This was a 
victory for " Franklin as the determination of this 
Indian question was taken from the Proprietors and 
submitted to an officer of the Crown. 73 Sir William 
Johnson held several conferences with Tedyuscung, 
and while the latter was not able to make good all of his 
claims yet they were sufficient to procure permission 
for his tribe to remain on the land at Wyoming as long 
as they continued to occupy it. 

When the first conferences with the Proprietors 
failed to achieve any satisfactory results Franklin saw 
that the only hope of redressing Pennsylvania's 
grievances was to bring the questions in dispute before 
the English people and the House of Commons. In 
the fall of 1757 he determined to publish a pamphlet 
to justify the claims of the province against the 
Proprietors. 74 About this time he met personally 
Richard Jackson, a lawyer and perhaps the best in- 
formed Englishman of his day in matters pertaining 
to the American Colonies. After Richard Partridge, 
one of the Colonial agents of Pennsylvania, died March 
1759, Franklin suggested to Galloway, who was one of 
the most influential members of the Assembly, that 
Jackson be appointed as the chief colonial agent. 75 
At this time the Ministry was supporting Jackson's 
candidacy for a seat in the House of Commons and his 
election therefore seemed assured. Franklin felt that 
a member of parliament would have much greater 
influence with the government than a private citizen. 
Jackson was willing to act as agent and Franklin 
pressed the Assembly to appoint him but the members 
were unwilling to take the position away from Franklin. 
The latter was very busy with colonial matters in 1757- 
1758 and was unable to find the time to write the 

"The difficulties with most of the Indian tribes except those with the Dela wares and tha 
Shawanese had been temporarily settled by the treaty at Easton, October 1758. 

"Franklin to Joseph Galloway, London, Feb. 17, 1758. Mason Library No. 207. 
"Franklin to Joseph Galloway, London, Apr. 7, 1759. Mason Library No. 226. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 255 

pamphlet he intended to publish. He therefore pre- 
vailed upon Jackson to undertake the task and prob- 
ably supplied him with the facts he wished to present 
and aided him with suggestions while he was writing 
it. In 1759 "An Historical Review of the Constitution 
of Pennsylvania" dedicated to the Speaker of the 
House of Commons, appeared anonymously, Jackson 
being unwilling to be known as the author because he 
did not wish to jeopardize his chances for election to 
Parliament by incurring the displeasure of the Ministry. 
Franklin was at once proclaimed the author and has 
usually received the credit for writing it. In a letter 
to Isaac Norris, London, June 9, 1759 76 Franklin writes 
"The Book relating to the Affairs of Pennsylvania, is 
now publish'd . . . The Proprietor is enrag'd. 77 
When I meet him any where there appears in his 
wretched Countenance a strange Mixture of Hatred, 
Anger, Fear & Vexation. He supposes me the Author, 
but is mistaken. I had no hand in it. 78 It is wrote by 
a Gent n said to be one of the best Pens in England, 
and who interests himself much in the Concerns of 
America, but will not be known. " 

The effect of this pamphlet in silently influencing 
Parliament and public opinion in England was con- 
siderable. 79 It did much to bring about the well- 
known agreement with the Proprietors in June 1760, 
whereby the latter recognized the Assembly's right 
to tax their estates. When Franklin returned to 
America in August 1762, the Assembly, although it 

"Mason Library No. 223. 

"Franklin here probably refers to the chief proprietor, Thomas Penn. 
?9 Franklin means that he had no band in writing the pamphlet. In the manuscript 
"Franklin Papers" appears the following account dated December 31, 1759 "Printed for 
Benjamin Franklin by William Strahan — 

Review of the Constitution of Pennsylvania 

118 reams of paper for do. 

Paid for binding 000 Reviews, and shipping 

See W. R. Shepherd, History of the Proprietary Government in Pennsylvania, 
p. 89, Note 1. 

"William Franklin to Joseph Galloway London, December 28, 1759. Mason Library 
No. 224. • 

256 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

knew of his intention to return home, took no steps to 
appoint his successor. It was probably taken for 
granted by the members that Franklin would make an 
arrangement with Jackson to look after the province's 
affairs in England. Franklin did in fact make such an 
arrangement which was sanctioned by the Assembly. 80 
Jackson was continued as agent by a resolution of 
October 15, 1763. 81 At this time he was a member of 
Parliament having been returned from the conjoint 
borough of Weymouth and Melcombe Regis. Jack- 
son's vast knowledge of colonial affairs earned him the 
soubriquet "Omniscient. " 82 He and Franklin, on the 
latter's return to England in 1764 ably cared for the 
interests of Pennsylvania. 

The conquest of Canada by Great Britain in 1759 
and 1760 practically ended the colonial phase of the 
Seven Year's War with France. The latter country 
was exhausted and ready to conclude peace but Great 
Britain was unable definitely to decide on demands to 
be made of France in the matter of territorial cessions. 
British public opinion in 1760 was about evenly divided 
over the question whether Canada or the sugar- 
producing island of Guadaloupe in the West Indies 
should be retained. The Ministry, dependent on 
popular support for continuance in office, could not 
decide and be sure whether their choice of either terri- 
tory would satisfy the maj ority of the people. William 
Pitt for the Ministry pointedly asked this question 
in Parliament: "Some are for keeping Canada; some 
Guadaloupe; who will tell me which I shall be hanged 
for not keeping?" 

A pamphlet discussion was begun in 1759 to influ- 
ence both public opinion and the Ministry, and the first 
of the numerous pamphlets to be published was "A 
Letter addressed to two great Men 83 on the Prospect 

""Votes and Proceedings, Vol. V, p. 225. 
"Ibid., p. 280. 

"Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 29, p. 104. 

»The two great men addressed were the Duke of Newcastle and WiEiam Pitt who 
headed the Ministry, the former being the nominal head. 

1924.] Franklin and Galloway 257 

of Peace, " written by John Douglas, a political follower 
of the Earl of Bath. 84 The author urged the Ministry 
to keep Canada. This was answered by another 
pamphlet entitled, " Remarks on the Letter addressed 
to two great Men," the writer, William Burke 85 
urging the return of Canada to France and the reten- 
tion of Guadaloupe. This latter pamphlet elicited the 
publication in 1760 of "The Interest of Great Britain 
considered with regard to her Colonies and the Ac- 
quisitions of Canada and Guadaloupe." Much has 
been written in regard to the authorship of this pamph- 
let. Many historians have regarded it as the joint 
production of Richard Jackson and Benjamin Franklin 
until Dr. I. Minis Hays recently settled the question 
by proving Franklin the author. 86 An unpublished 
letter of William Franklin to Joseph Galloway, London, 
June 16, 1760 87 furnishes additional evidence to sup- 
port Dr. Hays' conclusion: "I wrote you a few Lines 
on Saturday last to go by the Pacquet, in which I 
mention'd a Pamphlet wrote by my Father in Answer 
to the Remarks on the Letter to Two Great Men . . . 
Something by way of Answer to my Father's Pamphlet 
has appear'd in the London Chronicle, wrote by one 
D r . Tucker a Clergyman, who is an Intimate of L d . 
Hallifax's, and patroniz'd by him, and is one of the 
bitterest Enemies N. America has in Britain. 'Tis so 
contemptible a Performance, that my Father could not 
think it worthy of his Notice, were it not that it affords 
him an Opportunity of saying some things omitted in 
his former Publication, and may be a means of silencing 
the Doctor, or a least of lessening his Influence in 
American Affairs for the future. " 

During the first part of 1760 Franklin's negotiations 

"William Franklin in a letter to Joseph Galloway, London, June 16, 1760. Mason 
Library No. 5174 states that "L. Bath" was the author. 

"Ibid., This pamphlet was published in London 1760. Burke was Secretary of 

M See Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 63, No. 1, 1624. 
"Mason Library No. 5174. 

258 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

with the Perms temporarily came to an end and the 
other more pressing problems of Pennsylvania had been 
settled as far as they could be settled in England. 
Franklin availed himself of this lull in affairs to write 
his famous Canada pamphlet. This publication was 
by far the ablest of all the pamphlets bearing on the 
question of the retention of Canada or Guadaloupe. 
It did much to influence British opinion and to prompt 
the Ministry to make the decision to keep Canada 
which to this day has remained a possession of the 
British Empire. 

The period from 1757 until 1760 was momentous 
in the history of Pennsylvania and Great Britain. 
It was in these years that the later much maligned 
loyalist, Joseph Galloway, fought for colonial rights and 
better colonial government. These also were the years 
in which Franklin won his first diplomatic victories and 
were the beginning of his career as the foremost of 
American Diplomatists during the fateful years of the 
Revolution. 88 

88 I desire here to express appreciation for the assistance and co-operation of my asso- 
ciates in the library and particularly to Lewis J. Carey, M. A. who has so cheerfully given 
of his time and knowledge. — W. S. M. 

1924.1 South Carolina 259 




The following bibliography attempts, first, to present an 
historical sketch of every newspaper printed in the United 
States from 1690 to 1820; secondly, to locate all files found in 
the various libraries of the country; and thirdly, to give a 
complete check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society. 

The historical sketch of each paper gives the title, the date 
of establishment, the name of the editor or publisher, the fre- 
quency of issue and the date of discontinuance. It also 
attempts to give the exact date of issue when a change in title 
or name of publisher or frequency of publication occurs. 

In locating files to be found in various libraries, no attempt 
is made to list every issue. In the case of common papers 
which are to be found in many libraries, only the longer files 
are* noted, with a description of their completeness. Rare 
newspapers, which are known by only a few scattered issues, 
are minutely listed. 

The check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society follows the style of the Library of Con- 
gress "Check List of Eighteenth Century Newspapers," and 
records all supplements, missing issues and mutilations. 

The arrangement is alphabetical by States and towns. 
Towns are placed according to their present State location. 
For convenience of alphabetization, the initial "The" in the 
titles of papers is disregarded. Papers are considered to be of 
folio size, unless otherwise stated. There are no abbreviations 
except in the names of the libraries where files are located, and 

260 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

these should be easily understood. A superior italic "m" is 
used in the listing of the Society's files to signify mutilated 
copy. The bibliography includes only newspapers, and does 
not list magazines; the distinction has sometimes been difficult 
to draw, but the test has generally been the inclusion of current 
news. Neither in the historical sketches nor in the listing of 
files is any account taken of the existence of the paper after 

All files, except in a few instances, have been personally 
examined by the compiler of this list, and the facts stated have 
been drawn from an inspection of the papers themselves and 
not based on secondary authorities. 

The bibliography will be published in the Proceedings in 
about seventeen installments, after which the material will be 
gathered into a volume, with an historical introduction, ac- 
knowledgment of assistance rendered, and a comprehensive 
index of titles and names of printers. Reprints of each in- 
stallment will not be made, nor will the names of papers or 
printers be indexed in the Proceedings. The compiler will 
welcome additions and corrections. 

1924.] South Carolina 261 


[Cambridge] Anti- Monarchist, see under Edgefield. 

Camden Gazette, 1816- 1820+. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 4, 1816, by P[ ] W. 

Johnston, with the title of "Camden Gazette." A few 
weeks afterward the imprint stated that the paper was 
printed by P. W. Johnston and edited by William Langley. 
Early in 1817, it was printed by George W. B. Harby for 
the Proprietors. Harby was succeeded by Ffisher] 
Moses, who transferred the paper to Wilie Vaughan 
Dec. 31, 1818. He was succeeded May 27, 1819, by 
John Cambridge who continued it until after 1820. 

Mrs. Louise Proctor, Camden, has 1816-Apr. 8, 1819. 

Mrs. G. G. Alexander, Camden, owned in 1917 a file 
Feb. 27, 1817-May6, 1819. 

T. J. Kirkland, Camden, has May 27, 1819 -Dec. 1820. 

A. A. Shas: 

1816. Apr. 4, 11. 

Sept. 5, 12, 19, 26. 

1817. June 30. 
July 21. 
Oct. 6. 

Camden Intelligencer, 1803. 

In the Centennial issue of the Charleston News and 
Courier, 1903, p. 30, it is stated "The Camden Intelli- 
gencer appeared June 5, 1803, with J. B. Hood as editor." 
No copy located. 

Camden Journal, 1802. 

Weekly. Established in May 1802, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of Oct. 19, 
1802, vol 1, no. 21, published by J[ohn] Martin Slump, 
with the title of "The Camden Journal or the Camden 
Advertiser." (Title received through the kindness of 
Thomas J. Kirkland of Camden, who personally examined 
the paper). 

262 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

[Charleston] Carolina Gazette, 1798-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 4, 1798, by Freneau and 
Paine [Peter Freneau and Seth Paine] as a weekly called 
"The Carolina Gazette," in connection with their daily 
"City Gazette." It underwent the same change of 
publishers, as follows: John M'lver, Jan. 8, 1801; [John] 
M'lver & [David R.] Williams, Mar. 5, 1801; [Peter] 
Freneau & Williams, Jan. 7, 1802; Peter Freneau, Jan. 5, 
1804; [Samuel J.] Elliott & [Samuel] Richards, July 4, 
1806; Peter Freneau & Co. [Freneau, Elliott and Richards], 
Jan. 8, 1808; E[benezer] S. Thomas, Jan. 9, 1810; [Samuel 
H.] Skinner & [Joseph] Whilden, Jan. 6, 1816; Joseph 
Whilden, Jan. 8, 1820. With the issue of Oct. 22, 1814, it 
was called "Carolina Gazette"; with April 8, 1815, "The 
Carolina Gazette"; and with Jan. 6, 1816, "Carolina 
Gazette." Continued until after 1820. Although issued 
from the same office as the daily "City Gazette," it con- 
tained much new material and was not merely a weekly 
edition (see E. S. Thomas, "Reminiscences," 1840, vol. 1, 
p. 76, vol. 2, p. 48). 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 25-Dec. 27, 1798; Jan. 31, 1799- 
Dec. 25, 1800. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 2, 1799 -Dec. 27, 1805; July 3, 
1807 -Dec. 26, 1809. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Jan. 8, 1801 -Dec. 30, 1802; 
Jan. 2, 1810-Dec. 28, 1816; Jan. 3, 1818-Dec. 30, 1820. 

Harvard has Mar. 29-June 7, 1798; Jan. 10-Feb. 14, 
May 2-23, July 11, 1799; Aug. 14, 21, Sept. 11, 1800; 
Mar. 12, Dec. 31, 1801; Jan. 7, 1802-Dec. 18, 1807, fair; 
June 26, 1813. 

Lib. Congress has Feb. 4 -Nov. 11, 1802; Nov. 24, 1803; 
Jan. 6-Dec. 28, 1816. 

Univ. of Texas has Jan. - Dec, 1819. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has July 1, 1802; May 26, 1803. 

A. A. S. has: 

1798. Nov. 1. 

1799. Feb. 21, 28. 

1809. Nov. 14. 

1810. Apr. 27. 

924.] South Carolina 263 

1812. June 27. 

1817. July 5, 26. 

1818. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Aug. 15. 

Missing: Mar. 7, Apr. 25, May 2, July 4, 
Nov. 21, 28, Dec. 12, 19. 
1820. Apr. 1. 
[Charleston] Carolina Weekly Messenger, 1806- 1810. 

Weekly. Established in September 1806, with the title 
of " Carolina Weeldy Messenger. " It was issued from the 
office of the "Charleston Courier" and experienced the 
same changes in publishers. At first a quarto of eight 
pages, it was enlarged after Feb. 7, 1809, to a folio of four 
pages. The last issue located is that of Sept. 11, 1810, 
vol. 4, no. 46. 

Harvard has Aug. 25, Sept. 15-29, 1807; June 14, July 
12, Oct. 19, Nov. 8, 1808. 
A. A. S. has: 
1807. Aug. 11. 

1809. Feb. 7. 

1810. Jan. 16. 
Feb. 27. 
May 22. 
Sept. 11. 

[Charleston] Chronicle of Liberty, 1783. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 25, 1783, with the title of 
"The Chronicle of Liberty, or the Republican Intelligencer," 
published by Mansfield & Davis. James Mansfield was the 
editor and Joseph Davis the printer. This is the only issue 

Lib. Congress has Mar. 25, 1783. 

[Charleston] City Gazette, 1787- 1820+ . 

Daily. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of " The Charleston Morning Post and Daily 
Advertiser. " The earliest issue located with the new title 
of " The City Gazette, and the Daily Advertiser" is that of 
Nov. 6, 1787, vol. 5, no. 786, published by Haswell & 
M'lver [Robert Haswell and John MTver]. With the 

264 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

issue of Dec. 18, 1787, the title was altered to "The City 
Gazette, or the Daily Advertiser." With the issue of 
Jan. 1, 1788, Haswell was replaced by John Markland, 
under the firm name of Markland & M'lver. With the 
issue of Jan. 2, 1792, the title was altered to "The City 
Gazette & Daily Advertiser." With the issue of Jan. 1, 
1794, the firm name became Markland, M'lver & Co. 
With the issue of Jan. 1, 1795, the paper was purchased by 
Peter Freneau and Seth Paine, who published it under the 
firm name of Freneau and Paine, and at the same time the 
initial " The " was dropped from the title. With the issue 
of Jan. 1, 1801, the paper was bought and published by J. 
MTver & D[avid] It. Williams. In the issues from Jan. 2 
to Feb. 26, the imprint of John MTver alone is given, but 
beginning with Feb. 27, 1801, the imprint reverted to 
J. MTver & D. R. Williams. MTver died May 7, 1801, but 
his name remained in the imprint until the issue of Jan. 
1, 1802, when Freneau & Williams became the publishers. 
With the issue of Jan. 2, 1804, Williams retired, Peter 
Freneau became sole publisher and the title was short- 
ened to "City Gazette." On July 1, 1806, Freneau 
transferred the paper to [Samuel J.] Elliott & [Samuel] 
Richards, and the title reverted to "City Gazette and 
Daily Advertiser." With the issue of Jan. 1, 1808, the 
two partners were joined by Peter Freneau, with the firm 
name of Peter Freneau & Co. With the issue of Jan. 1, 
1810, the paper was bought and published by E[benezer] 
S. Thomas, who changed the title, July 2, 1810, to "City 
Gazette and Commercial Advertiser." With the issue 
of Jan. 1, 1816, Thomas sold the paper to Samuel H. 
Skinner and Joseph Whilden, who used the firm name of 
Skinner & Whilden. With the issue of Jan. 1, 1820, this 
partnership was dissolved and Joseph Whilden became 
sole publisher, continuing the paper until after 1820. In 
connection with this paper a weekly was also issued under 
the title of " The Carolina Gazette, " which see. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Sept. 8, 1788 -June 25, 1790; 
Feb. 21, 1791 -June 30, 1795; Oct. 5, 1795- Apr. 21, 1796; 
Oct. 21, 1796- Jan. 1, 1801; Jan. 1, 1802- June 27, 1803, 

1924.] South Carolina 265 

scattering file; July 2-Dec. 31, 1803; Feb. 21, 1804- 
Dec. 31, 1805; Aug. 15, Oct. 16, 22, Nov. 1, 5, 1806; 
Jan. 12-Dec. 31, 1807; July 4, 1808-Dec. 31, 1810; Jan. 
3, 1812-Dec.30, 1820. 

Charleston Coll. Lib. has Nov. 6, 1787 -Aug. 30, 1788; 
June 28, 1790-Feb. 19, 1791; Mar. 2-Aug. 31, 1797; 
Jan. 1, 1798-Dec. 31, 1805; Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1808; Jan. 1- 
Dec. 31, 1810; Jan. 1, 1813-Dec. 30, 1818; Jan. 1-Dec. 30, 

Univ. of Texas has Jan. -June, 1795; Jan. -June, 1796; 
Jan. -Dec, 1797; Jan. -Dec, 1799; June- Dec, 1800; Sept. 
21 -Dec, 1803; July- Dec, 1805; Jan. -Dec, 1809; Jan. 
1812-June 1814; Jan. 1816-Dec 1817; July 1818-Dec 

Wis. Hist. Soc has July 29, Oct. 23, Dec. 11, 1788; 
Nov. 19, 25, 1789; July 6-Oct. 21, 1791; Feb. 8, 25, 28, 
Mar. 1, May 19, June 28, July 2, 6, 24, 27, Sept. 3, 4, 7, 11, 
27, 1792; Sept. 15,22-24, Oct. 3, 4, 10, 16, 18, Nov. 4-6, 
1794; Jan. 1, 1795 -July 4, 1798; Feb. 16, 23, 25, Mar. 25, 
Apr. 2, 23, May 17, 20, 26, 27, June 5-10, Sept. 9, 10, 25- 
29, Oct. 1, 5, Nov. 5, 1802; Apr. 17, May 28, Oct. 24, 31, 
Nov. 1, 4, 7, 21, 22, 25, 26, 30, Dec 1, 3, 5, 17, 19, 1803; 
Jan. 24- Feb. 28, 1804; July 1-Dec. 31, 1806; Dec. 12, 

Harvard has July 2, 11-13, 1791; Aug. 4 -Sept. 26, 1792, 
fair; Jan. 22-28, June 2-4, 1795; June 4, 25, July 2, Aug. 
19, 26, 1796; Feb. 8, 1797 -Dec 28, 1801, scattering file. 

Amer. Inst, of N. Y. had Jan. 1-June 30, 1795; Jan. 1- 
June 30, 1796; July 1-Dec. 30, 1797; July 1-Dec. 31, 1800. 

Lib. Congress has Oct. 20, 1788 -Oct. 13, 1789, scattering 
issues; Aug. 28, Dec. 31, 1790; June 8, Sept. 9, 1791; 
June 8, Sept. 2, 1793; Jan. 17, Mar. 26, Apr. 1, 7, 1794; 
Apr 27, Oct. 12, 1795; Jan. 1-Dec. 24, 1796; May 29, 
June 22, July 7, Aug. 8, Sept. 26, 1797; Jan. 20-Aug. 31, 
1798; Oct. 5, 1798-Dec. 14, 1801, scattering issues; 
May 19, 1802; July 2-Dec. 31, 1804; Aug. 13, 17, 18, 22, 
Sept. 11, 1807; May 5, 6, 1808; June 11, 1809; Oct. 14, 21, 
27, Nov. 5,7, 1818. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Jan. 3-Dec 31, 1789; Sept. 3, 1791; 

266 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

July 3, 19, 22-25, 1794; Jan. 15, July 1, Dec. 31, 1795;. 
July 1 -Dec. 31, 1800; Jan. 1, 1801. 

Univ. of S. C. has Jan. 2 -Dec. 30, 1797; July 1-Dec. 31, 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 1, 1795-Aug. 9, 1796, scattering 

Ga. Hist. Soc. has June 8, 1799- June 7, 1800. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 16-19, 1789; Mar. 13, 1795; 
Mar. 18, 1801; May 5, 1820. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has June 1-Dec. 31, 1802. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 21, 1791; Jan. 23, 1792; Aug. 
5, 1793; Nov. 13, 1802; Oct. 26-Nov. 29, 1803; Sept. 19, 

Univ. of Mich, has Feb. 21, 1789; Aug. 10, 1796. 

A. A. S. has: 

1788. Jan. 9. 

1789. July 1 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Dec. 23, 30. 

Mutilated: Sept. 27, Oct. 19, 23. 
Missing: July 29 -Aug. 5, 7. 

1790. May 7. 

1791. May 14. 

1795. Aug. 22, 24, 25. 
Sept. 5, 7, 8. 

Supplement: Aug. 24, Sept. 5, 7, 25. 

1796. Jan. 1. 
Apr. 27, 28. 
Aug. 2, 17, 19, 27. 
Sept. 12, 13. 
Supplement: Mar. 23. 

1797. Jan. 7, 9. 
Sept. 27-30. 
Oct. 2, 3. 
Dec. 20,21,22. 

1798. Mar. 23. 
May 8, 18, 28. 

June 4, 5, 12, 18, 19,28,31. 
July 13, 27, 29. 
Oct. 15 m , 30. 

1924.] South Carolina 267 

Nov. 26. 

1799. Feb. 26. 
Mar. 1,2,4-6. 
Apr. 8, 10, 13, 15. 

July 1 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Dec. 23, 30. 

Mutilated: Sept. 27, Oct. 19, 23. 

Missing: July 29- Aug. 5, 7. 

1800. Feb. 18. 
June 23. 
July 11 m . 
Aug. 26. 
Oct. 11. 

1801. July 6. 
Sept. 9. 
Oct. 7. 
Nov. 14. 
Dec. 17. 

1802. Jan. 1. 
Sept. 10. 
Oct. 1. 
Nov. 27. 

1803. Mar. 23. 
May 6, 7 m . 
July 15, 16. 
Sept. 26, 28, 29. 
Oct. 8, 20. 
Dec. 6. 

1804. Jan. 9-12, 18-21,27. 
Feb. 1,9, 16,29. 
Mar. 1-3. 

May 26, 29. 

July 2, 4, 19. 

Aug. 10, 20. 

Sept. 3, 5, 7, 18-20,28,29. 

Oct. 3, 5, 9. 

Nov. 3, 6. 

Dec. 3, 5. 

268 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

1805. Apr. 10, 12. 
July 17. 
Sept. 14, 24. 

1808. May 21. 

June 9, 10, 25, 29, 30. 
July 1,28, 30. 
Aug. 8, 18, 29. 
Dec. 24, 31. 

1809. Dec. 14,25. 

1810. Feb. 1,3. 
Mar. 22. 
Aug. 9, 17. 
Sept. 25. 
Nov. 30. 

Dec. 4, 12, 20, 21, 28. 
Supplement: Dec. 4. 

1811. May 6. 
June 26. 
July 1,2. 
Sept. 11-13. 
Oct. 16, 17. 
Nov. 15. 
Dec. 13. 

1812. Feb. 26. 
Mar. 3, 6, 28. 
May 29. 

1813. July 22. 
Sept. 1, 24. 
Oct. 20. 

1814. Feb. 5, 19. 

Mar. 5,18 m , 19 m , 25 m . 
Apr. 22 m . 
May 25 m , 26 m . 
Sept. 3. 
Nov. 4 m . 

1815. Apr. 24. 
May 6 m , 8 m . 
Dec. 30. 

1818. May 12, 14. 

1924.] Smith Carolina 269 

[Charleston] Columbian Herald, 1784-1796. 

Semi-weekly, tri-weekly and daily. Established as a 
semi-weekly, Nov. 23, 1784, by T[homas] B. Bowen and 
J[ohn] Markland, with the title of "The Columbian 
Herald, or the Patriotic Courier of North-America." It 
became a tri-weekly with the issue of June 6, 1785, but 
with Nov. 24, 1785, again was published semi-weekly and 
also changed its title to "The Columbian Herald, or the 
Independent Courier of North-America. " With the issue 
of Nov. 27, 1786, Markland retired, and a new firm was 
formed of Bowen, Vandle & Andrews [Thomas B. Bowen, 
James Vandle, and S — Andrews]. With the issue of 
Jan. 3, 1788, Andrews retired, and the paper was published 
by Bowen, & Co. [Bowen and Vandle]. At some time 
between Sept. 25, 1788 and Feb. 26, 1789, T. B. Bowen be- 
came sole publisher. In the fall of 1790 the paper became 
a tri-weekly, and in 1792 changed its title to "Columbian 
Herald, and the General Advertiser." At some time in 
1793 or previously, Isaac Silliman was printer of the paper 
(see advertisement in issue of June 6, 1794). With the issue 
of July 27, 1793, William P. Harrison entered into partner- 
ship with Bowen, under the firm name of Harrison & 
Bowen, and the title became "Columbian Herald, or the 
Southern Star. " There were various slight changes in the 
punctuation of the title in 1793-1795. With the issue of 
Oct. 7, 1795, the publishing firm became William Primrose 
Harrison & Co., the paper became a daily, and the title 
was changed to "Columbian Herald; or, the New Daily 
Advertiser." The paper was discontinued with the issue 
of Dec. 17, 1796, no. 1888. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Nov. 23, 1784 -Oct. 19, 1786; 
Nov. 15, 1787-Sept. 25, 1788; Feb. 26-Apr. 27, 1789, 
scattering; Aug. 7-14, Sept. 9-Oct. 5, 1790; July 2, 1794- 
June 29, 1795; Oct. 7, 1795- June 29, 1796. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 9, 1786- Dec. 31, 1787; Aug. 
24, 1789. 

Charleston Coll. Lib. has July 23, 1793 -June 30, 1794; 
July 4- Dec. 17, 1796. 

Harvard has Nov. 23, 26, 1784; Aug. 10, Nov. 6, 1786; 

270 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Mar. 5, June 19- July 14, 1791; Apr. 15, June 1, 3, 17, 19, 
July 1, 3, Aug. 14, Nov. 3, 1795; Apr. 13, 14, May 5, June 
1-7, 13, 17, 20, 21, 25-29, July 26, 29, 1796. 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 3, 1795-Aug. 1, 1796, scattering 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 26, 1785. 

Lib. Congress has Apr. 30, 1789. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 19, 1793; Oct. 19, 1795; Aug. 
19, 1796. 

A. A. S. has: 

1787. June 14, 21 m , 25 m . 
July 2. 

Sept. 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27. 
Oct. 1,4. 
Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Sept. 25. 

1788. Feb. 4, 11,14, 18,21. 
June 23, 26, 30. 

1793. Nov. 30. 

Dec. 12, 14, 17,21. 

1794. Jan. 22, 24, 27. 
Mar. 19. 
Apr. 4, 7. 

June 13 m . « 

Charleston Courier, 1803- 1820+ . 

Daily. Established Jan. 10, 1803, by A[aron] S. Will- 
ington, for Loring Andrews, with the title of "Charleston 
Courier." With the issue of July 10, 1805, Andrews's 
name disappeared from the imprint and the paper was 
published by A. S. Willington, for the Proprietor. With 
the issue of Sept. 2, 1805, Andrews sold out his share 
entirely, and the paper was published by Benjamin B. 
Smith & Co. [Stephen C. Carpenter]. With the issue of 
Jan. 10, 1806, Smith withdrew and the publishers became 
Marchant, Willington & Co. [Stephen C. Carpenter, 
Frederick Dalcho, Peter T. Marchant and Aaron S. Will- 
ington]. Carpenter withdrew July 9, 1806, and removed 
to New York. With the issue of Apr. 1, 1809, the part- 

1924.] South Carolina 271 

nership was dissolved and the publishing firm became A. S. 
Willington & Co. [Willington and Dalcho]. With the 
issue of July 3, 1809, a new partnership was formed of E. 
Morford, Willington & Co. [Edmund Morford, A. S. 
Willington and F. Dalcho]. With the issue of Jan. 1, 
1813, this partnership was dissolved, and A. S. Willington 
became sole proprietor, and so continued until after 1820. 
With the issue of Jan. 1, 1820, the title became "The 
Charleston Courier. " 

A semi-weekly country paper was announced in April, 
1804, but not enough subscriptions were received to issue it. 
In 1809 a tri-weekly country paper was established, with 
the column heading of "The Courier" and was continued 
until after 1820. A weekly was established in September 
1806, with the title of "Carolina Weekly Messenger," 
which see. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Jan. 10, 1803- June 29, 1811; 
Jan. 1- June 30, 1812; Jan. 1,1813-Dec. 30, 1820. 

Charleston Coll. Lib. has Jan. 10- June 30, 1803; Jan. 2- 
Dec. 31, 1804; Jan. 3, 1806-Dec. 31, 1811 ; July 1-Dec. 31, 
1815; Jan. 2, 1815-Dec. 31, 1817; Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1819. 

Lib. Congress has Jan. 10, 1803- June 29, 1805; July 17, 
Sept. 23, Dec. 2, 4, 5, 11, 13, 16-20, 24, 25, 1805; Jan. 1, 
1806-Dec. 30, 1820. 

Univ. of Texas has Jan. -June, 1804; Jan. 1806 -June, 1808. 

Harvard has Jan. 10, 1803 -Oct. 26, 1805, good; Jan. 1, 
1806 -Nov. 19, 1807, scattering file. 

Conn. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 25, 1803 -Dec. 1804. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has June 6- Dec. 31, 1805; June 5, 10, 
1805; Dec. 4, 1818. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Jan. 24, 1804- June 21, 1805. 

N. Y. State Lib. has Jan. 1 - Apr. 10, 1806, fair. 

Univ. of S. C. has Aug. 28, 1813. 

A. A. S. has: 

1803. Jan. 10 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Jan. 18-24, 27, 28, Feb. 8, Mar. 2, 
3, May 27, July 27, 28, Sept. 14, 15, Dec. 
20, 27. 

1804. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

272 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Prospectus of Country Paper: Apr. 16. 

Missing: Jan. 19, Apr. 3, June 26, July 18, 
19, Aug. 22, 29, Sept. 14, 15, Oct. 8, 9, 
Nov. 16, 17. 

1805. Jan. 1- July 11. 

Mutilated: Jan. 31, Mar. 2. 

Missing: Feb. 1, 2, 22, 23, Mar. 1, Apr. 3, 4, 
May 24, 25, June 19, July 5. 
Aug. 8, 12, 16. 
Sept. 2. 

1806. Jan. 1*. 

Apr. 4, 11,29,30. 
May 1. 

1807. Aug. 22. 

1808. June 25, 27, 28, 29. 
Aug. 19, 22. 
Sept. 2. 

Oct. 17. 

1809. (Tri- weekly). 
July 17, 28. 
Sept. 15, 18. 
Nov. 10. 
Dec. 6. 

1810. (Daily). 
Dec. 5. 
June 13. 

1811. (Tri-weekly). 
Feb. 11,18,25. 
Mar. 4, 11. 
Apr. 24, 26. 
June 12, 21. 
July 22, 26. 
Aug. 5. 

Nov. 4. 
Dec. 9. 

1819. (Daily). 
July 9. 

1820. (Daily). 
Sept. 8. 

1924.] South Carolina 273 

[Charleston] Daily Evening Gazette, 1795. 

Daily. Established Jan. 3, 1795, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Jan. 10, 1795, 
vol. 1, no. 7, published by James Carey, with the title of 
"The Daily Evening Gazette and Charleston Tea-Table 
Companion. " The prospectus, as published in the "South 
Carolina State Gazette" of Dec. 16, 1794, announced that 
the first issue would appear on Jan. 1, 1795. The last 
issue located with this title is that of Feb. 18, 1795, vol. 1, 
no. 38. Apparently Carey continued the paper under the 
title of "The Telegraphe, " which see. 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Jan. 10, 12, 15, 16, Feb. 14, 16, 17, 18, 

[Charleston] Echo du Sud, 1801. 

Tri-weekly. Established in April 1801, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of June 22, 1801, 
vol. 1, no. 28, published by [Jean] Dacqueny & [Alexander] 
Bourgeois, with the title of "L'Echo du Sud. Moniteur 
Francais. " It was a paper of quarto size. The last issue 
located, that of July 15, 1801, vol. 1, no. 37, announced its 
early expiration. 

Harvard has June 22 -July 15, 1801. 

[Charleston] Evening Courier, 1798. 

Semi-weekly. Established July 31, 1798, by [Gabriel 
M.] Bounetheau & [John J.] Evans, with the title of 
"Evening Vesper Courier," the word "Vesper" set in a 
crescent under a star in the center of the title. The 
publishers refer to their paper editorially as the "Vesper; 
or, the Evening Courier," but it was generally called the 
"Evening Courier." The last issue located is that of 
Nov. 16, 1798, vol. 1, no. 32. 

Harvard has July 31 -Nov. 16, 1798. 

A. A. S. has Oct. 19. 

Charleston Evening Gazette, 1785-1786. 

Daily and tri-weekly. Established as a daily July 11, 
1785, by J[oseph] V. Burd and Rfobert] Haswell, with the 

274 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

title of "The Charleston Evening Gazette." With the 
issue of Jan. 12, 1786, J. V. Burd became sole publisher. 
With the issue of Aug. 7, 1786, Greenberry Hughes was 
taken into partnership under the firm name of J. V. 
Burd and G. Hughes, and the paper became a tri-weekly. 
Burd died Oct. 4, 1786, and with the issue of Oct. 9, 
G. Hughes became sole publisher. The last issue located 
is that of Oct. 18, 1786, vol. 2, no. 373. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has July 11, 1785 -Oct. 18, 1786. 

Harvard has May 13, 1786. 

[Charleston] Evening Post, 1790. 

In the Charleston "City Gazette," July 9, 1790, were 
published proposals for a new paper to be called "The 
Evening Post and General Advertiser, " with James Carson 
as editor. There are references to the paper and its editor 
James Carson in the "City Gazette" of Sept. 7 and 8, 1790. 
No copy has been located. Carson was at Georgetown 
in 1791, publishing "The South-Carolina Independent 

Charleston Evening Post, 1815-1816. 

Daily. Established early in January, 1815, judging 
from the date of the earliest issue located, that of April 

19, 1815, vol. 1, no. 88, published by W[illiam] P. Young, 
with the title of "Charleston Evening Post; and Com- 
mercial and Political Gazette." The last issue located is 
that of Sept. 11, 1816, vol. 4, no. 516. 

Lib. Congress has Apr. 19, May 10, June 12, 16, 19, 29, 
July 3, 7, 11, Aug. 12, 16, 21, 22, 25, 28, 31, Sept. 6, 11, 
Nov. 4, 10, 11, 13, 16, 21, 29, Dec. 7, 9, 27, 1815; Feb. 8, 

20, 29, Mar. 18, 22, 25, 26, Apr. 6, 9, 17, 1816. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has July 8, 1815. 

A. A. S. has: 
1816. Apr. 11. 

[Charleston] Federal Carolina Gazette, 1800. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 2, 1800, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 6, 1800, vol. 1 

1924.] South Carolina 275 

no. 6, published by Timothy & Sheppard [Benjamin F. 
Timothy and Thomas Sheppard], with the title of " Federal 
Carolina Gazette." It was issued from the office of the 
"South-Carolina State Gazette, and Timothy's Daily 
Advertiser." Later in the year, apparently in September, 
Sheppard retired and Timothy took Andrew M'Farlan 
into partnership under the firm name of Timothy & 
M'Farlan. The last issue located is that of Dec. 25, 1800, 
vol. 1, no. 52. 

Harvard has Feb. 6, 20, 1800. 

Lib. Congress has Nov. 13, Dec. 25, 1800. 

Charlestown Gazette, 1778-1780. 

Weekly. Established late in August 1778, judging 
from the date of the first numbered issue located, that of 
Jan. 26, 1779, vol. 1, no. 23, published by Mary Crouch, 
& Company, with the title of "The Charlestown Gazette." 
With the issue of Jan. 18, 1780, vol. 2, no. 68, the name of 
Mary Crouch appears alone in the imprint. This further- 
more is the last issue located. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Nov. 3, 1778, suppl.; Jan. 26, 
Nov. 23, 1779; Jan. 11, 18, 1780. 

Charleston Gazette, 1814. 

Daily. Established Feb. 15, 1814, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Mar. 1, 1814, 
vol. 1, no. 13, published by John L. Wilson, with the title 
of "The Charleston Gazette, and Mercantile Advertiser." 
It succeeded "The Investigator," changing the title and 
volume numbering, but continuing the advertisements. 
The last issue located is that of June 17, 1814, vol. 1, no. 
101. The paper was undoubtedly sold in July 1814 to 
Isaac Harby, who established the "Southern Patriot" in 
its stead. "The Charleston Gazette" also published a 
tri-weekly issue for the country. 

A. A. S. has: 

1814. Mar. 1, 2, 10 m , 16, 25. 
June 10, 17. 

276 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

[Charleston] Gazette of the State of South-Carolina, 1770- 
1780, 1783-1785. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. A revival of "The South- 
Carolina Gazette," which had been suspended in Decem- 
ber, 1775. The first issue with the title of "The Gazette, 
of the State of South-Carolina" was that of Apr. 9, 1777, 
no. 2055, published by Peter Timothy. After a somewhat 
intermittent publication, a fire destroyed the printing- 
office on Jan. 15, 1778, and publication was not resumed 
until June 24, 1778, with which issue Peter Timothy en- 
tered into partnership with Nicholas Boden, under the 
firm name of Timothy and Boden. The paper was thus 
continued until the issue of Feb. 9, 1780, no. 2163, when it 
was suspended in view of the approach of the British 
forces near Charleston. Peter Timothy was taken as a 
prisoner to St. Augustine and in 1781 was drowned at sea. 
After the departure of the British and the Peace, the paper 
was revived July 16, 1783, no. 2160, by Ann Timothy, 
Peter's widow, and E— Walsh, under the firm name of 
A. Timothy and E. Walsh. The title was "The Gazette 
of the State of South-Carolina." Walsh retired because 
of illness, and with the issue of Aug. 27, 1783, the paper 
was printed for A[nn] Timothy. With the issue of July 
26, 1784, it became a semi- weekly. It was so continued 
until the issue of Mar. 24, 1785, no. 2283, after which the 
title was changed to "The State Gazette of South-Caro- 
lina," which see. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Apr. 9, 1777 -Feb. 9, 1780; 
July 16, 1783 -Mar. 24, 1785. 

Lib. Congress has Sept. 15, 1779; July 16-Dec. 18, 1783; 
Jan. 1-Dec. 30, 1784. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 21, Nov. 11, Dec. 23, 1777; 
Feb. 13, Aug. 27, Oct. 1, Nov. 20- Dec. 4, 1783; Apr. 8, 
Dec. 13, 1784; Jan. 10, 31, Feb. 3, 28-Mar. 12, 21, 24, 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Sept. 1, 1779; July 23, Aug. 6, 13, 
27 -Sept. 10, 24, Dec. 25, 1783; Jan. 1-July 22, 1784. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 28, Sept. 30, 1777; Mar. 24, 
1779; Feb. 9, 1780. 

1924.] South Carolina 277 

A. A. S. has: 

1777. Apr. 9. 
Supplement: Apr. 9. 

1778. Aug. 5. 

1779. Feb. 10. 

[Charleston] Investigator, 1812-1814. 

Daily. Established Aug. 22, 1812, by John Mackey, 
& Co. [John L. Wilson], with the title of "The Investi- 
gator." In addition to the daily, a tri- weekly paper for the 
country was also published. The firm was dissolved Feb. 
12, 1814, Mackey retired, and John L. Wilson established 
"The Charleston Gazette, and Mercantile Advertiser" 
in place of "The Investigator," having a new title and 
volume numbering, but continuing the advertisements. 

Charleston Coll. Lib. has Aug. 22, 1812-June 29, 1813. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Aug. 22- Dec. 31, 1812. 

Lib. Congress has Aug. 25, 1812. 

A. A. S. has: 

1812. (Daily). 
Aug. 29, 31. 

Sept, 3, 4, 8, 9, 15, 16, 17, 22, 23. 
(Tri-weekly) . 
Nov. 13, 23. 
Dec. 18. 

1813. (Tri-weekly). 
Mar. 3, 12. 
May 27. 
Sept. 21. 

1814. (Daily). 
Jan. 22 m . 
Feb. 4, 7, 9. 

Charleston Morning Post, 1786-1787. 

Daily. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The South-Carolina Gazette, and Public 
Advertiser." The first issue with the new title of "The 
Charleston Morning Post, and Daily Advertiser" was that 
of Jan. 18, 178G, vol. 4, no. 271, published by Childs, 

278 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Haswell, & M'lver [Nathan Childs, Robert Haswell and 
John M'lver]. Childs died at Newport, R. I., June 26, 
1787, and when the news of his death reached Charleston 
late in July, the imprint was changed to Haswell & M'lver. 
The last issue with this title located is that of Oct. 17, 
1787, vol. 5, no. 769, and within three weeks the title was 
changed to "The City Gazette, and the Daily Advertiser," 
which see. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Jan. 18, 1786- July 16, 1787. 

A. A. S. has: 

1787. July 2, 11, 12. 
Oct. 17 m . 

[Charleston] Oracle, 1807. 

Semi-weekly and tri-weekly. Established Jan. 1, 1807, 
by J[ohn] J. Negrin, with the title of "L'Oracle, Francais- 
Americain." It was of folio size and published with al- 
ternate columns of French and English. With the issue 
of Feb. 17, 1807, the title was shortened to "L'Oracle," 
it became a tri-weekly of quarto size, and was published 
wholly in French. With the issue of July 7, 1807, it re- 
turned to a policy of alternate French and English. In 
November and December 1807, it was not issued regularly. 
The last issue located is that of Dec. 8, 1807, vol. 1, no. 
136. On Jan. 1, 1808, Negrin was in New York City 
publishing "L'Oracle and Daily Advertiser." 

Harvard has Jan. 1-Dec. 8, 1807, fair. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 15, 26, 29, Feb. 2, 12-Oct. 8, 
24, Nov. 21, Dec. 5, 1807. 

[Charleston] Royal Gazette, 1781-1782. 

Semi-weekly. Established Mar. 3, 1781, by R. Wells & 
Son [Robert and John Wells], with the title of "The Royal 
Gazette." Robert Wells was living in England at this 
time (see Amer. Loyalist Papers, vol. 56, p. 534, in N. Y. 
Pub. Library), and William Charles Wells advertised in 
"The South-Carolina and American General Gazette" of 
Feb. 28, 1781, that he was acting as attorney for Robert 
Wells, "late of Charleston." It was suspended from 
Aug. 7 to Sept. 7, 1782. The last issue located is that of 

1924.] South Carolina 279 

Sept. 28, 1782, vol. 2, no. 154. In December 1782, the 
British evacuated Charleston, and John Wells left the city. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Mar. 3, 1781 -Sept. 28, 1782, 

Lib. Congress has Mar. 3, 1781 -Aug. 7, 1782. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has June 29, July 6, 1782. 

British Museum has July 13, 1782. 

[Charleston] Royal South-Carolina Gazette, 1780-1782. 

Tri-weekly and semi-weekly. Established in the spring 
of 1780, judging by the date of the earliest issue located, 
that of Sept. 19, 1780, vol. 1, no. 58, published by Robert- 
son, Macdonald & Cameron [James Robertson, Donald 
Macdonald and Alexander Cameron], with the title of 
"The Royal South-Carolina Gazette." At some time 
between May 17, 1781 and Jan. 22, 1782, James Robertson 
became sole publisher, and continued the paper to the date 
of the last issue located, that of Sept. 12, 1782, vol. 5, no. 
339, in which issue its discontinuance was announced. 
All three publishers returned to New York, where Mac- 
donald died at Newtown, on Long Island, Sept. 28, 1782 
(see Hildeburn "Sketches of Printers in New York," pp. 
159-162, and the New York "Royal Gazette," Oct. 2, 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Sept. 19, 21, Dec. 5, 8, 19, 21, 
25, 1780; Mar. 5, 21, 28, Apr. 30, May 2, 7, 9, June 6, 
Aug. 13, Sept. 10, 12, 1782. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has May 17, 1781. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Jan. 22, 1782. 

Lib. Congress has Mar. 5, suppl., Sept. 28, 1782. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has June 8, July 9, 11, 16, 1782. 

[Charleston] South-Carolina and American General Gazette, 


Weekly and semi-weekly. A continuation, without 
change of volume numbering, of "The South-Carolina 
weekly Gazette." The first issue with the new title of 
"The South-Carolina and American General Gazette" 
was that of Apr. 4, 1764 (see quotation of advertise- 
ment in "Marriage Notices in The South-Carolina 

280 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

and American General Gazette," by A. S. Salley, Jr., 
1914, p. 3). The paper was evidently started under this 
title by Robert Wells and David Bruce, as the supple- 
ment of Apr. 18, 17G4, was printed by R. Wells and 
D. Bruce, for Robert Wells. Bruce continued as joint 
printer with Wells for about a year, as his name 
appears in the imprint of "The South-Carolina Alma- 
nack for 1765," and- the issue of July 3, 1765, no. 
347, was printed for II. Wells and D. Bruce. In the 
issue of Oct. 31, 1765, Robert Wells appears alone as 
publisher. With the issue of Jan. 6, 1775, the paper was 
printed by R. Wells and Son [John Wells], for Robert 
Wells, and with May 12, 1775, by R. Wells and Son. 
In May 1775, Robert Wells, who was a loyalist, left 
for England and never returned to the colonies (Amer. 
Loyalist Papers, vol. 56, p. 534 in N. Y. Pub. Lib.). The 
paper was suspended from May 31 to Aug. 2, 1776, because 
of the approach of the British fleet. With the issue of 
Nov. 20, 1777, John Wells, Jun., who favored the American 
cause, was given as sole publisher. Because of the invasion 
of the British troops, the paper was again suspended, from 
Apr. 30 to May 29, 1779. No issues are to be found be- 
tween Dec. 17, 1779, no. 1087, and July 26, 1780, no. 1092, 
and as it was early in 1780 that the British invested 
Charleston, the paper was evidently suspended. John 
Wells espoused the British cause, however, and resumed 
the paper in July 1780. It became a semi-weekly in Octo- 
ber 1780. The last issue with this title was that of Feb. 28, 
1781, vol. 24, no. 1144, and the paper was succeeded by 
"The Royal Gazette," which see. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Apr. 18, 1764, suppl.; May 30, 
1766-Apr. 23, 1772; Aug. 10, Sept. 28, Oct. 5, 19, 22, Nov. 
2, 1772; Mar. 23, 1773; Apr. 22, 1774-Dcc. 17, 1779; July 
26, Sept. 20, Nov. 1, 4, 15, Dec. 6-30, 1780; Jan. 3-Feb. 
28, 1781. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has July 3, 1765; Sept. 8, 15, Oct. 6, 
1775; Feb. 13, 1777; Sept. 13, 1780. 

Yale has Oct. 31, 1765; July 4, 11, Aug. 1, 1766. 

1924.1 South Carolina 281 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 

5, Apr. 1- May 20, Aug. 12 

26, 1771; May 4, 1772; Jan. 

28, 1774; June 4, 1778. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Dec. 

15, 1775; Aug. 13, 1779. 

A. A. S. has: 

1769. Dec. 13. 

1770. Mar. 2 m . 

1773. Dec. 24. 

1774. Aug. 26. 

Oct. 14". 

1776. Sept. 4. 

1778. Feb. 19. 

Oct. l m . 

[Charleston] South-Carolina Gazette, 1732-1775. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 8, 1732, by T[homas] Whit- 
marsh, with the title of "The South-Carolina Gazette." 
The paper was suspended with the issue of Sept. 8, 1733, 
no. 86, and about ten days later Whitmarsh died (he was 
buried Sept. 22, 1733, "Register of St. Philip's Parish," 
p. 242). The paper was reestablished Feb. 2, 1734, with a 
new volume numbering, by L. Timothee, who with the 
issue of Apr. 6, 1734, gave his name under its anglicized 
form of Lewis Timothy. Timothy died and was buried on 
Dec. 30, 1738 (".Register of St. Philip's Parish," p. 258), 
and in the issue of Jan. 4, 1739, his widow, Elizabeth 
Timothy, announced that she would continue the paper, 
to be printed by her son Peter Timothy. His name 
appeared in the imprint and his mother afterwards 
transferred her interest to him. Publication was sus- 
pended for occasional short intervals, the longest being 
from Mar. 31 to Oct. 1, 1704, excepting the issue of Aug. 
25; from Oct. 31, 1765 to June 2, 1766; and from Jan. 25 
to Mar. 26, 1772. With the issue of May 7, 1772, the 
paper was published by Powell, Hughes, & Co. [Thomas 
Powell, Edward Hughes and Peter Timothy]. Hughes 
died July 30, 1772, and the publishers became T. Powell 
& Co. With the issue of Nov. 8, 1773, Peter Timothy 
again became the publisher. After a somewhat inter- 
mittent publication, the paper was suspended in December 

282 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

1775. The issue of Dec. 11, 1775, no. 2053, was followed 
by one other number, probably Dec. 18, and the next issue 
appeared on Apr. 9, 1777, no. 2055, when the title was 
changed to "The Gazette, of the State of South-Carolina," 
which see. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Jan. 8, 1732-Aug. 25, 1757; 
Nov. 17, 1758-Dec. 11, 1775. 

S. C. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 8, 1732- Sept. 8, 1733. 

Univ. of S. C. has Jan. 11, 1734-Dec. 11, 1736. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has May 24-Dec. 6, 1735; Mar. 2-Apr. 
27, Sept. 19, 27, 1752; Jan. 8, Feb. 26, Mar. 12, 26, Apr. 2, 
16 -July 2, Aug. 6, 15, 20, Oct. 29, Nov. 12, 1753; May 7, 
June 27, July 4; 18, Aug. 15, Sept. 5-19, 1754; Sept. 18- 
Dec. 25, 1755; Jan. 1, 1756 -Aug. 18, 1757; June 2 -Nov. 
17, 1758; Feb. 2, 1759- Dec. 30, 1760; Dec. 18, 1761; May 
29, Oct. 16, Nov. 20, 1762; Apr. 9, Oct. 22, 1763; Oct. 31, 
1765; June 9, 1766. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Feb. 28, May 8, 15, 1736; Jan. 2- 
Dec. 24, 1744; July 19, Nov. 15, 1760. 

British Museum has Sept. 17, 1737; postscript no. 361 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Jan. 26, 1758; Oct. 12, 19, 31, 1765. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 19, 1760; Feb. 5, 1763; June 
29, July 13, 20, 1767; June 6, 1768; Mar. 15, May 3, 1770. 

Lib. Congress has May 3, 1760. 

Yale has Oct. 26, 31, 1765. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 30, 1773. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has June 20, 1775. 

A. A. S. has: 

1740. Jan. 12 w , 19 m , 26 m . 

Feb. 2™, 9, 16* 

1766. June 9 m . 

Nov. 30. 

1772. Sept. 24. 

1774. Feb. 21. 

[Charleston] South-Carolina Gazette; And Country Journal, 

Weekly. Established Dec. 17, 1765, by Charles Crouch, 

1924.] South Carolina 283 

with the title of "The South-Carolina Gazetteer; and 
Country Journal." This title was retained for only two 
numbers, and with the issue of Dec. 31, 1765, the title was 
changed to "The South-Carolina Gazette; And Country 
Journal." Crouch discontinued the paper with the issue 
of Aug. 1, 1775, no. 505, although it was announced that 
supplements would be published for the two following 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Dec. 17, 1765 -Aug. 1, 1775. 

Yale has Dec. 17, 31, 1765; Jan. 7-Feb. 18, Mar. 11, 
Apr. 29, May 6, Sept. 9, 1766. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has May 7, 1766- Dec. 29, 1767; Apr. 26, 
Dec. 6, 1768; Feb. 14, 1769; Jan. 18, Mar. 7, May 10, 31, 
June 21, Sept. 20, Oct. 4, 11, 1774; July 4, 1775. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has May 20- June 17, July 15, 22, Aug. 
5, 12, 1766; Apr. 11, July 4, Aug. 29-Sept. 19, 1769; Aug. 
7-28, 1770; Mar. 19, May 28, 1771; Apr. 7, May 12, 1772; 
Feb. 16, Apr. 6, 1773. 

Lib. Congress has Nov. 24, 1772; Sept. 27, 1774. 

A. A. S. has: 
1768. Jan. 26. 
Mar. 11. 

Supplement: Nov. 1. 
1775. Mar. 28. 
Apr. 4, 25. 

[Charleston] South-Carolina Gazette and General Advertiser, 


Semi-weekly and daily. Established Mar. 15, 1783, 
with the title of "South-Carolina Gazette and General 
Advertiser, " printed for J[ohn] Miller. Although ostensibly 
a semi-weekly, publication was irregular during the first 
two months, and there were changes in the punctuation of 
the title. With the issue of Oct. 26, 1784, the title was 
changed to "South-Carolina State Gazette, and General 
Advertiser." With the isuee of Nov. 30, 1784, the paper 
was issued daily, the title becoming "South Carolina 
State Gazette and Daily Advertiser." With the issue 
of Apr. 4, 1785, Miller transferred the paper and it was 

284 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

published for his "brother," C[ ] Say. The last issue 
located is that of July 26, 1785, no. 434. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Mar. 22, 1783 -July 26, 1785. 

Lib. Congress has Mar. 15, 1783 -Aug. 24, 1784; Mar. 
11, 1785. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1784. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 25, May 20 -Dec. 30, 1783; 
Jan. 1, Feb. 7, Apr. 3, 6, 20 -May 29, Dec. 1-31, 1784. 

British Museum has June 3, 1783; Jan. 6, 1784. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has July 22, 1783. 

Univ. of Mich, has Aug. 30, Sept. 6, 1783. 

A. A. S. has: 
1784. June 17. 

[Charleston] South-Carolina Gazette, and Public Advertiser, 
see South-Carolina Weekly Gazette, 1783-1785. 

[Charleston] South-Carolina Gazetteer, 1765, see South- 
Carolina Gazette And Country Journal. 

[Charleston] South-Carolina State-Gazette, 1794-1802. 

Daily. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The State Gazette of South-Carolina." 
The first issue with the new title of " South-Carolina State- 
Gazette & Timothy & Mason's Daily Advertiser" was 
that of Jan. 1, 1794, vol. 55, no. 4302, published daily by 
[Benjamin F.] Timothy & [William] Mason. During the 
next four years there were frequent changes in the punc- 
tuation and arrangement of the title, and the issue of Jan. 
1, 1795, appeared with an engraved title "State Gazette 
of South Carolina," which was abandoned with the next 
issue for the regular title. The volume numbering, more- 
over, was often erroneous and inconsistent. With the 
issue of Jan. 1, 1798, Mason retired and the paper was 
published by Benjamin Franklin Timothy, under the 
title of "South-Carolina State Gazette, and Timothy's 
Daily Advertiser." It was so published up to Sept. 20, 
1802, vol. 60, no. 6210, which if not the last issue was 
certainly near the last. 

1924.] South Carolina 285 

Charles Coll. Lib. has Jan. 1-June 30, 1794; Oct. 5, 
1795-Apr. 21, 1796; Oct. 15, 1796-Feb. 28, 1797; Sept. 1, 
1797 -June 20, 1799; Jan. 1-Sept. 20, 1802. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has July 1, 1794 -June 30, 1795; 
Dec. 30, 1795; Apr. 22, Aug. 2- Oct. 14, 1796; Mar. 1- 
Aug. 31, 1797; Oct. 3, 4, 1798; July 1, 1799-Dec. 31, 1801. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has July 1, 1794- June 30, 1795, July 
1-Dec. 31, 1799; Jan. 1-June 30, 1801. 

Harvard has Jan. 3 -Apr. 19, 1794, scattering file; Feb. 
28, May 28, June 19, 1795; Sept. 23, 1796-Sept. 13, 1802, 
scattering file. 

Lib. Congress has Jan. 5-7, 12-15, Feb. 4, 5, 17, 18, 21, 
23, 27, July 17, Aug. 4, 1795. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has July 1-Dec. 30, 1797. 

A. A. S. has: 

1794. June 13, 14, 27, 28, 30. 
July 21. 

Aug. 9. 
Oct. 29, 30. 
Nov. 7, 11,20,27. 
Dec. 18,30,31. 

1795. Jan. 1, 13 m , 22, 23, 29, 30. 
Feb. 27. 

Mar. 12, 27. 

Apr. 2. 

May 22, 28. 

June 4, 12, 19, 25, 26. 

July 10, 23, 24, 30. 

Aug. 27. 

Sept. 4, 17, 18. 

Oct. 15. 

Nov. 27. 

Dec. 9, 11. 

Supplement: Jan. 1, Sept. 28. 

1796. May 1, 19, 31. 
June 2. 

July 1. 
Sept. 23, 27. 
Oct. 7, 19, 25. 

286 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Nov. 2, 17. 
Dec. 8. 

1797. July 25"*. 
Oct. 31. 
Dec. 30. 

1798. Jan. 1. 

Feb. 23, 24, 26. 
Mar. 24. 
Sept. 24, 25. 
Nov. 23 m . 

1799. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Supplement: Feb. 8, Dec. 19, 23, 27. 

Mutilated: Apr. 12, June 1, 8, Oct. 1, 2, 
Dec. 10. 

Missing: Mar. 26, May 24, 30, June 6, 7, 
13-17, 25, Aug. 7, 10, 23, 27, 30, Sept. 16, 
Oct. 28-31, Nov. 9, 21, Dec. 11, 28, 31. 

1800. Mar. 22. 

[Charleston] South Carolina State Gazette and Daily Ad- 
vertiser, see South-Carolina Gazette and General Advertiser, 


[Charleston] South Carolina State Gazette, and General Ad- 
vertiser, see South-Carolina Gazette and General Advertiser, 


[Charleston] South-Carolina Weekly Advertiser, 1783. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 19, 1783, by Elizabeth 
Boden, with the title of "The South-Carolina Weekly 
Advertiser." The last issue located is that of Apr. 23, 
1783, vol. l,no. 10. 

Lib. Congress has Feb. 19-Apr. 23, 1783. 

[Charleston] South-Carolina weekly Gazette, 1758-1764. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 22, 1758, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue noted, that of Feb. 7, 1759, no. 
12, published by Robert Wells, with the title of "The 
South-Carolina weekly Gazette." The only other issue 
located is that of Oct. 31, 1759, no. 50. On Apr. 4, 1764, 

1924.] South Carolina 287 

Wells changed the title to "The South-Carolina and 
American General Gazette," which see. 

Mrs. Charlotte D. Garriss, Columbia, who died 1924, 
owned the issue of Feb. 7, 1759, which is now untraceable. 
Lib. Congress has Oct. 31, 1759. 

[Charleston] South-Carolina Weekly Gazette, 1783-1785. 

Weekly, semi-weekly and tri-weekly. Established as a 
weekly Feb. 15, 1783, by Nathan Childs, with the title of 
"The South-Carolina Weekly Gazette." With the issue 
of Mar. 29, 1783, Robert Bruce was taken into partner- 
ship under the firm name of Nathan Childs & Company. 
With the issue of Mar. 3, 1784, the paper became a semi- 
weekly, and the title was changed to "The South-Carolina 
Gazette, and Public Advertiser." With the issue of Mar. 
12, 1785, the two partners added John MTver to the firm 
under the firm name of Childs, MTver and Company. 
With the issue of July 12, 1785, the paper was published 
tri-weekly, but with Nov. 23, 1785, it again became a semi- 
weekly. With the issue of Jan. 7, 1786, Bruce retired and 
the firm name became Childs & MTver. The last issue 
with the title of "The South-Carolina Gazette, and Public 
Advertiser" was that of Jan. 14, 1786, no. 270, and on 
Jan. 18, the paper was issued daily under the title of "The 
Charleston Morning Post, and Daily Advertiser," which 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Feb. 15, 1783 -Jan. 14, 1786. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 18, 1783. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 22, 1785. 

A. A. S. has: 

1783. Aug. 9. 

1784. June 12. 

[Charleston] South Carolina Weekly Journal, 1732. 

There is a reference to this paper in "The South- 
Carolina Gazette" of July 15, 1732, where Eleazer Phillips 
advertises for debts due his son, Eleazer Phillips Jun., who 
had died July 10, 1732, mentioning subscriptions due for 
six months of the South Carolina Weekly Journal (see 
Bibliographical Society Papers, vol. 2, p. 32). In the 

288 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

issues of Mar. 22 to Apr. 5, 1735, Phillips advertises that 
he is about to depart the Province and asks for payments 
from those who "have forgot to pay for the South-Carolina 
Weekly Journal, printed by Eleazer Phillips, Jun. de- 

[Charleston] Southern Patriot, 1814-1820+. 

Daily. Established in July 1814, judging from the date 
of the earliest issue located, that of Jan. 5, 1815, vol. 2, 
no. 152, published by Isaac Harby, with the title of 
"Southern Patriot, and Commercial Advertiser." With 
the issue of Jan. 29, 1816, Robert Howard was taken into 
partnership, under the firm name of Isaac Harby & Co. 
With the issue of May 19, 1817, the partnership was dis- 
solved and Robert Howard became sole publisher, and 
continued the paper until after 1820. A tri-weekly edition 
for the country was also issued, at first with only a column 
heading title, but with a page wide title begun Jan. 21, 

Charleston Coll. Lib. has Jan. 5 -Mar. 15, 1815, tri- 
weekly; Mar. 17, 1815-Dec. 31, 1818, daily. 

Lib. Congress has Mar. 15, 1816; Feb. 24, Oct. 11, 20, 
22, 1817; Jan. 22, 1818-Dec. 29, 1820. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Jan. 2, 1819 -Dec. 29, 1820. 

Univ. of Chicago has July 9, Aug. 3, 7, 1818. 

A. A. S. has: 

1815. Apr. 21*. 
May 8 m . 

1816. Feb. 22. 
May 20. 
July 5, 30. 

1817. Jan. 10. 
May 7. 

Sept. 18 m , 19"'. 

1818. July22 m . 
Dec. 9, 31. 

1819. Jan. 16. 
Apr. 13, 19 m . 
June 7. 

1924.] South Carolina 289 

July 14 m , 15. 
1820. Aug. 14™ 

[Charleston] Star, 1793. 

Daily and tri-weekly. Established in March 1793, 
judging from the date of the earliest issue located, that 
of July 12, 1793, vol. 1, no. 108, published by Carey & 
Harrison [James Carey and William P. Harrison], with 
the title of "The Star: and Charleston Daily Advertiser." 
Harrison retired to become an editor of the "Columbian 
Herald" on July 27, 1793, and James Carey became sole 
publisher, changing the title to "The Star: and Charleston 
Public Advertiser," and issuing the paper tri-weekly. 
The last issue located is that of Sept. 14, 1793, vol. 2, 
no. 126. 
A. A. S. has: 

1793. July 12, 15. 

Aug. 27, 29, 31. 
Sept. 10, 12, 14. 

[Charleston] State Gazette of South-Carolina, 1785-1793. 

Semi-weekly and tri-weekly. A continuation of "The 
Gazette of the State of South-Carolina," and continuing 
the volume numbering and advertisements. The first 
issue with the new title of "The State Gazette of South- 
Carolina" was that of Mar. 28, 1785, no. 2284, published 
semi-weekly for A[nn] Timothy. Ann Timothy died Sept. 
11, 1792, and with the issue of Sept. 20, 1792, the paper 
was printed by B[enjamin] F. Timothy "for the repre- 
sentatives of the late Mrs. Ann Timothy." With the issue 
of Oct. 30, 1792, it was published tri-weekly. With the 
issue of Apr. 5 or 12, 1793, the name of Benjamin Franklin 
Timothy appeared alone in the imprint. With the issue 
of May 27, 1793, William Mason was taken into partner- 
ship under the firm name of Timothy & Mason. The last 
issue with this title was that of Dec. 31, 1793, vol. 55, no. 
4301, after which the paper became a daily and the title 
was changed to "South-Carolina State-Gazette & Timothy 
& Mason's Daily Advertiser," which see. 

290 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Mar. 28, 1785 -Dec. 28, 1786; 
Jan. 14- Dec. 25, 178S. 

Charleston Coll. Lib. has Aug. 12, 1790-Dec. 31, 1793. 

Lib. Congress has Jan. 2- Oct. 19, 1786; Jan. 28, 31, 
Feb. 4, 14, Apr. 10 -June 9, 26, 30, Aug. 18, 21, 28, Sept. 
4, 11, 29, Oct. 13, 16, 20, 1788; Feb. 26, May 18, 1789. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has May 26, 1785; Nov. 3, 1791- 
May 31, 1792, fair. 

Harvard has June 4-Sept. 27, 1792, fair; May 27- July 
24, Sept. 3, 5, Oct. 22 -Dec. 14, 1793, fair. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 28, May 2, June 30, July 18, 
21, Aug. 11, Sept. 12, 15, 1785. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct! 18, 1787; May 26, 1788. 

Yale has July 21, 31, Aug. 4, 1788. 

A. A. S. has: 

1787. June 28. 
July 23, 26. 
Sept. 20, 24. 
Nov. 1, 5, 8, 12. 

1788. July 28. 
1793. Oct. 31. 

Nov. 2 m , 9. 

[Charleston] Strength of the People, 1809-1810. 

Tri-weekly, daily and semi-weekly. Established June 
24, 1S09, by John H. Sargent, with the title of "The 
Strength of the People." It was begun as a tri-weekly, 
became a daily with the issue of Sept. 19, 1809, and a semi- 
weekly with Nov. 16, 1809. The last issue located is that 
of Sept. 6, 1810, vol. 2, no. 145. 

A. A. S. has: 

1809. June 24, 27,29. 
July 1, 18, 25. 

Aug. 12, 15, 17, 19, 31. 
Sept. 14, 16, 19, 20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 30. 
Oct, 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 17, 25 m , 31. 
Nov. 1-4, 6, 8, 13, 16, 18, 23, 25. 
Dec. 2, 7, 9, 14, 21, 23, 28. 

1810. Jan. 4, 6, 11, 13, 18, 20, 25, 27. 

1924.] South Carolina 291 

Feb. 1, 3, 8, 10, 15, 17, 24. 

Mar. S, 10. 

Apr. 12, 14, 19, 21 m . 

May 3, 5, 17. 

June 7, 23. 

Sept. 6. 

[Charleston] Telegraphe, 1795. 

Daily. A continuation, without change of volume num- 
bering, of "The Daily Evening Gazette." The earliest 
issue located with the title of "The Telegraphe: and 
Charleston Daily Advertiser," is that of Mar. 1G, 1795, 
vol. 1, no. 58, published by James Carey. The last issue 
located is that of Mar. 20, vol. 1, no. 62. 
A. A. S. has: 

1795. Mar. 16, 17, 18-, 20. 

[Charleston] Times, 1800-1820+. 

Daily. Established Oct. 6, 1800, by [Thomas C] Cox 
and [Thomas] Sheppard, with the title of "The Times, and 
Political and Commercial Evening Gazette." With the 
issue of Nov. 17, 1800, the title was changed to "The 
Times, City Gazette & Merchants' Evening Advertiser," 
and with Mar. 16, 1801, to "The Times." Sheppard died 
Apr. 10, 1809, and with the issue of May 1, 1809, Thomas 
Campbell Cox became sole publisher. Cox, who died 
Oct. 18, 1814, was succeeded by Skrine & Duke [Tacitus 
G. Skrine and John C. Duke]. Early in 1820, this firm 
was succeeded by S[amuel] H. Skinner, who continued 
the paper until after 1820. 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has Oct. 6, 1800 -Sept. 30, 1809; 
Apr. 2-Sept. 29, 1810; Apr. 1, 1811-Dec. 31, 1813; Jan. 
2, 1816-Dec. 31, 1817. 

Harvard has Oct. 6, 1800- Dec. 27, 1808, scattering file. 

Charleston College Lib. has Jan. 3 -Dec. 30, 1803. 

Univ. of Texas has Aug. 11 -Sept. 20, 1803; Nov. 30, 

Univ. of S. C. has Jan. 3 -June 30, 1804. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 7, Nov. 16, 1805; Apr. 2- 
Dec. 31, 1811. 

292 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Lib. Congress has Mar. 16, Aug. 13, 14, Sept. 19, 26, 

Nov. 13, 1807; Oct. 20, 1809; Jan. 29, 30, 1810; July 31, 

Aug. 3, 7- 

9, 1816. 

S. C. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 16-Apr. 1, 1815. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Jan. 25, 1817. 

A. A. S. 



Oct. 8 m . 

Dec. 2, 6 m . 


Apr. 2, 4. 

July 3, 28. 


May 10 m . 

July 19 m . 


Dec. 1. 


Sept. 4. 


Sept. 27. 


June 15, 16. 

Dec. 15. 


Apr. 2 m . 


July 16 m . 

Aug. 4 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Aug. 4, 5. 

Missing: Sept. 10, 22, 25, 26, 28-30, Oct. 

30, Dec. 20, 22, 24, 25. 


Apr. 26, 28 m . 


Apr. l m , 6 m . 


May 8 m , 9 m , 13 m , 17-19. 

Aug. 2, 23 m . 


May 20 m , 21 m . 

July 30. 

Sept. 29 m . 


May 25. 

[Charleston] Vesper, see Evening Courier, 1798. 

Claremont Gazette, see under Statesburg. 

[Columbia] Carolina Telegraph, 1816. 

No copy located, although Prof. Charles H. Hull says 
that he once saw a copy published in 1816 by David 
P. Hillhouse. The Columbia "Telescope" of June 24, 

1924.] South Carolina 293 

1817, refers to old accounts of the Telescope and the 
Telegraph, due to Mr. Lorrain and to Mr. Hillhouse. 

Columbia Gazette, 1794. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 28, 1794, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Mar. 28, 1794, 
vol. 1, no. 5, published by [William P.] Young & [Daniel] 
Faust, with the title of "The Columbia Gazette." It was 
a small quarto. The last issue located is that of Aug. 8, 
1794, vol. 1, no. 29. It was succeeded in January 1795, 
without change of numbering, by "The State Gazette," 
which see. 
A. A. S. has: 
1794. Mar. 28. 
Apr. 4. 
May 1. 
June 20, 27. 
Aug. 1, 8. 
Supplement: Mar. 28, June 20, 27, Aug. 1. 

[Columbia] South Carolina Gazette, 1792-1793. 

Weekly. Established in March 1792, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of July 10, 1792, 
vol. 1, no. 18, published by Dfaniel] Constable, with the 
title of "The South Carolina Gazette." The last issue 
located is that of Sept. 3, 1793, no. 75. 

Phil. Lib. Co. has July 16, 1793. 

A. A. S. has: 

1792. July 10. 

Sept. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Oct. 6, 13, 20. 
Nov. 10, 17, 24. 
Supplement: Sept. 8. 

1793. Mar. 26. 
Apr. 9, 16. 
May 21. 
Aug. 13. 
Sept. 3. 

[Columbia] South -Carolina State Gazette, see State Gazette. 

294 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

[Columbia] State Gazette, 1795-1820+. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Columbia Gazette." The first issue 
located with the new title of "The State Gazette" is that 
of Jan. 23, 1795, vol. 2, no. 4, whole no. 61, published by 
[William P.] Young & [Daniel] Faust. It was a small 
quarto. The last issue located with this title is that of 
Feb. 27, 1795, vol. 2, no. 9, whole no. 06. The title was 
changed, before June 1795, to "The South-Carolina State 
Gazette, and General Advertiser," the earliest issue with 
this title being that of June 5, 1795, vol. 2, no. 80, pub- 
lished by Young & Faust. It was then enlarged to folio, 
and it was stated that it would be issued semi-weekly 
during the sessions of the Legislature. At some time 
between Nov. 24, 1797 and Apr. 27, 1798, the imprint of 
the publishers was given as Daniel Faust & Company. 
With the issue of Nov. 29, 1799, the title was changed to 
"The South-Carolina Gazette, and Columbian Adver- 
tiser," the firm of Daniel Faust and W. P. Young was 
dissolved and Daniel Faust became sole publisher. At 
some time between September 1800 and Jan. 9, 1801 
D[aniel] & J[acob] J. Faust became publishers and altered 
the title to "The South-Carolina State Gazette, and 
Columbian Advertiser." At some time between 1810 
and 1816, Daniel Faust became sole publisher, and the 
title was changed to "State Gazette, and Columbian 
Advertiser." In the winter of 1818-1819, the title was 
again changed to "South-Carolina State Gazette, and 
Columbian Advertiser," and it was so continued until after 

Harvard has Jan. 23, Feb. 6, 27, June 5, 12, July 17, 
24, Aug. 28, Oct. 16, 23, 1795; Mar. 11, 18, Apr. 1, 15, 29, 
May 13, June 17, 1796; July 1, 1796 -Nov. 24, 1797, fair; 
Apr. 27, 1798; Apr. 5, 1799; Aug. 30, 1799-Nov. 20, 1801, 
scattering file; Nov. 26, 1802; May 6, 1803- June 1, 1805, 
fair; June 22, 1808. 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 1, 2, 12, 15, 16, 23, Nov. 6, 11, 
13, 19, 20, 26, 1795; Jan. 1, 8, Feb. 12, Mar. 23, 24, 26, 
May 12, 17-20, 1796. 

1924.] South Carolina 295 

Lib. Congress has Jan. 9, 1801; Sept. 12, 1807; July 23, 
1816; Aug. 25, Sept. 1, 1818; Mar. 16-Oct. 5, 1819. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 22, 1807. 
A. A. S. has: 

1798. Oct. 12. 

1808. Apr. 7. 

1810. June 16, 23. 

1818. June 9. 

[Columbia] Telescope, 1815-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 19, 1815, by Thomas W. 
Lorrain, with the title of " The Telescope." Early in 1817, 
Lorrain was succeeded by Cline & Hines [William Cline 

and Hines]. At some time between 1817 and 1820, 

William Cline became sole publisher and continued the 
paper until after 1820. It is probable that Hines was 
John B. Hines, who went to Georgia to establish the 
Milledgeville "Reflector" in November 1817. 
Univ. of S. C. has Dec. 19, 1815-Dec. 17, 1816. 
Lib. Congress has June 6, 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 
1817. Apr. 29. 

June 10, 24. 
July 8. 

[Edgefield] Anti-Monarchist, 1811-1815. 

Weekly. Established May 28, 1811, judging from ad- 
vertisements in the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 
21, 1811, vol. 1, no. 18, published by Thomas M. Daven- 
port at Edgefield Court-House, with the title of "Anti- 
Monarchist, and South-Carolina Advertiser." The only 
issues located are those of Sept. 21, 28 and Nov. 2, 1811. 
In the "Mobile Gazette" of Apr. 1819 were printed pro- 
posals for a newspaper at Tuscaloosa to be established by 
Thomas M. Davenport, late editor of the Anti-Monarch- 
ist at Cambridge, S. C, "established and conducted 
through the late war" by him. Evidently the paper was 
moved to Cambridge, which town was about thirty miles 
from Edgefield Court-House. 

296 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

A. A. S. has: 

1811. Sept. 21, 28. 
Nov. 2. 

[Georgetown] Carolina American, 1813, see Georgetown 

Georgetown Chronicle, 1796-1797. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. A continuation, without 
change of volume numbering, of "The South-Carolina 
Independent Gazette." Although the change of title 
occurred at some time between 1792 and 1796, the first 
issue located with the new title of "The Georgetown 
Chronicle: and South-Carolina Weekly Advertiser" is 
that of Mar. 22, 1796, vol. 6, no. 263, printed by James 
Smylie. In the summer of 1797 publication was changed 
from weekly to semi-weekly, and the title was altered to 
"The Georgetown Chronicle, and South-Carolina Ad- 
vertiser." The last issue located with this title is that of 
Nov. 1, 1797, vol. 7, no. 356. 

Harvard has Jan. 19, Nov. 1, 1797. 

A. A. S. has: 

1796. Mar. 22. 

1797. Sept. 23. 

Georgetown Gazette, 1798-1817. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established May 8, 1798, 

by Elliott & Burd [ Elliott and John Burd], 

with the title of "The Georgetown Gazette." With the 
issue of Sept. 7, 1798, it was changed from a weekly to a 
semi-weekly, returned to a weekly Jan. 2, 1799, and again 
made a semi-weekly Jan. 1, 1800. Upon this last date, the 
partnership was dissolved, and John Burd became sole 
publisher. Burd died Oct. 23, 1801, and the name of 
Claudius Beleurgey appeared in the imprint in the issue of 
Oct. 28. With the issue of Dec. 5, 1801, Beleurgey 
retired and the paper was printed for the heirs of the late 
John Burd. In 1802 the paper was printed by Andrew 
M'Farlan. M'Farlan died in June, 1806, and on Oct. 8, 
1806, the paper was purchased and published by Francis 

1924.] South Carolina 297 

M. Baxter, who changed the title to "Georgetown 
Gazette, and Commercial Advertiser." Baxter pub- 
lished the paper certainly up to Dec. 12, 1810. After 
an apparently short suspension, the paper was con- 
tinued, without change of volume numbering, by Thomas 
Tolman early in 1813, under the title of "Carolina 
American, and Georgetown Gazette," of which the only 
two issues located are those of Apr. 10 and 17, 1813. The 
next issue located is that of Apr. 27, 1814, published by 
Edward B. Cooke and entitled "Georgetown Gazette." 
The next, that of June 5, 1816, was published by Eleazer 
Waterman and entitled "The Georgetown Gazette, and 
Mercantile Advertiser." Waterman discontinued the 
paper June 28, 1817 (see Columbia "Telescope," July 8, 
1817), and in October established the "Winyaw Intelli- 

Charleston Lib. Soc. has May 15, 1798- Dec. 24, 1800. 

Winyah Indigo Soc, Georgetown, has Jan. 3 -Dec. 30, 

Harvard has Jan. 14, 17, 1801. 

Univ. of S. C. has June 5, 1816. 

A. A. S. has: 

1798. May 8, 22. 

1799. Jan. 23. 

1800. Feb. 15. 
1802. Dec. 1. 
1804. May 30. 

1806. Nov. 15, 29. 

1807. June 27. 

1808. Feb. 24. 
Mar. 19. 
Apr. 2. 
June 15, 25. 
July 6, 9, 13, 20. 
Aug. 6. 

1810. Dec. 5, 12. 

1813. Apr. 10, 17. 

1814. Apr. 27. 
1816. Sept. 14, 21. 

298 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

[Georgetown] South-Carolina Independent Gazette, 1791- 

Weekly. Established Apr. 2, 1791, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of May 21, 1791, 
vol. 1, no. 8, published by James Carson, with the title 
of "The South-Carolina Independent Gazette; and 
Georgetown Chronicle." The last issue located is that of 
Sept. 15, 1792, vol. 2, no. 76. This paper was continued, 
as is shown by the volume numbering, by "The George- 
town Chronicle," although when the change of title oc- 
curred, between 1792 and 1796, is unknown. 

Harvard has May 21, June 4, 11, 25, July 9, Nov. 5, 
A. A. S. has: 

1792. Sept. 8, 15. 

[Georgetown] Winyaw Intelligencer, 1817-1820+. 

Semi-weekly. Established in October 1817, judging 
from the date of the earliest issue located, that of Apr. 4, 
1818, vol. 1, no. 51, published by Eleazer Waterman, with 
the title of "Winyaw Intelligencer." Continued after 

Lib. Congress has Jan. 13-Dec. 29, 1819. 

A. A. S. has: 

1818. Apr. 4. 

1819. Jan. 20. 
June 12, 26. 
Aug. 4. 


In the Charleston "Royal Gazette" of Mar. 13, 1782, 
there was reprinted the contents, in two columns, of a 
publication issued at Jacksonborough, with the date line 
of Mar. 1, 1782. The quotation was prefaced by the 
following statement: "The rebels in the country have 
contrived at length to publish something which bears the 
likeness though not the name of a newspaper. . . We 
reprint the whole of this Jacksonborough publication." 

1924.] South Carolina 299 

This may have been a broadside, rather than a news- 
paper. The legislature convened at Jacksonborough from 
Jan. 8 to Feb. 26, 1782, at which time the British oc- 
cupied Charleston. Under date of Jan. 26, 1782, the repre- 
sentatives voted that certain addresses should be printed 
in the "Gazzette" (Journal of House of Representatives, 
1782, Salley's reprint, p. 27). No copy of the Gazette has 
been located. 

Parker's Ferry Gazette, 1782. 

The Charleston " Royal Gazette" of June 26 and 29, 
1782, quotes from the " Parker's Ferry Gazette, " implying 
that the quotations were from issues of June 19 and 26. 
This paper was issued by the "rebels" at Parker's Ferry, 
about thirty-five miles west of Charleston, which at the 
time was in the possession of the British. No copy 

Pendleton Messenger, see under Miller's Weekly Messenger. 

[Pendelton] Miller's Weekly Messenger, 1807- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Jan. 16, 1807, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Mar. 20, 1807, 
published at Pendleton Court-House by J[ohn] Miller 
& Son, with the title of "Miller's Weekly Messenger." 
John Miller died Nov. 26, 1807, and his son John Miller 
continued the paper. About 1812 the title was changed 
to "The Pendleton Messenger." The 1819 issues were 
printed by John Miller & Son, and the 1820 issues by 
John Miller, Senior. Continued after 1820. 

Wis. Hist, Soc, has Mar. 20, 1807 -Dec. 26, 1808; 
Feb. 10, 1810- Jan. 19, 1811; May 22, 1813 -Feb. 26, 1814, 
Sept. 6- Dec. 30, 1820. 

Lib. Congress has Apr. 1, 8, 22-May 6, 20, Aug. 12- 
Sept. 9, Oct. 7, 28, 1818; Jan. 6, 20, Feb. 3-Mar. 10, 31- 
Apr. 28, 1819; Feb. 9- Dec. 13, 1820, fair. 

A. A. S. has: 
1810. Dec. 1. 

300 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

[Statesburg] Claremont Gazette, 1786. 

No copy of this paper has been located. In the 
"Charleston Morning Post" of Nov. 7, 1786, it was noted 
that copies of the "Claremont Gazette" has been for- 
warded by Rev. Richard Furman. Since Stateburg, in 
Claremont County, was competing with Columbia at this 
time for the location of the State government, it is 
probable that the paper was published there. 





Abeel, John N., manuscripts, 41. 

Adams, John, on Prince library, 13; 
letter to W. T. Franklin, 133. 

Adams, Randolph G., member, 
elected, 132. 

Albany, N. Y., 46, 47, 49, 53, 55, 57, 

Alden, Ebenezer, Fund, 159. 

Alden, George I., gift, 157, 168. 

Allen, Charles L., gift, 157, 168. 

Almanacs, Bermuda, 137, 144; 
acquired, 175. 

Ambrosius, Saint, Commentaries, 4, 
16, 19. 

American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, books from B. Franklin, 

American Antiquarian Society, meet- 
ings, and members present, 1, 129, 
and elected, 2, 132; books re- 
turned to Harvard College, 3, 19; 
entertained, 4, 133; Council re- 
ports, 5, 134; "association" books, 
6; Mather library, 15; obituaries, 
20, 148; Officers, elected, 130; 
Franklin exhibit, 133, 176; new 
stack completed, 134, 169, and 
cost, 136; collections moved, 135, 
169; Treasurer's report, 156, and 
Librarians, 169; gifts, 157, 164, 
171; Funds, 159; Donors, 180. 

American Philosophical Society, 
Franklin library, 207, 208, 221, 

American Revolution, Observations 
on, 172. 

"American Weekly Mercury." 
A. A. S. file, 178. 

Ames, William, Fresh Suit against 
Ceremonies, 18. 

"Antigua Gazette, "179. 

Appleton, William G., member, 
elected, 132. 

Architecture, Collection of Designs, 

Argall, Sir Thomas, 43, 44. 

Armbruster, Anthony, printer, 237. 

Arms of Amsterdam, 63, 64. 
Atwood, James S., printer, 139. 
Atwood, Wallace W., member, 

elected, 132. 
"Aurora General Advertiser," 210. 



Bache, Richard, letter from B. 
Franklin, 231. 

Bache, William, books from B. 
Franklin, 207. 

Baldwin, Abraham, 213. 

Barlow, Joel, Prospect of Peace, 172. 

Baskerville, John, printer, friend of 
Franklin, 224. 

Batchelder, Frank R., gift, 157. 

Bates, Albert C, gift, 157. 

Bath, Earl of. See Pulteney, William. 

Baudart, Willem, 50. 

Beach, Charles R., printer, 138, 139, 
143, 146. 

Bell, Winslow M., 144, 145. 

Bellarmin, Robert, De Septem 
Verbis, 17. 

Berkeley, George, funds to Indian 
school, 8. 

Bermuda, Indian School, 8; news- 
papers, 136, and list, 145; printing 
press, 137, and productions, 143. 

"Bermuda Gazette," file acquired, 
136, 174. 

[Bermuda] "Royal Gazette," file 
acquired, 137, 174. 

"Bermudian," file acquired, 136, 

Bevis, John, 190. 

Biard, Pierre, 44. 

Billings, Clara E., gift, 176. 

Biography, scrap books indexed, 176 

Blakeslee, George H., Councillor, 

Block, Adriaen, 46, 47 

Bolton, Charles K., 5, 133; nominat- 
ing committee, 130. 

Bond, Phineas, 237. 

Bond, Thomas, 237. 

Boogaert, Joost van den, 61. 


American Antiquarian Society 


Bookbinding Fund, 159. 

Bookplates, acquired, 176. 

Books, "association," 6; Franklin, 

"Boston Investigator," file ac- 
quired, 173. 

Boston Public Library, Franklin 
library, 222. 

Bo wen, Clarence W., Vice-President, 
130; gift, 157, 168. 

Bradford, William, printer, 237. 

Brady, Charles, printer, 142, 147. 

Brandt, Joseph, 7. 

Brasch, Fred E., 205. 

Brattle, Thomas, autograph, 11. 

Brigham, Clarence S„ Bibliography 
of American Newspapers, Pt. XV, 
79, and Pt. XVI, 259; Councillor, 
131; Committee of Publication, 
131; obituary of F. F. Dresser, 
149; Librarian's report, 109; 
letter on Franklin's experiments, 
193, 203. 

Broadside, Franklin, 178. 

Brodhead, John R., History of New 
York, 43, 44. 

Brouwer, Jan, 52. 

Brown, Alexander, 44. 

Browne, William, 143. 

Building Fund, 160. 

Bulled, Henry L., member, elected, 

Bullock, Chandler, appointed teller, 

Burke, William, Remarks on the 
Letter addressed to two great 
Men, 257. 

Bushnell, — , printer, 143. 


Canada, conquest of Great Britain, 

Cannon, Carl L., Bibliography of 

Journalism, 175. 
Canton, John, 190. 
Cape Cod, 46. 
Carson, Hampton L., member, 

elected, 2. 
Carteret, John, Earl Granville, 252; 

letter to Franklin, 245 
Caslon, William, Specimen sheet, 

and book, 172. 
Castle Island, 47, 57 
Cathcart, Wallace H., member, 

elected, 132. 
Cave, Edward, 198.^ 
Centennial Fund, 160. 

Central America, documents, ac- 
quired, 173. 

Chandler, George, Fund, 159. 

Charles, Robert, 243. 

Chew, Benjamin, 238. 

Chicago University, Spanish Ameri- 
cana, exchange, 173. 

Childers, — , printer, 141. 

Christiaenzen, Hcndrick, 45, 47. 

Clap, Thomas, presentation volume 
from Franklin, 6, 178. 

Coenraets, Albert, 55, 60. 

Colden, Cadwallader, letter from, 
189, and to B. Franklin, 200, 204. 

Collection and Research Fund, 159. 

Collinson, Peter, letter from Frank- 
lin, 190, 193, 194, 195. 

Cook, William, Preacher, poet, 
artist, publisher, 27, with bibliog- 
raphy of works, 35. 

Corvinus, Mathias, library, 10. 

Cotton, John, library, 14. 

Cotton, Rossiter, library, 14. 

Courten, Pieter, 52 

Crieckenbeeck, Daniel van. See 

Crocker, Mrs. Hannah (Mather), 3. 

Cunningham, Henry W., appointed 
teller, 130; Councillor, 131; gifts, 
157, 171. 

Cutter, Manasseh, on Franklin's 
library, 206. 


Dale, Sir Thomas, 43, 44. 
Dalibard, Thomas F., 205. 
Dartmouth College, established, 7, 

Dauphine, 39. 
Davenant, John, Detcrminationes, 

4, 16, 19. 
Davis, Andrew McF., Fund, 160. 
Davis, Isaac and Edward L., Fund, 

Davis, John and Eliza, Fund, 159. 
Davis, Livingston, appointed teller, 

De Grey, — , 245. 
Delaware River, 53, 54, 57, 59, 60, 

63, 64. 
"Democrat," Ithaca, file acquired, 

Denny, William, 251; messages 

from Assembly, 230, 236. 
"Denver Republican," file ac- 
quired, 174. 




DePuy, Henry F., death announced, 

134; obituary, 148. 
Dewey, Francis H. [1], Fund, 159. 
Dewey, Francis H. [2], 32; Councillor, 

130; gift, 157. 
Directories, collection valued, 176. 
Dodge, Mrs. Eliza D., Fund, 160. 
"Dollar Newspaper," Phila., file 

acquired, 174. 
Dongan, Thomas, 48. 
Douglas, John, Letter addressed to 

two great Men on Prospect of 

Peace, 257. 
Dresser, Frank F., death announced, 

134; obituary, 149. 
Duane, William, printer, 210, 211; 

Franklin library, 216, 220, 222. 
Duane, William, on Franklin's kite 

experiment, 204. 
Dufief, Nicholas G., bookseller, 

Franklin library, 209, 220, 221, 

222, 223 and correspondence rel. 

to, with T. Jefferson, 210, 
Dunk, George M., Earl of Halifax, 

246, 252, 253, 257. 


Eddy, George S., member, elected, 2; 
on Franklin's electrical experi- 
ments, 201, 204; Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin's Library, 206. 

Edmonds, John H., appointed teller, 
2, 132; Committee of Publication, 

Eendracht, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52. 

Elckens, Jacques. 45. 

Electricity, Franklin's experiments, 

Eliot, John, name inscribed, 6. 

Ellis, George E., Fund, 159. 

Ellis, Mrs. James S., 205. 

Ellis, Theodore T., gift, 157, 167. 

Endowment Fund, 130, 136. 

Engravings, acquired, 175. 

Evans, John, 245n. 

Evans, Thomas, Address, 1798, 172. 


Farwell, John W., gift, 157. 
Fauchet, Claude, Eloge de B. 

Franklin, 172. 
Fernow, Berthold, 43. 
Fczard, Franehoys, 61. 
Fitzpatrick, John C, 215, 216, 218, 

Flagg, Josiah, gift of Franklin's 

tracts, 179. 

Fleischner, Otto, 222. 

Foley, Patrick K., bookseller, 174. 

Folsom, George, 43. 

Fongersz, Gerrit, 61. 

Forbes, William T., 132. 

Ford, Paul L., Franklin Bibliog- 
raphy, 202, 208. 

Ford, Worthington C, 133; Secre- 
tary for Domestic Correspond- 
ence, 131. 

Forrester, — ■, 244. 

Fort Amsterdam, 51. 

Fort Nassau, 47, 57rc, 59, 63, 64, 65 

Fort Orange, 49, 53, 54, 57, 58, 63, 
64, 65. 

Foster, Alfred D., 171. 

Foster, Dwight, 171. 

Foster, Roger, bequest, 171. 

Fox, George, letter to W. T. Frank- 
lin, 209. 

Franklin, Benjamin, exhibition of 
biographies, imprints, works, 176, 
with list, 177; letters to A. G. 
Frobisher, Sir W. Johnson, T. 
Cushing, 179; J. Holt's estimateof, 
179; Date of Kite Experiment, 
188, [with bibliography], 199; on 
swimming, 205; Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin's Library, 206, and an- 
notated volumes, 216, 222, cata- 
logue, 207, 223, no bookplate, 
222, size of Library, 223, and sub- 
jects, 224; Franklin and Galloway 
Unpublished Letters, 227; Agent to 
Gr. Brit., 227, 231, and to France, 
231, and loss of mss. left with 
Galloway, 231; Interest of Gr. 
Brit, with regard to Canada and 
Guadaloupe, 257. 
Franklin, William T., 245; letter 
from J. Adams, 133, from B. 
Franklin, 206, 232, from G. Fox, 
209; library from B. Franklin, 
207, and dispersed. 208, 209, 210, 
211, 220; letter to J. Galloway, 
Fredericksen, Cryn, 61. 
" Frederiektown Herald," file ac- 
quired, 174. 
French in New Netherlands, 57. 
Fryeburg, Me., press, 172. 
Fuller, George F., gift, 157, 16S. 


Gage, Homer, Auditor, 131. 
Gage, T. Hovey, Recording Secre- 
tary, 131; gift, 157,167. 


American Antiquarian Society 


Gage, Thomas, Instructions, 22 
Feb., 1775, 172. 

Galloway, Joseph, Franklin and 
Galloway, Some Unpublished 
Letters, 227; left in charge of 
Franklin's mss., 231. 

Garbrandt, — , 49. 

Gasparis, Saint, Commentarii, 4, 16, 
18, 19. 

Gerhard, John, Locorum Theologi- 
cum, 4, 18, 19. 

Gill, John, printer, 173. 

Gill, Mrs. Moses, library, 14. 

Goddard, Harry W., gift, 157. 

Godyn, Samuel, 55, 60. 

Gomez, Estevam, voyage, 40. 

Goodspeed, Charles E., gift, 174. 

Governor's Island, 52, 60, 62. 

Granville, Earl of. See Carteret, 

Great Britain, colonial relations 
with Penn., indicated by Franklin 
and Galloway letters, 227; con- 
quest of Canada, 256. 

Green, Samuel A., Fund, 160. 

Green, Timothy, printer, 9. 

Guadaloupe, interest of Gr. Brit, 
with regard to, 256. 


Half Moon, 40, 45. 

Halifax, Earl of. See Dunk, George 

Hall, David, printer, 237. 
Hall, Granville S., death announced, 

134; obituary, 150. 
Hamilton, James, message to the 

Assembly, 250. 
Hardwicke, Earl of. See Yorke, 

Harrison, Fairfax, member, elected, 

Hart, Francis R., gift, 157. 
Harvard College, Association books, 

2; return of books from A. A. S., 

3, 19; gift of Sir J. Maynard, 15, 

Haven, Mrs. Frances W., Fund, 160. 
Haven, Samuel F., Fund, 159. 
Haynes, George H., Committee of 

Publication, 131. 
Hays, I. Minis, 221; on Franklin's 

kite experiments, 202, and his 

authorship of Interest of Gr. 

Brit, with regard to Canada and 

Guadaloupe, 257. 

Hellegat, 46. 

Henderson, Archibald, member, 
elected, 132. 

Hewson, Thomas, books from B. 
Franklin, 207, 208. 

Hewson, William, books from B. 
Franklin, 207, 208. 

Heylin, Peter, 44. 

"Historical Review of the Constitu- 
tion of Pennsylvania," author- 
ship, 255. 

History, Do We Learn from, 66. 

Hodgson, John, 139. 

Hoffman, Samuel V., gift, 157. 

Holland Society of New York, 42. 

Hollis, Thomas, 15; on J. Monis, 12. 

Holmes, Alexander, printer, 140, 146. 

Holt, John, printer, letter relating to 
B. Franklin, 179. 

Hooker, Thomas, 14. 

Houston, Edwin J., Franklin as a 
Man of Science, 197, 200. 

Hudson, Henry, voyage, 40, 45, 46. 

Hudson River, 45, 46, 47, 54, 57, 59, 
60, 63. 

Hull, Charles H., gift, 174. 


Hunnewell, James F., Fund, 160. 

Hunt, Gaillard, death announced, 5; 
obituary, 20. 

Huntington, Henry E., Van Rap- 
pard Documents, 50n, 58. 


Ibarra, Joaquin, printer, 224. 

Indian Charity School, 7, absorbed 
into Dartmouth College, 8. 

Indians, Pennsylvania proprietary 
problems, 250. 

"Interest of Great Britain Con- 
sidered with regard to Canada 
and Guadaloupe," authorship, 

Irenaeus, Saint, Against Heretics, 
4, 17, 19. 

Jackson, — , (Jackson & L'Estrange) 
printers, 139. 

Jackson, Richard, 254, 257; His- 
torical Review of the Constitution 
of Pennsylvania, 255. 

Jameson, J. Franklin, Narratives of 
New Netherland, 49. 

Jay, John, Address, 1787, 172. 




Jefferson, Thomas, correspondence 
on Franklin library, 211, 212, 
books acquired, 213; Library 
purchased by L. C, 215, and 
burned, 216, ms. catalogue, 218. 

Jenkins, — , printer, 141, 147. 

Jenkins, Lawrence W., William 
Cook of Salem, 27, with bibliog- 
raphy of works, 35. 

Jenney, Charles F., death an- 
nounced, 5; obituary, 21. 

Jermin, Michael, Commentary, 17. 

Jessurun, J. S. C, Kilaen Van Rens- 
selaer, 54. 

Johnson, Alfred, 133; gift, 157. 

Johnson, Amandus, 44. 

Johnson, William, 254. 

Jones, Cantwell, 209. 

Jones, Matt. B., member, elected, 

Jorrissen, Adriaen. See Tienpont, 

Josephus, Flavius, History of the 
Jews, 4, 17, 19. 

Journalism, growth of A. A. S. 
collection, 174, and valued, 175. 

Judkins, J. W., printer, 139. 


Kellen, William V., gift, 157. 

Kempe, James, printer, 141. 

Keogh, Andrew, member, elected, 

Kidder, Nathaniel T., 171. 

Kieft, Willem, 44. 

Kinnersley, Ebenezer, electrical ex- 
periments, 194, 203, 205. 

Kittredge, Henry C, member, 
elected, 2. 

Krieckenbeeck, Daniel van, 60, 61, 
62n, 64. 

Krol, Bastiaen J., 51, 56, 58, 65. 

Ku Klux Klan, strength of, 73. 

Laer, Arnold J. F. van, 49, 50, 51, 52. 
Laet, Johan de, 55; New World, or 

Description of West India, 40, 44, 

Lampo, Johan, 61. 
Lee, David R., printer, 140, 147. 
Lee, Donald M., printer, 140. 
Lee, George A., printer, 142, 147. 
Lee, Gregory V., printer, 140. 

Lee (William) and Shepard (Charles 
A. B.), publishers, correspondence 
of, acquired, 175. 

Leech, Thomas, 230; letter from 
Franklin, 248. 

Leland, Waldo G., member, elected, 

Le Monnier, Louis G., 205. 

L'Estrange, — , (Jackson & L'Es- 
trange,) printers, 139. 

Levers, Robert, 237. 

Librarian's and General Fund, 159. 

Libraries, co-ordination of auto- 
graphed volumes, 9. 

Library Company of Philadelphia, 
books from B. Franklin, 207, 208, 

Library of Congress, Franklin Papers, 
209, 210, 223, and library offered, 
212,213,214,215 ; Jefferson library, 
215, 216, 218. 

Life Membership Fund, 159; in- 
crease, 158. 

Lightning rod, suggested, 189, 195, 

Lincoln, Daniel W., Auditor, 131; 
member, elected, 132. 

Lincoln, Levi, Legacy Fund, 159. 

Lincoln, Waldo, presides, 1, 129; 
obituaries of G. Hunt, 20, C. F. 
Jenney, 21, S.W. McCall, 22, T. C. 
Mendenhall, 24, W. Wilson, 25, 
II. F. Depuy, 148, G. S. Hall, 150, 
L. Park, 153, G. L. Shepley, 154; 
President, re-elected, 130; Coun- 
cil report, 134, and Bermuda 
press, with list of newspapers, 145; 
gifts, 157, 171. 

Logan, James, 245. 

Lombard, Herbert E., gifts, 171. 

Lor, — de, 205. 

Lord, Arthur, gift, 157. 

Loudoun, John C, Earl of, 233. 

Lovell, Michael, 237. 

Lovewell, John, History of the 
Fight of, Fryeburg edition, 172. 

Lowell, Abbott L., accepts books 
from A. A. S., and entertains 
members, 4. 


McAdie, Alexander G., 133; Date of 
Franklin's Kite Experiment, 18S. 

McCall, Samuel W., death an- 
nounced, 5; obituary, 22. 

MacDonald, William, Do We Learn 
from History?, 66. 


American Antiquarian Society 


Mackreel, 50, 52, 56, 57. 

Macomb houses, 41, 42, 43. 

Manhattan Island, 40, 41, 43, 52, 53, 
54, 58, 62, 63, 64, 65. 

Manhattes River, 41. 

Martin, William, printer, 141. 

Martyn, John, 12. 

Mason, William S., on Franklin, 192, 
199; Franklin and Galloway, 
Some Unpublished Letters, 227. 

Massachusetts Historical Society, 
Jefferson library ms. catalogue, 

Mather, Cotton, duplicates from 
Harvard College, 3, 15, 16; books 
from the Shepards, 11; library, 
14, 15, and ms. catalogue, 16, 17, 

Mather, Increase, library, 14. 

Mather, Richard, library, 14. 

Mather, Samuel, 3, 19. 

Mather, WUliam G., gift, 157, 167. 

Mauritius River. See Hudson River. 

May, Cornelis J., 51, 52, 56, 58, 59. 

Maynard, Sir John, books to Har- 
vard College, 3, 15, and auto- 
graph, 16, l7. 

Mazeas, Abb6, on thunder storms, 

Mecklin, John M., Ku Klux Klan, 

Mecom, Benjamin, printer, 179. 

Mecom, Mrs. Jane, 206. 

Mendenhall, Thomas C, death an- 
nounced, 5; obituary, 24. 

Meredith, Hugh, printer, 227. 

Mexico, documents, and newspapers, 
acquired, 173, 174. 

Mexico, Gulf of, 49. 

Miller, Samuel, manuscripts, 42. 

Milligan, James, 209. 

Minuit, Peter, 44, 49, 59, 61, 62, 63, 

Mohawks, 45, 64, 65. 

Mohicans, 45, 55, 57, 58, 64, 65. 

Monis, Judah, sketch of, 12. 

Moore, — , 248. 

Moore, William, case of Smith and 
Moore, 233. 

Morgan, John II., member, elected, 2. 

Morris, Robert, Jr., funds from W. 
T. Franklin, 209. 

Morris, Robert H., 228. 

Morris, William, 48. 

Moulton, Joseph W., History of 
New York, 41. 

Munson, Samuel L., Councillor, 131; 
gift, 157. 

Murdock, Kenneth B., member, 

elected, 2; appointed teller, 132. 
Murphy, Henry C, 43. / 


New Amsterdam, Founding of, 1626, 

New Netherland, voyages, 47, 48; 

United Company, 47; Narratives, 

49; Documents, 49m. 
" New Year Verses, " 178. 
New York, City of, Founding of 

New Amsterdam, 1626, 39. 
New York Historical Society, ms. 

collections, 41; Collections, 43. 
New York Public Library, Franklin 

library, 222. 
"New York Times, " Index, 176. 
Newspapers, Bibliography, Pt. XV, 

79, and Pt. XVI, 259; Bermuda 

newspapers, 136, with list, 145; 

placed in new stack, 169, and 

number of volumes, 170; files 

acquired, 173. 
Nichols, Charles L., Council report, 

5, on "association" books, 6; nom- 
inating committee, 130; Secretary 

for Foreign Correspondence, 131; 

gift, 157. 
Nieuw Nederlandt, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 

Norcross, Grenville H., letter of J. 

Adams to W. T. Franklin, 133; 

gifts, 157, 171. 
Norman, John, engraver, 172. * 
Norris, Isaac, letters from Franklin, 

241, 245, 255. 
North River. See Hudson River. 
Norton, John, 14. 
Norwich and Worcester Railroad, 

papers of, acquired, 175. 


Occom, Samuel, 7. 
Ogilby, John, 44. 

Paine, Nathaniel, Fund, 160. 
Paltsits, Victor H., Founding of 

New Amsterdam in 1626, 39; 

gift, 157. 
Pareus, David, Opera, 17. 
Paris, Ferd J., 243, 245, 253. 
Park, Lawrence, death announced, 

134; obituary, 153. 




Parker, John J., printer, 142. 
Parker, Samuel, printer, 141, 147. 
Parrot, — , 245. 
Parton, James, Life of B. Franklin, 

Partridge, Mrs. Elizabeth, letter 

from B. Franklin, 232, 233n. 
Partridge, Richard, 254. 
Patterson, William D., member, 

elected, 2. 
Peck, Frank W., experiments, 193n. 
Penington, John, on Beauchamp 

Plantagenet, 43. 
Penn, Thomas, 240, 243, 244, 252. 
Pennsylvania, colonial problems, 
indicated by Franklin and Gallo- 
way letters, 227; Historical Re- 
view of the Constitution of, au- 
thorship, 255. 
"Pennsylvania Gazette," A. A. S. 

file, 178, 193, 194, 203. 
Pennsylvania Historical Society, 
Franklin library, 208, 222, 223, 
Periodicals, A. A. S. collection, 170. 
Philadelphia Athenaeum, Franklin 

library, 216, 222. 
Photius, Bibliotheca, 4, 17, 19. 
Pine Tree Shilling, T. Temple on, 11. 
Pitt, William, on Gr. Britain's 
interest for Canada and Guada- 
loupe, 256. 
Pittsueld, Mass., General Electric 

Co., experiments, 193». 
Plantagenet, Beauchamp, New 

Albion, 42; J. Penington on, 43. 
Plimpton, George A., gift, 157. 
Poalk, Robert, (Shannon & Poalk) 

Potter, Alfred C, appointed teller, 2. 
Price, J. Stockdale, printer, 144. 
Priestley, Joseph, on Franklin's 

kite, 192, 196,201. 
Prince, Thomas, libraries, 12, 13. 
Printing, first press in Vt., 9; Cas- 
lon's specimen, 172; growth of 
A. A.S. collection, 174, and val- 
ued, 175; logographic process, 224. 
Privateering, 49. 
Publishing Fund, 159. 
Pulteney, William, Earl of Bath, 257. 
Purchas, Samuel, 43. 
Purchasing Fund, 160. 
Puritanism, basis, 72. 


Quakers, pacific measures in Penn., 
229, 244, 250. 


Rasiere, Isaack de, letter, 62n, 64n. 
" Republic of Letters, " 201. 
Rhode Island, newspapers, bibliog- 
raphy, 79. 
Robertson, James A., member, 

elected, 132. 
Robie, Thomas, presentation book 

to J. Morris, 12. 
Rockwood, George I., nominating 

committee, 130. 
Roe, Alfred S., biographical scrap- 
books acquired, 176. 
Roosevelt, Franklin D., member, 

elected, 132. 
Roscoe, William, 14. 
Ross, John, 238. 
Rotch, Abbot L., on Franklin's 

experiments, 190. 
Rowlandson, Mrs. Mary, Narrative 

of captivity, 172. 
Rugg, Arthur P., returns books to 

Harvard College from A. A. S., 

3; Vice-President, 130; gifts, 171. 
Russel, Elijah, printer, 172. 
Rutherford, Samuel, Life of Grace, 



Salisbury, Stephen, Fund, 159. 

Samuel, Bunford, 222. 

Schaghen, Peter, 64. 

Schouts, — , 49. 

Scobell, W. L., printer, 141. 

Sea-mew, 64. 

Shannon, William, (Shannon & 

Poalk), 220. 
Sharpe, Joshua, 245. 
Shaw, Robert K., appointed teller, 

Shepard, Thomas [1], ms. notes, 9; 

autograph, 10, 12. 
Shepard, Thomas [2], autograph, 

10, 12; book from T. Temple, 11. 
Shepard, Thomas [3], autograph, 

10, 12. 
Shepley, George L.,deathannounced, 

134; obituary, 154. 
Shipbuilding, 46. 
Smith, Capt. John, 43. 
Smith, William, case of Smith and 

Moore, 233. 
Smyth, Albert H., Writings of 

Franklin, 233. 
South America, documents, ac- 
quired, 173. 


American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

South Carolina, newspapers, bibli- 
ography, 259. 

South River. See Delaware River. 

Sparks, Jared, Works of B. Frank- 
lin, 202. 

Special Gifts Fund, 160. 

Spedon, A. L., printer, 142, 147. 

Spofford, Ernest, 223. 

Spooner, Alden, printer, 9. 

Stanard, William G., member, 
elected, 132. 

Stockdale, Frances, printer, 138. 

Stockdale, Joseph, printer, 137, 146. 

Stockdale, Priscilla, printer, 138. 

Stockdale, Sarah, printer, 13S. 

Stokes, I. N. Phelps, Iconography 
of Manhattan Island, 49, 54. 

Stuber, Henry, 205; account of 
Franklin's electrical experiments, 

Stuyvesant, Peter, 44. 

Sumner, Charles, library, 9. 

Swan, Abraham, Designs in Archi- 
tecture, 172. 

Taft, William H., Councillor, 131. 
Taylor, Charles H., gifts, 157, 171, 

172, 175; journalism and printing, 

collection, 174. 
Taylor, Forrest W., gift, 157, 168. 
Tedyuscung, Indian chief, treaty, 

Temple, Thomas, book to T. 

Shepard, 11, and friendliness with 

the colony, 11. 
Tenney, Joseph A., Fund, 160. 
Thomas, Benjamin F., Fund, 160. 
Thomas, Isaiah, 3. 
Thomson, Charles, 251, 252. 
Tienpont, Adriaen Jorissen, 48, 49, 

Toddings, S. S., printer, 143, (and 

Brother), printers, 142. 
Trico, Catelina, 48, 49, 50, 52. 55. 
Trumbull, John, Progress of Dull- 
ness, 172. 
Tucker, Henry, 137, 143. 
Tucker, Josiah, 257. 
Tuttle, Julius II., Mather libraries, 

10, 16; Committee of Publication, 



Unity, 48, 50, 51, 52. 
Urbino, Duke of, library, 10. 

Ussher, James, Answer to a Jesuit, 

Utley, Samuel, Councillor, 130. 

Van Rappard Documents, 50ft, 58, 

60, 62ft. 
Van Rensselaer, Kiliaen, 54, 60. 
Van Rensselaer, Mrs. Schuyler, 

History of the City of N. Y., 44, 

Vaughan, John, 221. 
Vedelius, Nicolas, De Arcanis 

Arminianismi, 18. 
Verhulst, Willem, 51, 59, 60, 61, 

Vermont, first press, 9; Acts and 

Laws, 1798, and Journal of 

House, 1804, acquired, 171. 
"Vermont Journal," file acquired, 

Vernon, Nathaniel, 236. 
Verrazzano, Giovanni da, voyage, 



Wall, Alexander J., member, 
elected, 2. 

Wallcut, Thomas, 7; name inscribed, 

Walloons, 56. 

Walter, John, "London Times," 

Wapen van Amsterdam, 63, 64. 

Ward, Edmund, printer, 139. 

Ward, Robert, printer, 141. 

Warner, Clarance M., member, 
elected, 132. 

Washburn, Charles F., Fund, 160. 

Washburn, Charles G., 130; Coun- 
cillor, 130; gifts, 157, 171, 175. 

Washington, A., printer, 141. 

Washington, J. W. printer, 141. 

Washington, Mrs., printer, 141. 

Wassenaer, Nicolacs J. van, sketch 
of, 46ft; Historical narrative, 47, 

Wcntworth, Benning, name in- 
scribed, 8; gift to Dartmouth 
College, 9. 

West India Company, Dutch, 43, 
44, 47, 48, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 

Wheatley, Phillis, presentation vol- 
ume, 6, 8. 




Wheeler, Leonard, gift, 157, 167. 
Wheclock, Eleazar, presentation 

copy of Narr. of the Indian 

Charity School, 7, and notice of 

School, 7, later Dartmouth College 

founder, 8. 
Whitaker, Nathaniel, 7. 
Whitefield, George, efforts in behalf 

of Indians, 8. 
Whitney, James Lyman, Fund, 160. 
Whitney, Peter, inscription, 12. 
Widener Library, meeting of A. A. S., 

Wilbraham, — , 244. 
Wilbur, James B., Councillor, 131; 

gifts, 157, 171. 
Williams, Jonathan, books from B. 

Franklin, 207. 
Williams, Roger, 14. 

Wilson, James G., Memorial His- 
tory of the City of N. Y., 42. 

Wilson, Woodrow, death announced, 
5; obituary, 25. 

Winship, George P., Councillor, 131; 
appointed teller, 132. 

Winthrop, Frederic, member.elected, 

Winthrop, John, 205; presentation 
volume from Franklin, 178. 

Woodward, Samuel B., Treasurer, 
131, and Report, 156. 

Worcester County, Mass., views, 
acquired, 175. 

World War, 1914, 74, 76. 


Yale College, Indian scholarship, 8. 

Yorke, Charles, 246n. 

Yorke, Philip, Earl Hardwicke, 246 

.Vol, 34dfe&: 

.- ^."--i.^ 

New Series /r^^^^ Pabt^I 


:*•;■ •-■*"',' ■'• : .-<-. «!*.» "«.:"• 


■ ■ ■ ■ - ■ ■ ''■:■■' 

if^AT THE 


■_ . .;« 



mertfa««Jtitfti|«arlan Satt^Jti 


^^DCT0BER;15,- 1924 «| 



:.;*;$* Volume^ 6S4 
|*f -^Volume 7 

.\ - .Volume 1 

I .Volume 10 
gj Volume 11, 

|s NoTE.-~WithHhef; intention" of "giving alarger cu-culatiori^to its pub^.^^s^p^j 
v' licatiohsjj the Society has decided to 3 . issue" the .above revised, price-list^; 
I A full set of _the -Transactions ryriU; be sold for $50,00£ pr,r excluding; 
^volume 2, which will possibly be reprinted, for $40.00i 

8 ^**fe PROCEEDINGS '.' : : .^^ fe3sasg ^ 

1812-1849 (priuted 1912/ 582;pp.y 
1856-1880 (semi-annual) ; . ,'v > $$ 
nY a/ 1880-1924 (semi-annual) :? : . 


each 1,50 S •; 

J ,$v ¥ j 

• ;N<yra,— The'iirbcee'dltigs of 1849-1865 ban be Supplied only' In part 

: since most oHhem are out of print.;- ^; The" new series of Proceedings began 

; in October,;. 1880, and from 1880'tal924 consists of 34 volumes, with 

K^'either two of three issues in a volume. -The price is SI. 50 per issue, and 

$4.00 per bound ; volume. v;^^? ; 

^^i*iTHE Society iAiso ;1 has - fob sale the following' books: 

Chandler Genealogy, by'Geor^^Chandler^lSSS V , £ | $15 . 01 
Waldo Genealogy, by Waldo Lincoln, 2 vols. 1902 >U 2 - 
. .V : Tracts relating to the Currency of the Massachusetts 

Bay, ed v by A. McF. Davis, 1902, : pp. 394 1 . 50 

The Confiscation of . John Chandler's : Estate,-? by 
/A. McF..Davis, 1903, pp. 296 . . . .."